During the rise of Western Europe in the eighteenth century, the dominant subject of that epoch was Industrial Revolution. It was an epoch that revolutionised Western economic systems, socio-economic ideas and contributed to the creative activity of the term economic systems of graduated table in the Western hemisphere.
The ‘green ‘ subject now appears progressively in every section of most economic systems in the universe giving rise to a Green Culture which has led to serious inquiries on our current life style and the demand for direct and indirect alterations in the publicity of a harmonious relationship between world and the environment. Earth Day 2010 brought about international co-operation when more than 175 states adopted the ‘Green Rule’10 within the national economic execution model.
Today, the subject has been bit by bit substituted by the subject Green Revolution which appears to hold penetrated about all sectors of planetary economic systems. This occurred consequent to planetary heating warnings and international environmental attempts carried out by the United Nations and environmental NGOs worldwide.
1.2 Background of the Study
Presents, the universe ‘s population is acquiring more and more concerned about the activities which can take to planetary heating and cause pollution to the environment. Earth is overly being exposed to all sort of pollution resources and it is the duty of every person to protect it. Green engineerings can be used to protect the Earth and alter our environment.
The United Nations Environment Program ( UNEP ) announced the environmental jobs of H2O deficits and planetary heating at the two major issues that the universe faced. UNEP stated that all of these environmental issues will jeopardize human besides jeopardizing the Earth. Home proprietors used up big sums of power and go a major beginning of the planetary heating since it produced between 10 and 30 dozenss of C dioxides yearly. Some 1.8 billion dozenss or more C dioxides could be reduced by using green development ( Harris, 2007 ) . Therefore, sustainable development and green development drama a large function to cut down the pollution of the Earth.
One of the greatest subscribers to planetary heating and other signifiers of environmental devastation is the edifice industry. Harmonizing to the World Green Building Council worldwide edifices account for 33 per centum of C dioxide emanations, 30-40 per centum of the universe ‘s energy ingestion and 40-50 per centum of natural stuffs used, . The council ‘s president, Kevin Hydes, and other leaders in the architectural and building professions have been naming on the edifice industry to follow rules and patterns of ‘green constructing ‘ as a measure towards sustainable development.
The building industry has been regarded as one of the major subscribers of negative impact to the environment, due to the high sum of waste generated from building, destruction, redevelopment and activities associated with building. The building industry plays a important function in Malaysia ‘s development both in the substructure and economic sectors. After some decennaries of extended “ usage and throw away ” doctrine, it has now been recognized that this uninhibited usage of natural resources and pollution of the universe is unsustainable ( Chong, Tang & A ; Larsen 2001 ) .
Construction waste by and large refers to blow ensuing from building, destruction, redevelopment, existent estate development, substructure development, earthworks and land glade operation ( US EPA 1998, Tang, Soon & A ; Larsen 2003 ) . The turning building, redevelopment, and destruction activities of this built environment causes building and destruction waste ; this contributes to one of the major environmental loads to metropoliss all around the universe.
There are certain barriers that inhibit the developers from seting more green places in the market while on the demand side, it has been lackluster. There exist a barbarous rhythm where developers are loath to construct more green places due to miss of demand and the place purchasers are less inclined to purchase green places due to miss of consciousness of the long term benefits of having these eco-friendly places.
The green edifice motion has overcome formidable, proficient, and economic hurdlings in recent old ages, yet acceptance of green edifice patterns within the design and building field remains low. Companies now offer merchandises and services at a graduated table that is conveying costs down to competitory degrees, but environmental sustainability in edifice design and bringing remains at the early phases of the acceptance. The environmental advancement in the edifice design and building industry will go on to procrastinate if the barriers are non addressed.
Green Home Concept is one of the attacks that can be taken for us to hold a greener environment to populate in and conserve our natural resources for future coevalss but how acute is the building industry to take the measure towards sustainable development? If a house is sing planing and building green places, what are the factors that hamper this determination?
Assorted grounds have been cited by the developers for non desiring to construct more green places but what are really the existent barriers behind this phenomenon. On the demand side, what are the existent grounds place purchasers shy off from purchasing green places but alternatively, prefer to have the traditionally designed places. In order to turn to these issues, the survey needs to reply the undermentioned inquiries:
What are the benefits of green places?
What are the challenges and barriers faced by the developers towards edifice more green places for the market?
Why are place purchasers non ready to have green places?
How to get the better of the deficiency of response towards green places by both the developers and place purchasers?
The aims of the research is to find the challenges and barriers towards constructing more green places by the developers and the factors that inhibit green places ownership by place purchasers.
Significance of the Study
The research will consequences in findings as follow:
The benefits of green places
The challenges and barriers towards green places
The possible solutions to get the better of the deficiency of response
With the established benefits of green place, stakeholders in the building industry will be cognizant of the benefits that it will convey along and that consciousness will ensue in more positive responses.
In finding the challenges and barriers towards green places, stakeholders such as the governments, developers and interior decorators, would be able happen specific solutions to get the better of the job.
The patterns of the assorted stakeholders worldwide to get the better of the challenges and barriers towards green places can be adopted and benchmarked in happening solutions to get the better of the job faced by Malayan stakeholders.
Scope of Study
Extenuation to sustainable outlook requires a batch of alteration in attitude, invention, creativeness, research and support from many stakeholders. Construction industry must necessarily alter its historic of operating with small respect for environmental impact to a new manner that makes environmental concern a centre piece of its attempt. The epoch of sustainability is taking its base and the building industry must show that it can stay by this new base.
Making a green economic system is non merely about promoting environmental protection, but about set uping closed-loop ecological options in every sector that substantively contribute to both dematerialization and detoxification of the economic system.
While the word ‘green ‘ refers to sustainability of the environment and when applied to the building industry, it involves all sorts of built installations from design to destruction. However, this survey is concerned with merely one facet of the built installations, that is, the challenges and barriers towards the development of green places.
Restriction of the Study
The restrictions of the survey have been identified as follow:
The survey is limited to merely green places in Malaysia and does non include other green edifices
The sentiment study of developers, designers, applied scientists, interior decorators and place purchasers are limited to those shacking in Johor Bahru merely. Their sentiments may or may non reflect the general positions of other Malaysians as their degree of consciousness and cognition may differ from other topographic points.
