The Tenure Track System Accounting Essay

At the state degree, instruction means strong economic growing due to productive and skilled labour force. The emerging planetary scenario offers huge chances and challenges, and merely those states can profit from it which has acquired knowledge base accomplishments.

A university is an establishment of higher instruction and research which grants academic grades in a assortment of topics and provides both undergraduate instruction and postgraduate instruction. The word “ university ” is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorumetc. scholarium, which approximately means “ community of instructors and bookmans. “ FacultyA members of a peculiar profession regarded as a organic structure ; a group of individuals entrusted with the authorities and tuition in a college or university ( Encyclopedia, 2006 )

Stressing the importance of instruction and acquisition in Islam it is adequate to observe that the first disclosure of the prophesier ( PBUH ) was “ Read ” . Allah has clearly impressed upon work forces that He bestowed on work forces the gift of Knowledge. The Holy Quran at a figure of topographic points emphasiss on the observation of the existence and nature. At another topographic point at Surah-i-Taha, Allah enjoins the Prophet ( PBUH ) to state “ Pray for the promotion of Knowledge ( Al-Quran, Surah Taha 20 ) .

Harmonizing to Katozai ( 2010, p-3 ) , “ The bookmans and the pupils are the best of human existences. The Holy Prophet ( PBUH ) has said “ Learned are the inheritors of Prophetss ” .

Government of Pakistan introduced National Pay Scale ( NPS ) , a similar pattern wage construction for Government Servant including instructor cell, on 1st March 1972. Later on, it was renamed as Basic Pay Scales ( BPS ) in 1983. This is a non-performance based wage system which is being exercised about all public sector universities of Pakistan. Basic Pay Scales construction has twenty two classs and 14 to thirty one-year increase phases. Teachers are being appointed under this wage construction harmonizing to their academic makings or the demands of the occupation, as the instance may be, and Government has fixed a certain sum for each class as basic wage along with perquisite emoluments in the form of allowances which bit by bit increased from class one to rate twenty two. Furthermore, post retirement benefits are besides attached with this salary construction like tip and pension etc.

Tenure Track System ( TTS ) was introduced by the Higher Education Commission Pakistan in public sector universities with an purpose of pulling qualified people and bettering public presentation of academic module of higher instruction establishment. ( W.B & A ; UNESCO, 2000 ) . The World Bank and UNESCO made assorted suggestions for bettering higher instruction sector of Pakistan and recommended that module compensations should be revised and lasting assignment of the module members should be purely based on TTS as used in the universities of United State. The reforms recommended in the study faced a batch of resistance from assorted interest holders including instructors and disposal of universities. Major opposition came from public sector universities.

Public Sector Universities in Pakistan are besides confronted with challenges of following Tenure Track System as a new public presentation based system for module of higher instruction establishment.

Tenure was foremost introduced in academe in 1915. Its intent at that clip was to protect instructor ‘s capricious fire and besides to guarantee that they should hold continued service with an establishment. Linda ( 2000, p-22 ) asserted that, “ after the termination of probation period instructors or research worker should hold permanent or uninterrupted term of office and their services should be terminated merely for equal cause, except in instance of retirement for age ” .

Tenure Track System was introduced to convey the overall quality of higher instruction at par with advanced universe. The system is expected to heighten efficiency of the module member and guarantee a healthy competition within module members.

This survey was conducted to compare the public presentation of the module executing responsibilities on old Basis Pay Scales Structure and Tenure Track System in the populace sector universities in the state of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa at Peshawar. The chief intent of the survey is to beg the sentiment of the module who were working in BPS and TTS sing TTS practicableness besides the sentiment of the Heads of section about the public presentation differences in both systems and roll up their judgements to make a decision.

A batch of resistance was being faced to implement this new public presentation based salary construction from the public sector peculiarly from the bing module who are executing responsibilities in BPS. To determine the on land worlds that gauge the success of this new enterprise, it is indispensable to compare the public presentation of both classs in the universities in the context of learning and occupation satisfaction/retention etc.