Merely limited interviews will be carried out due to limited clip available to finish the survey and fiscal restraints for a countrywide study to be carried out.
The building industry in Malaysia plays an of import function in bring forthing wealth to the state and development of societal and economic substructures and edifices. For the twelvemonth 2011, the industry provided occupation chances for 762,000 people which represented 6.6 % of entire work force ( CREAM, 2011 ) .
The building industry is one of the productive sectors that invariably contribute to the economic system. Recent information showed that the building sector one-year mean growing rate under the 9th Malayan Plan was at 4.4 % . Construction GDP in 2009 was RM17,321 million and in 2015 the part to GDP is expected to be RM21,818 million CREAM, 2011 ) .
In add-on to the RM 230 billion allocated for development that would either straight or indirectly profit the building sector, the tenth Malaysia Plan ( 2011-2015 ) besides includes a host of enterprises and inducements that are expected to bring forth more robust activities in the building sector. These include economic reforms in footings of private sector led economic system, invention led growing, rationalization of the authorities ‘s function in concern by increasing denationalization and Public-Private Partnership ( PPP ) , and developing the SMEs.
The building industry creates a multiplier consequence to other industries, including fabrication sector, fiscal and banking, agribusiness, excavation and professional services and is the accelerator of economic recovery and as a driver for the modernization of Malaysia. Therefore, the building industry plays a really of import function in the state ‘s economic development.
While lending to the economic development of Malaysia, the building industry besides has its negative side. The building wastes at the undertaking site that include stuffs such as dirt and sand, brick and blocks, concrete and sum, wood, metal merchandises, roofing stuffs, fictile stuffs and packaging of merchandises are all making a negative impact to the environment. Concrete and sum is the largest constituent with 65.8 % followed by dirt and sand ( 27 % ) , 5 % from wood based stuffs such as lumber, timber, etc. , 1.6 % from brick and block, 1 % from metal merchandises, 0.2 % from roofing stuffs and 0.05 % from plastic and packaging merchandises such as documents, composition boards, etc ( Begum et al. , 2005 ) .
The building industry is a cardinal sector for sustainable development. The building sector that involves the creative activity, usage and disposal of built installations generate societal and economic benefits to the society, nevertheless, at the same clip constitute negative impacts upon the environment. Areas of chief concern include energy usage with associated nursery gas ( GHG ) emanations, waste coevals, building stuffs ingestion, H2O ingestion and their discharge, and integrating of edifices with other substructure and societal systems ( SBCI-UNEP 2007, Ike Van der Putte, 2007 ) . This implies that the building industry and the sustainability of its merchandises, chiefly edifices, faces an environmental challenge, greater than any other industrial sector, in order to go more sustainable in the long term. Recent studies ( SBCI-UNEP 2007 ) recommended on the building of sustainable edifice as a agency to extenuate planetary heating and climatic alteration.
Sustainability docket in Malaysia have been concentrating on relationship between building and human development and relief of poorness. These together with the deficiency of resources and capacities to better engineerings tend to marginalize the environmental facets. These impacts are now get downing to be felt by Malaysians, ensuing in efforts to equilibrate environmental preservation with economic development.
The construct of green places has been around for a few old ages but in Malaysia, it has non caught the full attending of our developers and the place purchasers likewise. The development gait of green places by the developers is good below the coveted degree and the demands for these places have non been promoting. Nevertheless there is presently increasing public consciousness and involvement in how edifices affect the environment and public wellness. As a consequence, both the populace and private sectors are going aware of the demand for edifices that optimize energy usage, promote resource efficiency and better indoor environmental quality. Developers, proprietors, operators, insurance companies, and the populace at big are get downing to value and market the benefits of sustainable edifice.
The “ think globally and move locally ” ( GLOCAL ) paradigm for the protection of the environment besides sees a turning involvement in sustainable edifices amongst the populace and the building industry of Malaysia. Since the past 10 old ages at that place have been a lifting figure of building undertakings turn toing sustainability in their executions. These undertakings include office edifices, lodging and urban development where design have taken due considerations of cardinal sustainability issues ( Faridah Shafii, M. Zahry Othman 2007 ) .
Based on past advancement on the development of green places, the advancement in edifice green places and the demand for it has been non been really encouraging due to figure of grounds. It is the intent of this survey to look into the barriers that inhibit the advancement of edifice green places and the deficiency of current demand for these places.
2.2 What is Sustainable Development?
The construct of sustainable development was foremost proposed by the Brundtland Commission in 1972 as “ Meeting the demands of the present without compromising the ability
of the future coevalss to run into their ain demands ” . However, this definition has evolved since so.
During the United Nations Earth Summit held by the United Nations Environment Program ( UNEP ) in Rio de Janeiro ( 1992 ) , sustainable development was defined as “ Bettering the quality of human life while populating within the transporting capacity of back uping eco systems ” . This definition has an impact on the economic, societal and environmental development and was later officially adopted worldwide.
Sustainable building was foremost defined by Kibert ( 1994 ) . The inclusion of building in sustainable development was proposed at the last World Summit for Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg in September 2002. All industries, including the building industry represented by the Confederation of International Contractors ‘ Associations ( CICA ) , submitted a study on their actions entitled “ Construction: Industry as a Partner for Sustainable Development ” ( CICA, 2002 ) .
The Agenda 21 for Sustainable Construction in Developing Countries was launched as a treatment papers during the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg in 2002. It defined sustainable development as “ the sort of development that needs to be pursued in order to accomplish the province of sustainability. It is a uninterrupted procedure of keeping a dynamic balance between the demands of people for equity, prosperity and quality of life which is ecologically possible ” . This papers is the consequence of a collaborative procedure stand foring an of import measure in the authorization of developing states with an docket that was prepared wholly by experts from developing states to reply to the specific demands and challenges of developing states. It besides marks the first milepost in a new partnership between the International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction ( CIB ) and United Nations Environment Program-International Environment Technology Center ( UNEP-IETC ) on sustainable building in developing states
The construct of sustainability in edifice and building has ab initio focused on issues of limited resources, particularly energy, and on how to cut down impacts on the natural environment with accent on proficient issues such as stuffs, edifice constituents, building engineerings and energy related design constructs. Recently, an grasp of the significance of non-technical issues has grown, giving acknowledgment to economic and societal sustainability concerns every bit good as cultural heritage of the reinforced environment as every bit of import.
Sustainable building has different attacks and different precedences in assorted states ensuing from the market economic systems. Unsurprisingly, there are divergent positions and readings of the term between the developed and developing states.
Although there are assorted definitions, the purposes and ends of sustainable building remain the same. Sustainable building is a manner for the edifice industry to travel towards accomplishing sustainable development, taking into history environmental, socio-economic and cultural issues.
2.3 What is a Green Home?
Green Home is a infinite and energy efficient place which can offer coziness and healthy life environment to its occupants. Green Home is constructed and operates by utilizing sustainable resources. It is considered as a sustainable resource in the sense that it can maximise our resources by taking the resources from the natural environment and bring forth less consequence on the environment. Green Home construct has to be applied from its edifice stuffs to its insularity and lightings. Green Home can make full up the householder ‘s life with lavishness and manner and is considered as a new positive characteristic to the community. There are fundamentally two types of Green Homes which are Healthy Green Homes and Affordable Green Homes. Healthy Green Home is one that emphases on commanding the resources which can foul the environment for both the builder and householder and the Affordable Green Home is one that places importance on the energy-saving characteristics ( Yuldelson, 2007 ) .
A green edifice, as defined by the Green Building Index of Malaysia, is “ A Green edifice focal points on increasing the efficiency of resource usage – energy, H2O, and stuffs – while cut downing constructing impact on human wellness and the environment during the edifice ‘s lifecycle, through better posing, design, building, operation, care, and remotion ” . It is further stated that green edifices should be designed and operated to cut down the overall impact of the built environment on its milieus for the undermentioned grounds:
Green edifices are designed to salvage energy and resources, recycle stuffs and understate the emanation of toxic substances throughout its life rhythm.
Green edifices harmonise with the local clime, traditions, civilization and the surrounding environment.
Green edifices are able to prolong and better the quality of human life whilst keeping the capacity of the ecosystem at local and planetary degrees.
Green edifices make efficient usage of resources, have important operational nest eggs and additions workplace productiveness.
Constructing green sends the right message about a company or administration – that it is good run, responsible, and committed to the hereafter.
Harmonizing to the Green Building Council of Australia, a green edifice which includes green places, incorporates design, building and operational patterns that significantly cut down or extinguish its negative impact on the environment and its residents. Constructing viridity is an chance to utilize resources expeditiously while making healthier environments for people to populate and work in. Green edifice, or sustainable design, is the pattern of increasing the efficiency with which edifices and their sites use energy, H2O, and stuffs, and cut downing edifice impacts on human wellness and the environment over the full life rhythm of the edifice. Green constructing constructs extend beyond the walls of edifices and can include site planning, community and land usage be aftering issues as good.
Based on the definition of the US Environment Protection Agency ( USEPA ) , a green edifice is the pattern of making constructions and utilizing procedures that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a edifice ‘s life-cycle from locating to plan, building, operation, care, redevelopment and deconstruction. This pattern expands and complements the classical edifice design concerns of economic system, public-service corporation, lastingness, and comfort. Green edifice is besides known as a sustainable or high public presentation edifice.
The Agency farther states that green edifices are designed to cut down the overall impact of the built environment on human wellness and the natural environment by:
Efficiently utilizing energy, H2O, and other resources
Protecting occupant wellness and bettering employee productiveness
Reducing waste, pollution and environmental debasement
Harmonizing to the Agency, green edifices may integrate sustainable stuffs in their building ( e.g. , reused, recycled-content, or made from renewable resources ) ; make healthy indoor environments with minimum pollutants ( e.g. , reduced merchandise emanations ) ; and/or characteristic landscaping that reduces H2O use ( e.g. , by utilizing native workss that survive without excess lacrimation ) .
Based on the definition by Andrew J. Hoffman and Rececca Henn of University of Michigan ( 2008 ) , green edifice is a term embracing schemes, techniques, and building merchandises that are less resource-intensive or pollution-producing than regular building. In some instances, this involves simply making without excess infinite, coatings, or contraptions. In others, it substitutes a less polluting merchandise for more polluting 1s ( e.g. , low-volatile organic compounds pigment ) . More incorporate schemes reconfigure a infinite to take advantage of alone site properties ( e.g. , confronting glass toward the sun way to utilize natural or inactive solar heat addition alternatively of utilizing natural gas or electricity to heat a infinite ) or reconfigure design parametric quantities to take advantage of edifice system synergisms ( e.g. , downsizing the boiler after excess insularity has been added to the exterior shell ) .
In decision, a green place is one that consumes less energy, less H2O and generates less waste, and make a healthy and productive environment for the society. Green edifice patterns can cut down a edifice ‘s operating cost, increase edifice values, and gain an addition in return on investing. So, green edifices do n’t merely do sound ecological and environmental sense but they besides make sound economic sense excessively ( Tony Arnel ) .
2.4 Malaysia ‘s National Policy on Environment
Government policies have been recognised as of import instruments in driving the market for sustainable edifices. In Malaysia, there is presently no policy which mandates a sustainable edifice ; the closest that Malaysia has is the MS 1525:2007 which is the ‘Code of Practice on Energy Efficiency and the Use of Renewable Energy for Non-Residential Buildings.
The National Policy on Environment seeks to incorporate environment considerations into development activities and in all related decision-making procedures, to further long-run economic growing and human development and to protect and heighten the environment. The incorporate considerations will drive Malaysia ‘s Green Strategies towards the following seven cardinal countries ( MOSTE, 2002 ; CIB, 2002 ) .
Education and consciousness
In line with the recommendations of Agenda 21 ( CIB, 2002 ) , a deeper and better apprehension of the constructs of environmentally sound and sustainable development and caring attitude towards nature, environmental instruction and consciousness will be promoted in comprehensive formal and informal instruction, preparation and information airing plan.