Statement of the Problem

The survey is designed to compare the public presentation of Tenure Track module with the module working on Basic Pay Scales in the Public Sector Universities of Peshawar.

1.1 Aims

The survey is being conducted to accomplish following aims:

To beg the sentiment of the module who are working on TTS and in BPS about the degree of satisfaction.

To arouse the sentiment of caputs of section sing the public presentation of the module working on TTS.

To seek the sentiment of caputs of section sing the public presentation of the module working in BPS.

To compare the public presentation of the module in public sector universities working on TTS and in BPS system.

Significantof the Study

The important of research survey is measuring and roll uping the public presentation of TTS and BPS instructors ‘ in higher instruction establishments of Pakistan utilizing Public Sector Universities at Peshawar in footings of its existent and sensed restraints and rating of assorted possibilities of both systems. Based on an in-depth analysis of the both predominating systems, the survey attempted to supply feedback about TTS and surfaced the on evidences worlds.

The result of the survey will be good for the followerss:

The HEC functionaries and experts of higher instruction planning.

The universities instructors who are executing responsibilities on Tenure Track System and bing module who are working in old BPS system.

The universities disposals and governments who are straight involved in the executions of TTS in their several institutes.

Hypothesis

H0 ; There is no important difference between the public presentation of the module working on TTS and in BPS

H1 ; There is important difference between the public presentation of the module working on TTS and in BPS

1.4 Boundary line of Study

The survey was delimited to the Assistant Professors who are working on TTS and BPS in the undermentioned public sector universities of Peshawar.

1. University of Peshawar

2. University of Engineering & A ; Technology Peshawar

3. AgricultureUniversityPeshawar

4. Khyber Medical University Peshawar

1.5 Research Methodology

The survey was based on study. Survey method was used to roll up informations from the respondents.

1.5.1 Population

The research population comprised of the followers:

All 51 Assistant Professors working on TTS in the populace sector universities of Peshawar.

All 211 Assistant Professors working in BPS in the populace sector universities of Peshawar.

1.5.2 Sample

The sample of the survey comprised the Assistant Professors working on TTS and in BPS in the populace sector universities of Peshawar.

1.5.3 Sampling Frame

The sample of Assistant Professors working on TTS is 83 % and the sample of Assistant Professors working in BPS is 54 % as shown in the tabular array 1.1. The sample size is derived as per recommendations of R.V. Krejcie and D.W Morgan, finding sample size for research activities, ( L.R Gay p-125 tabular array ( 4.1 ) 5th edition ) .

Table 1.1

Class

University of Peshawar

University of Engineering & A ; Technology

Agriculture University

Peshawar

Khyber Medical

University

Peshawar

Entire

Sample size

Bits per second

Assistant Professor

90

52

44

25

211

113

Terrestrial time

Assistant Professor

4

21

18

8

51

45

1.6 Tool of Data Collection

Development of the instruments was based on literature reappraisal every bit good as on the footing of the observations of the research worker. Two types of questionnaires were prepared as under:

Faculty Opinion Questionnaire: It was developed to beg the sentiment of the module about the TTS effectivity, suitableness and dependability every bit good as disparity.

Heads of Department ‘ Opinion Questionnaire: It was developed to seek the sentiment of caputs of section sing the proficiency, competence and learning accomplishments of module working on TTS and in BPS.

These instruments were developed in audience with the supervisor. Instruments were discussed with experts in the country of instruction and alterations were made in the visible radiation of suggestions made by experts. In order to roll up informations the undermentioned instruments were constructed:

One questionnaire was constructed in English for instructors working on TTS and in BPS for four public sector universities of Peshawar.

One questionnaire was constructed in English for caputs of section to seek the sentiment sing public presentation of module working on TTS and in BPS in four public sector universities of Peshawar.

1.6.1 Pilot Testing

After all instruments were improved with the aid of experts, they were pilot tested on members of population non included in the sample.

The questionnaire for instructors were tested on three instructors other than those included in the sample. Questionnaire for caputs of section were tested on two caputs of section. This testing was contributing to polish the obscure statements and was revised in visible radiation of feedback received through respondents.

1.7 Data Collection

A study was conducted to garner sentiments of the instructors ‘ and caputs of section. Two types of questionnaires were used for this intent.

The research worker contacted the instructors and caputs of section. Subsequently, questionnaires were administered during office working hours and were collected consequently.

1.8 Data Analysis

Collected informations from both module and caputs of section were arranged and placed in the tabular signifier and analyzed. Consequences were shown with the aid of tabular arraies. T-test was applied for the analysis of informations and the out semen of t value comparison with tabulated value of T at p=.05 degree of significance. Recommendations were drawn on the footing of collected informations.

Chapter NO 2

2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1 Concept of Education

The word “ Education ” has been derived from the Latin words Educare, Education or Educere. Education and Educare “ mean to develop, to convey up and to nurture ” while educere agencies ” to take out ” the interior potencies of an person ( Sanaullah, 2011 ) .

Imam Ghazali defines instruction as, “ a procedure which enables an person to separate between the true and the false, the good and the bad, the right behavior and the evil making ” ( Sanaullah, 2011 ) .

Ibne-Khaldum defines instruction in these words, “ Education consists of the rational and moral preparation of the world through which their hidden potencies are developed, traits of character are built and the cognition and civilization of the people is conveyed to the coming coevals ” ( Sanaullah, 2011 ) .

The Need and importance of Education in Islam

Stressing the importance of instruction and acquisition in Islam it is adequate to observe that the first disclosure of the prophesier ( PBUH ) was “ Read ” . Allah has clearly impressed upon work forces that He bestowed on work forces the gift of Knowledge. The Holy Quran at a figure of topographic points emphasiss on the observation of the existence and nature. At another topographic point at Surah-i-Taha, Allah enjoins the Prophet ( PBUH ) to state “ Pray for the promotion of Knowledge ” . The Holy Prophet ( PBUH ) has said “ Learned are the inheritors of Prophetss ” . .He stresses upon the acquisition of cognition and the importance of going in enriching one ‘s experience and advises all Muslim work forces and adult females to get knowledge even if it is available in far off topographic points.

Islam has a system of instruction which aims at developing an integrated personality in a harmonious manner. It concerns itself with organic structure, head and psyche. It gives a flicker of Godhead visible radiation that gives intending to life and urges adult male to play his portion to accomplish his fate. It urges adult male to endeavor for the changeless development of his modules at every phase of life,

2.3 Education System in Pakistan

In 1947-48 Pakistan ‘s full educational substructure was estimated to consist about 10,000 primary and in-between schools ( 1,700 for misss ) , approximately 408 secondary schools ( 64 for misss ) , 40 humanistic disciplines and scientific discipline colleges ( 5 for adult females ) and two universities. An analysis of the advancement that has taken topographic point in the field of instruction since the freedom exposes a few facts. Among them, the most critical is the inquiry of political orientation. The studies on educational jobs and the addresss delivered by work forces in authorization in the yesteryear have all been profuse in paying lip service to political orientation of Islam but a expression at the educational system prevalent during the last 30 old ages reveals that the no important steps have been taken to instill this political orientation in the heads of the younger coevalss. ( Gop 1998, p-30 )

Education in Pakistan is divided into six chief degrees: pre-primary ( preparative categories ) ; primary ( grades one through five ) ; middle ( classs six through eight ) ; high ( classs nine and ten, taking to the Secondary School Certificate ) ; intermediate ( classs eleven and twelve, taking to a Higher Secondary School Certificate ) ; and university programmes taking to graduate and postgraduate grades ( ESoP, 2009 ) .

Pakistan inherited a really weak base of university instruction. There was merely one well-established university i.e. university of Punjab at Lahore ( established in 1882 ) at the clip of independency in 1947. It looked after the full country of Pakistan excepting Sindh, which was affiliated with Bombay University.