Effective Management of Natural Resources and the Environment
Effective direction of natural resources and the environment, protect and conserve the environment and natural resources to run into the demands and aspirations of the state ‘s population, peculiarly with respects to set down, woods, biodiversity and H2O.
Integrated Development Planning and Implementation
Environmental considerations will be integrated into all phases of development plan, plan planning and execution and all facets of policy devising. Environmental inputs shall be incorporated into economic development planning, including regional programs, maestro programs, construction and local programs.
Prevention and Control of Pollution and Environmental Degradation
Pollution and other inauspicious environmental impact originating from development activities shall be minimised. Environmental quality monitoring surveillance plan and environmental audit system will be expanded and strengthened to back up enforcement plan, planning and districting to enable a comprehensive and regular appraisal of the province of environment. Within this context, CIDB has embarked on plan related to ISO 14001 Certification and concentrating on building companies involved in big undertakings which require Environmental Impact Assessment. CIDB has besides introduced the Environmental Management System Schemes. The purpose of this strategy is to ease contractors in upgrading their environmental direction public presentation.
Strengthening Administrative and Institutional Mechanisms
Integrated and effectual cooperation and co-ordination among authorities and other sectors shall be enhanced in order to accomplish efficient environmental direction and protection. Environment-related statute law and criterions shall be reviewed on a regular basis and revised where necessary to guarantee the continued effectivity and co-ordination of Torahs. Particular attending will be paid to effectual enforcement.
Proactive Approach to Regional and Global Environmental Issues
Malaysia will co-operate with other states, peculiarly the ASEAN states, and with relevant regional and international organisation on planetary environmental concerns. In other words, Malaysia will follow a proactive attack in turn toing planetary environmental issues such as the depletion of the ozone bed, clime alteration, trans-boundary pollution, risky chemicals and toxic waste direction, marine quality and resource preservation and trade in endangered species.
Formulation and Implementation of Action Plans
Action programs, with equal resource support for their execution, will be formulated. The manner frontward has to be a antiphonal 1 among all stakeholders to guarantee the Earth is safe and sustainable for future coevals.
With respects to the industry schemes, greater acceptance and usage of environment-friendly planning techniques, designs and ‘green ‘ stuffs in belongings undertakings will travel a long manner towards advancing green patterns in the state. It will be more effectual if industry participants voluntarily adopt green and environment-friendly designs and constructs in their undertakings instead than depend on statute law to do it compulsory for them to integrate pro-environment design characteristics in their undertakings.
2.5 Malaysia ‘s Green Enterprises
The United Nations Millennium Development Goals ( MDGs ) seek to accomplish eight clearly defined ends for a better universe. In peculiar, Goal 7 seeks to ‘Ensure Environmental Sustainability ‘ . This ‘environment sustainable ‘ subject now appears progressively and of all time more strongly in every section of most economic systems of the universe. It is the lifting tide of green civilization. In kernel, this Green Culture earnestly inquiries every aspect of our current life styles and the ingestion of merchandises and the usage of services that degrade the environment. This civilization acts both straight and indirectly to advance a harmonious relationship between world and Mother Earth.
In Malaysia, the Government has taken awareness of Goal 7 vide its assorted green enterprises. In April 2009, a new Ministry was established, the Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water. The primary aim of this Ministry is to advance high impact research and development of green engineerings in Malaysia.
The National Green Technology Policy ( NGTP ) was launched to turn to the undermentioned four chief countries of concern:
It is anticipated that these four countries will bear the brunt of the full impact of the nearing green tidal moving ridge. And it is of import that Malaysia prosecute this green moving ridge in a mode that allows the state to surf on it instead than be engulfed by it.
The twelvemonth 2009 marked a new chapter in the history of edifice building in Malaysia where the Green Building Index ( GBI ) was established. GBI sets a new green civilization for the edifice building industry. Pusat Tenaga Malaysia ‘s edifice represents a good illustration of green civilization as it is the first GBI-rated edifice in Malaysia. Putrajaya and Cyberjaya are presently showcased as open uping townships in green engineering for development of other townships throughout the state.
The recent Malayan Government proclamation on the creative activity of the Energy, Green Technology and Water Ministry to spearhead the state ‘s sustainability docket in the Cabinet line-up is seasonably and serious in undertaking all related green issues in the state that complement the planetary vision on sustainable development. The building industry and its related activities are responsible for a significant sum of planetary resource use and waste emanations.
As edifices and other constructions are planned to last 50 to 100 old ages, future clime alterations derived from building should be given a high precedence. Through expecting future climatic developments, applied scientists can minimise their negative effects and benefit from their positive impacts. The building sector should non be marginalized from the issues on environment. Making a sustainable building in Malaysia requires a strategic attack that will profit current and future issues related to economic, societal, environment and quality of life. Construction Industry Development Board ( CIDB ) Malaysia is obliged to take this issue on board through its Construction Industry Master Plan initiatives under Strategic Thrust 3: Strive for the highest criterion of quality, occupational safety and wellness and environmental patterns.
The building industry generates impetus to the Malayan economic system. For many old ages it
has created of import functions in bettering the quality of life for Malaysians through multiplier
consequence to other industries. In this regard, physical development entirely would non vouch the quality of life for future coevalss. It must besides be able to develop and use resources efficaciously in a competitory and sustainable economic system.
The policy set by the Government, R & A ; D invention, domestic accomplishments development and building capablenesss are cardinal to the substructure that will consolidate and drive the state ‘s economic system frontward. And the function played to be played by CIDB Malaysia is to put out an docket and a scheme to achieve current and future sustainability in building
In a underdeveloped state like Malaysia, sustainable building tendency tends to concentrate on the relationship between building and human development while marginalizing environmental facets. However, in visible radiation of the terrible environmental debasement experienced by most developing states, building industries can non go on to disregard the environment.
Environment encompasses physical and non physical medium such as air, H2O, solid waste/land and besides noise pollution. Construction, with development of natural resources such as wood for lumber, lodging and industry without proper control, contributes to environmental jobs ( Ibarahim, 1999 ) . Many of the environmental issues that occur are due to deficiency of environmental consideration in the development, development and direction of resources every bit good as deficiency of control of the ensuing pollution. These issues if non tackled strategically will foster aggravate and exert challenges towards sustainable building, hence, the demand to look at the followers:
Mobilization of resources in order to back up research, technological alterations and feasibleness surveies. The sharing of research and educational activities must be taken on board from the Government, universities and related private sector related industries ( CIB, 2002 )
The pursuit of environmental protection must be in balance with the demand for economic development ( CIB, 2002 )
The usage of environmentally appropriate engineerings with energy efficiency and full committedness to blow recycling and pollution should be practiced by building participants
Emphasis must be given to the integrating of environmental concerns in all undertaking planning and execution in this regard, use and application of information, communicating and engineering ( ICT ) in leveraging accomplishments should be introduced to the building participants ( CIB, 2002 )
Construction has to cut down use of its resources through stuff ingestion, building costs and wastage rates. It can be done by manner of instruction, site planning, direction and design patterns and acceptance of new engineerings
In planetary environmental sustainability, there is demand for building participants to leverage socio-economic equitability as stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol which requires significant decrease in green house gas emanations
Bettering the quality of the building procedure and its merchandises. A first measure is to better the quality of building merchandises and the efficiency and safety of the building procedure.
To accomplish environmental sustainability, Malayan building industry participants need to take a holistic attack along the building value concatenation in executing their responsibilities. Within the building fraternity itself, societies and workers must work together towards sustainable building.
There is a batch of room for betterment in the Malayan environment scene at big. Malaya can larn from the experience in Sweden that focuses on constructing sustainable communities by looking at the following strategic challenges:
Balancing assorted involvements in footings of physical planning, regional development and substructure, along with residential and metropolis planning consistent with sustainable urban development.
Promoting good wellness on equal footings requires puting the foundation for nice life conditions – entree to paid employment, nice workplaces, economic and societal security, communities in which kids can turn up safely, engagement and codetermination.
Prioritizing broad-based enterprises aimed at extinguishing wellness and mortality disagreements among assorted societal and economic groups. A clean environment and healthy life styles are besides critical to better public wellness that facilitates both national economic growing and more stable family fundss.
Promoting sustainable growing connoting economic enlargement driven by dynamic markets, a advanced public assistance policy and a progressive environmental policy.
Issues on 3R ( cut down, reuse and recycle ) can be seen as a manner forward for the building industry to travel towards sustainable development. In turn toing these issues, attempts must be taken to reconstruct between natural and reinforced environments ( Tse, 2001, Shen and Tam, 2002 ) .
2.6 Construction Industry Master Plan 2006-2015 ( CIMP ) Initiatives
The Construction Industry Master Plan 2006 – 2015 ( CIMP ) has identified the hereafter challenges on environmental facets in Strategic Thrust 3: Towards highest criterion of quality, occupational safety and wellness and environmental patterns. Environmental sustainability is necessary to accomplish and prolong economic growing and societal development ( CIDB, 2007a ) . A systematic attempt is required to avoid unwanted environmental impact and enhance ecosystem direction. Among the major impacts associated with the industry are soil eroding and deposit, flash floods, devastation of flora, dust pollution, depletion of natural resources and the use of edifice stuffs which are harmful to human wellness.
The CIMP has identified that the demand on environmental sustainability is necessary to accomplish and prolong economic growing and societal development. The undermentioned mileposts have been highlighted under the roadmap to be achieved in 2015:
Foster a quality and environment-friendly civilization and to increase client demand in the planetary environment in building
Encourage external accreditation in quality and environmental direction i.e. ISO 14001 enfranchisements
Promote environment-friendly patterns
Enterprises on green edifice stuffs to guarantee impact activities can supply in order to spur economic system and societal benefits at big.
Foster a quality and environment-friendly civilization
The demand to increase client demand in the planetary environment in building. Necessary to accomplish and prolong economic growing and societal development.
Encourage external accreditation in quality and
Incorporate ISO enfranchisement demands as portion of the contractors registration strategy ( G7 and G8 )
Organise communicating program to advance ISO enfranchisement
CIDB will actively promote local building companies to achieve ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 enfranchisements.
Promote environment-friendly patterns.
Recommend to the Ministry of Housing and Local Government to develop guidelines on phase building
Propose to DOE to reexamine conditional blessing proviso for EIA studies.
Enforce Tree Preservation Order ( Act 1972 ) .
Encourage ‘Green Reporting ‘ by public listed companies
Introduce revenue enhancement inducements for the acceptance of ISO 14001
Enterprises of ‘Green Building Material ‘ will be promoted to guarantee impact activities can be provided in order to spur economic system and societal benefits at
big. Urgent demand for self-regulation
within the building industry to accomplish public presentation required.
Table 2.1: Strategic Thrust 3 – Strive for the Highest Standard of Quality, Occupational Safety and Health and Environmental Practices ( CIDB, 2007a )
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2.7 Construction Industry Development Board ‘s ( CIDB ) Initiatives and Strategies on Implementing Sustainable Development
Sustainable development requires a balance between economic growing, societal enlargement and environmental protection. In order to prosecute sustainable development, the building industry itself has to be sustainable and give accent to environmental affair in add-on to economic additions and societal duties.
In 1999 CIDB established a Technical Committee to look into developing good environmental patterns in the building industry. Technical Committee 9 on Good Environmental Practices in the Construction Industry ( CIDB/TC9 ) comprises environmental
experts from Government bureaus, professional organic structures, academe and building related associations.
The function of CIDB/TC9 is to develop criterions to better environmental issues in the building industry and advise CIDB in the preparation of plan to advance good environmental patterns. The term of mention of TC9 is to place, fix and develop the Construction Industry Standard ( CIS ) and Good Environmental Practices in Construction Industry. CIDB/TC9 executes its authorization through the constitution of six working groups, with several portfolio, as follow:
Working Group 1
Development of Strategies and Program for Good Environment Practices
Working Group 2
Prevention and Control of Soil Erosion and Sedimentation in Construction
Working Group 3
Good Environmental Practices in Storm H2O Management
Working Group 4
Accreditation Scheme for Environment Management System for Contractor
Working Group 5
Guideline on Environmental Management System for Construction Industry
Working Group 6
Guideline and Management of Construction Waste Material
Figure 2: Working Groups under CIDB/TC9 with Respective Portfolio
Beginning: The Ingenieur Dec 2009 – Feb 2010
2.7.1 Research and Development Enterprises
Presently there are six research undertakings on Environment and Sustainability managed by Construction Research Institute of Malaysia ( CREAM ) , a research arm of CIDB. The research subjects are as follows:
Construction Practices for Storm Water Management and dirty eroding control for the Construction Industry
Achieving sustainability of the building industry via International Environmental Management Systems Standard, ISO 14001
Waste Minimisation and Recycling Potential of Construction Materials
four Materials Security And Waste Management for Industrialized Building Systems ( IBS ) : Towards Sustainable Construction
Environmental Management program in the contract stamp Document of Construction Undertakings
Use of waste stuffs for the production of Concrete Pedestrian Block ( CPB ) .
The research on building for storm H2O Management and Soil Erosion control for the building Industry focuses on developing good patterns in these countries. Data and end product from the undertaking are used in the assorted working groups for farther development and some of the findings have been disseminated to stakeholders via seminars and workshops.
The research on accomplishing Sustainability of the Construction industry via International Environmental direction Systems Standard, ISO 14001, is aligned to fix Guidelines on Environmental Management System for Construction Industry ( EMSCI ) . These guidelines assist contractors to be ISO 14001 certified and look into proper environment direction systems in the building industry.
The research on Waste Minimization and recycling potency of building stuffs was completed in 2005 and handed over to the Technical Committee ( TC ) 9 under CIDB. Some of the paperss have been published and disseminated to industry participants. TC9 is in the thick of consolidating the research end product and will delegate Working Group 6 to help CIDB to fix the ‘Guideline and Training Modules on Good Practices on Waste Management at Construction Sites ‘ .
The other three researches are still ongoing and upon completion, stakeholders will be able to capture some of the local experiences every bit good as planetary patterns on waste direction and sustainable building through lessons learned and engineering transportations of best patterns.
The undertaking to continue sustainable building in Malaysia is an tremendous project that requires plentifulness of invention and committedness from all concerned. Through CIDB ‘s enterprises, R & A ; D enterprises and others, action oriented industry schemes have identified undertakings for immediate attending, every bit good as undertakings for medium and long term attending. It is hoped that plans to develop the tools and techniques and other enablers to decrease the impact on the environment to take the Malayan building to be sustainable becomes a world.
2.8 Malaysia ‘s Green Technology Policy
Under the Green Technology Policy, Green Technology is defined as the development and application of merchandises, equipment and system used to conserve the natural environment and resources which minimizes and reduces the negative impact of human activities.
The policy statements are as follow:
Green Technology shall be a driver to speed up the national economic system and promote sustainable development. The National Green Technology Policy has four pillars as follow:
Energy: energy independency and efficient use
Environment: preserve and minimise impact on environment
Economy: enhance economic system through usage of engineering
Sociable: better the quality of life for all
In line with the four pillars, the aims of the Green Technology Policy are:
To minimise growing of energy ingestion while heightening economic development
To ease growing of green engineering industry and heighten its part to the national economic system
To increase national capableness and capacity for invention in green engineering development and enhance Malaysia ‘s fight in green engineering in planetary sphere
To guarantee sustainable development and conserve the environment for future coevalss
To heighten public instruction and consciousness on green engineering and promote its widespread usage
The national ends of the Green Technology Policy is to supply way and motive for Malaysians to continuously bask good quality life and a healthy environment. The short term ends ( 10th Malaysia Plan 2011 – 2015 ) related to green edifice are as follow:
Application of GT in power coevals and in the energy supply side direction, including co-generation by the industrial and commercial sectors and application of GT in all energy use sectors and in demand side direction plan
Adoption of GT in the building direction, care and destruction of Buildings
Water and Waste direction sector
Technology in the direction and use of H2O resources, waste H2O intervention, solid waste and healthful landfills.
In fostering the acceptance and growing of green engineering, the policy is accompanied by the undermentioned five strategic pushs:
Strategic thrust 1: Strengthen the institutional models
Strategic Thrust 2: Provide conducive environment for GT Development
Strategic Thrust 3: Intensify human capital development in GT
Strategic Thrust 4: Intensify GT Research and Innovation
Strategic Thrust 5: Promotion and public consciousness
In order to mensurate the accomplishments, National Key Indexs are set to mensurate the success of the Green Technology Policy and its enterprises. This would supply the Government a feedback mechanism and the chance to better or beef up the enterprises as necessary.
2.9 Green Building Certification
As stated by Tinging ( 2009 ) , there are more than 100 types of environmental evaluation tool available globally. Some of these evaluation tools are briefly described below.
2.9.1 Green Building Index ( GBI ) , Malaysia
In April 2009, Malaysian Institute of Architects ( PAM ) and the Association of Consulting Engineers Malaysia ( ACEM ) supported by Malaysia Green Building Confederation ( MGBC ) , together with the edifice industry launched the Green Building Index ( GBI ) to enable green scaling and enfranchisement of Malayan edifices. GBI which was formulated and promoted by PAM and ACEM, assesses the impact of a new edifice on its environment.
The GBI is Malaysia ‘s industry recognized green evaluation tool for edifice and it is intended to advance sustainability in the reinforced environment and raise consciousness among developers, designer, applied scientists, contrivers, interior decorators, contractors and public about the environmental issues and our duty to the future coevalss. The evaluation tool gives an chance for developers to plan and build green edifice that would supply energy nest eggs, H2O nest eggs, a healthier indoor environment, recycling and verdure for undertakings and to cut down negative impacts to the environment.
Based on GBI evaluation system, undertakings or edifice would be assessed and rated based on six cardinal standards. These standards are:
Indoor Environmental Quality
Sustainable Site Planning & A ; Management
Material and Resources
Of the six standards that make up the GBI evaluation, accent is placed on energy efficiency and indoor environmental quality as these have the greatest impact in the countries of energy usage and wellbeing of the residents and users of the edifice. By bettering on the efficiency of active ( mechanical and electrical ) systems every bit good as integrating good inactive designs together with proper sustainable care governments, important decreases in consumed energy can be realized. This can take to a reduced C footmark and besides offers long-run nest eggs for the edifice proprietors.
The evaluation system is comprised of two separate tools, viz. the GBI Residential and Non-Residential severally. The GBI Residential Rating tool evaluates the sustainable facets of residential edifices. This includes linked houses, flats, condominiums, townhouses, semi-detached and bungalows. This tool places more accent on sustainable site planning & A ; direction, followed by energy efficiency. This serves to promote developers and place proprietors to see the environmental quality of places and their dwellers through better site choice, commissariats of public conveyance entree, increased community services and connectivity, every bit good as improved substructure. Such accomplishment will assist cut down the negative impact to the environment and make a better and safer topographic point for occupants and the community as a whole.
The GBI Non-Residential Rating tool evaluates the sustainable facets of edifices that are commercial, institutional and industrial in nature. This includes mills, offices, infirmaries, universities, colleges, hotels and shopping composites.
2.9.2 Building Research Establishment Assessments Method ( BREEAM ) , United Kingdom
This Building Research Establishment ( BRE ) Program was created over a decennary ago in United Kingdom to measure the environmental public presentation of both new and existing edifices. BREEAM assesses public presentation of edifices in the countries of direction, energy usage, wellness and comfort, pollution, conveyance, land usage, ecology, stuffs, and H2O. Creditss are awarded in each country based on public presentation. Buildings are rated Pass, Good, Very Good, and Excellent. BREEAM applies to offices, places, industrial units and school.
2.9.3 Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design ( LEED ) , United States
LEED is developed by the U.S. Green Building Council. It is consensus-based national criterion for developing high-performance, sustainable edifices. LEED evaluation system are available or under development for new commercial building and major redevelopments ( NC ) , bing edifice operations ( EB ) , commercial insides ( CI ) , nucleus and shell undertakings ( CS ) , places ( H ) , and vicinity development ( ND ) . LEED provides a complete model for measuring edifice public presentation and meeting sustainability ends. Based on tenable scientific criterions, LEED emphasizes state-of-the-art schemes for sustainable site development, H2O nest eggs, energy efficiency, stuffs choice, and indoor environmental quality.
2.9.4 Building Environmental Assessment Method ( HK-BEAM ) , Hong Kong
HK-BEAM is a voluntary system to step, better, and label the environmental public presentation of the edifices. The system has been used on 100 edifices to day of the month. The system applies to both new and existing edifices. In the class of stuffs subjects such as: the efficient usage of stuffs ( edifice reuse ) , choice of stuffs ( renewable and recycled ) , and waste direction ( destruction and building waste ) .
2.9.5 Comprehensive Assessment System for Building Environmental Efficiency ( CASBEE ) , Japan
The system is a concerted development of academic, industrial, and authorities bureaus. The system ‘s appraisal tools include a pre-design appraisal tool, a design for environmental tool, an eco-labeling tool, and a sustainable operation and redevelopment tool.
2.9.6 Eco-Quantum, Netherlands
The Eco-Quantum is the lone method that explicitly and comprehensive based on life-cycle appraisal. Asses the environmental load of a complete edifice on the footing of LCA. It besides compares the environmental public presentation of assorted steps refering energy-saving installings, water-saving techniques, stuff pick, design and location. The Eco-Quantum is merely applicable to individual residential edifices.
2.9.7 Green Star, Australia
The Green Star Environmental Rating System for Buildings was created to put a criterion of measuring for green edifices in Australia. The evaluation system is a voluntary national plan that evaluates the environmental public presentation of edifices. Green Star Rating Systems have been developed for commercial edifices merely. Each of the evaluation systems includes the undermentioned classs: direction, indoor environmental quality, energy, conveyance, H2O, stuffs, land usage, site choice and ecology, and emanation. Each class contains credits awarded based on accomplishing the needed degree in the edifice. Creditss in the stuffs class are awarded for supplying storage for recycling waste, reuse of frontage, reuse of construction, shell, and nucleus, recycled content of concrete, recycled content of steel, PVC minimisation, and usage of sustainable lumber.
2.10 Status of Sustainable Building in Malaysia
Energy, H2O and waste remain critical issues for environmental sustainability in Malaysia.
Economic development remained the precedence of Malaysia as a developing state that hopes to accomplish a developed position by the twelvemonth 2020. The major aim of the economic system ‘s energy policy is to supply plenty energy to fuel its growing. Under such a scheme, development has been accompanied by a high growing rate of energy ingestion and hence, heavy pollution.
Malaysia began to do strategic alterations in the energy policies merely after 1990. An extended reappraisal of energy policies in Malaya shows greater balance between security and sustainability concerns, and increased focal point on wise ingestion of energy along with an accent on equal supply.
The drivers for such alteration include a concern over resource depletion and energy security. As energy ingestion rise quickly, the authoritiess is progressively sing the possibility of energy deficits with the realisation that increasing dependence on imported oil could impede economic growing and baleful national security. Sky-rocketing energy monetary values and occasional breaks to energy supplies by some bring forthing states in the past few old ages have strengthened the statements for analyzing the manner energy is used in their economic systems. Therefore, bettering the productiveness of energy ingestion is rapidly going an ineluctable necessity.
Another concern is over pollution and environmental harm. Heavy pollution and environmental harm have spurred concerns about its impacts on the quality of air. The ingestion of energy is the biggest subscriber to air pollution, and has become an pressing affair in which the authorities can no longer disregard.
The 3rd concern is the acknowledgment of the major part energy efficiency could do in turn toing energy security and environmental challenges. Energy efficiency is one of the quickest, cheapest, cleanest ways to turn to energy and environmental challenges, and is one well-proven scheme practiced worldwide.
In the visible radiation of recent hikings in energy monetary values and tight energy supply-demand conditions, energy security has returned to the top of Malaysia ‘s docket. The job of planetary heating has been addressed in their energy policies, as the energy sector is the chief beginning of nursery gas emanations. One of the major strategic responses is puting greater accent on energy preservation and efficiency and renewable energy beginnings, in order to procure energy every bit good as to cut down emanations.
The displacement of economic system towards energy-intensive industries is a major ground behind the increased in energy demand in Malaysia, nevertheless, inefficient energy ingestion by the populace besides added to this higher energy demands. The cost deduction and uninterrupted upward tendency in energy ingestion is a serious concern to the Malayan authorities, and this is reflected in the development of the new energy policy and marks.
The growing in population over the last three decennaries has resulted in heavy demand for H2O. The job of population growing is peculiarly felt in the urban countries, due to rural-urban migration and turning urbanisation. The domestic and industrial H2O demand in Malaysia is expected to treble over the following 50 old ages.
In general, the efficiency of H2O ingestion in Malaysia is low. The sum of H2O consumed by the agribusiness, industrial and domestic sectors are about 62 % , 21 % and 17 % of the entire H2O resources, severally ( Faridah Shafii, 2008 ) .
In Malaysia, there is besides a high proportion of unaccounted H2O in urban H2O supply systems, as one one-fourth to one tierce of the domestic and industrial H2O is lost before it reaches the consumers. These losingss are the consequence of leaks in the distribution systems and illegal connexions. With increased demand from population growing and industrialisation every bit good as viing for decreasing H2O handiness, the optimisation of H2O use must be dealt by the authorities desperately, in order to travel towards efficiency, effectivity of usage, preservation and sustainability.
Wastes can be categorized in assorted signifiers and for the intent of this survey, they are categorized under the undermentioned headers:
Municipal Solid Waste
Due to the turning population and increasing ingestion, Malaysia generates waste at about 7.34 million ( 2007 ) dozenss per twenty-four hours. Whilst recycling has about drawn cosmopolitan credence as a agency of waste disposal, Malaysia ‘s domestic recycling rate still hovers at a mere five per cent ( ( Faridah Shafii at. el 2008 ) . The disposal of solid waste has been entirely through unfastened landfills.
Wastewater direction is an progressively serious issue that demands attending. In Malaysia, approximately 6 million dozenss ( 2006 ) of effluent is generated yearly by its 26 million dwellers. The effluent is treated to changing degrees and discharged into the rivers, from which most of Malaysia ‘s fresh H2O supply comes from. This is surely unhealthy and an unsustainable agencies of disposing effluent. A more effectual and sustainable effluent direction would be required.
The volume of solid waste generated in Malaysia is estimated to transcend 15,000 metric tons daily. The current system of manual labor, waste aggregation trucks and unfastened mopess for disposal suffers from a deficiency of modern equipment and environmental controls. The lodging and local authorities is outlining a maestro program on solid waste direction, which includes recycling runs, landfills and installing of incinerators. By merely recycling 22 per cent of the five million dozenss of waste, it is expected to assist salvage the authorities RM88 million a twelvemonth.
Construction and Demolition Waste
The building industry has been regarded as one of the major subscribers of negative impact to the environment, due to the high sum of waste generated from building, destruction, redevelopment and activities associated with building.
Construction waste by and large refers to blow ensuing from building, destruction, redevelopment, existent estate development, substructure development, earthworks and land glade operation. The turning building, redevelopment, and destruction activities of this built environment cause building and destruction wastes that contribute to one of the major environmental loads to the environment.
The current position of building and destruction waste direction is the 3Rs ( cut down, replace and recycle ) where most of the building and destruction activities in Malaysia have demonstrated good patterns.
2.11 Barriers to Green Home Development
As cited in the study. “ The Green Home Concept – Acceptability And Development Problems ” by A. Alias* , T.K. Sin, W.N.A.W.A. Aziz, developers faced a batch of jobs when developing green places in Malaysia. As experienced by YTL Land and Development Berhad ( YTL ) one of the jobs the company faced is the deficiency of green engineering in Malaysia. Although the authorities started to advance sustainable development and green engineering in Malaysia, some of the green stuffs and green engineering used to develop green place can non be obtained in Malaysia. Most of the green stuffs such as the lightweight bamboo frames are being imported from foreign states. Besides that, green engineering used to construct a green place such as the plumbing of the low-flow H2O system, the gray H2O recycling system and etc demands to be imported from abroad since Malaya still does non bring forth this type of engineering. This will take to the addition in the monetary value of green place comparison to conventional place because of the happening of the excess costs.
Furthermore, there is a deficiency of experience among the workers to execute their occupations in physique green places. The workers have to be sent to overseas to undergo preparation classs on the green engineering. In the instance of YTL, a few million ringgit have been spent to develop workers overseas so that they have the accomplishments to assist the company to develop green place and green edifice in Malaysia. Even the gross revenues and selling personals need to be trained in the selling of green place.
However, the biggest job faced by the developer is the householders ‘ reaction and acceptableness degree towards green place. Since green place construct is still new to the Malayan citizens, they do non understand the benefits and construct of green place although the authorities and developers already started to advance it since twelvemonth 2007. The demand for green place is still low because the householders would still prefer to purchase conventional place since the monetary value of the conventional place is cheaper. Malaysians are missing in consciousness towards a sustainable development. Most of the householders are non willing to pay more to purchase green place and this makes the demand of green place depression and hard to sell comparison to conventional place.
A questionnaire study to find the reaction and degree of acceptableness of the householders in Malaysia was carried out by the Centre for Studies of Urban and Regional Real Estate ( SURE ) , Faculty of Built Environment, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur in the Klang Valley and Penang in 2010. The findings showed that less than 50 % know about the being of green place in Malaysia. The per centum in other less urban Centres is expected to be lower since the householders are less open to the green place construct and handiness. This happens because green place is still a new construct in Malaysia and most of the householders do non hold exposure about green place since the authorities and the developers have merely started to advance this construct of lodging in Malaysia.
The deficiency of consciousness among the householders is on the long term benefits that green places can convey. Green place can assist to continue the environment since it uses renewab