2.4 Higher Education Commission

The Higher Education Commission ( HEC ) , once the University Grant Commission, was the chiefly regulator authorization of higher instruction in Pakistan. In Pakistan, up boulder clay 2002, Universities were recognized by the University Grants Commission ( UGC ) which draws its powers from The University Grants Commission Act, 1974 ( HEC Ordinance, 2002 ) .

The Act was repealed in 2002 by the Higher Education Commission Ordinance, 2002 and since so, Higher Education Commission of Pakistan ( HEC ) is responsible for higher instruction policy, quality confidence, and degree acknowledgment, development of new establishments and upheaval of bing establishments in Pakistan. It besides facilitated the development of higher educational system in Pakistan. Its chief intent was to upgrade universities in Pakistan to be centres of instruction, research and development.

HEC is playing a prima function towards constructing a cognition based economic system in Pakistan by giving out 100s of doctorial scholarships for instruction abroad every twelvemonth. Primary focal point of HEC is higher instruction development. However, late HEC has begun information engineering reforms ( called e-reforms ) while it claims to better state of affairs of societal sector primary decrease in poorness and challenges of economic stableness.

2.5 University Education System in Pakistan

A university is an establishment of higher instruction and research which grants academic grades in a assortment of topics and provides both undergraduate instruction and postgraduate instruction. The word “ university ” is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorumet scholarium, which approximately means “ community of instructors and bookmans ( Encyclopedia, 2006 )

At the clip of independency Pakistan had merely one university, the University of the Punjab. As of September 2011 [ update ] it has 136 universities, of which 74 are public universities and 62 are private universities ( EIoP, 2011 ) .

Michael Katz ( 1987, p.179 ) stated that “ the ideal university should be a community of individuals united by corporate apprehensions, by common and communal ends, by bonds of mutual duty, and by a flow of sentiment which makes the saving of the community an object of desire, non simply a affair of prudence or a bid of responsibility. Community implies a signifier of societal duty governed by rules different from those operative in market topographic point and the province.

2.6 Role of University Teachers

The quality of instruction particularly at the university degree has been a affair of great concern for many old ages. It is widely and possibly justifiably believed that, besides others inputs, the instructor ‘s specialisation and his interaction with scholars are the most of import factors in learning acquisition procedures ( Erant, 1994 ) .

Education is the primary beginning of all technological progresss, inventions and human comfort. Hence, the being of a national instruction system is a necessary stipulation for all such societies, which aspire to accomplish higher criterions of life promotions in engineering and success in international economic race. Teacher is the chief designer in the Reconstruction and advancement of instruction. The betterment of the instructor is indispensable for the betterment of the direction. Recent tendencies in instruction emphasize the importance of course of study, method, counsel, audio-visual AIDSs or installations, but teacher ‘s function still remains important in finding the extent and quality of larning that takes topographic point in schoolroom state of affairss. However, the success of a instructor is mostly dependent upon his readying and the ability to execute ( Hill, 1995 ) .

It must be utile to see teacher maps under four different caputs:

Teaching ( Lecturers, research lab presentations, tutorials )

Research

Personal survey, including readying for class-teaching: and

Contact with pupils, including personal counsel and supervising of extra-curriculum activities

All educationalist, statement and politicians are get downing to recognize more and more clearly that the instructor has a great function to play in instruction, societal and even political Reconstruction of Pakistan. The instructor is basically a state builder. Teacher is the torch carrier of the race. On him depends the hereafter of the educational establishment, the college and university and in fact the hereafter of the world?

Broad edifices, dearly-won equipment ‘s and sound course of study will non function any utile intent unless there are instructors who are to the full alive to the profession and its attendant duty. Teacher plays an of import portion in determining and modeling the wonts, gustatory sensation, manners and above all the character of the pupils.

2.7 Compensation for Teachers

Prophet Muhammad ( PBUH ) says, “ Those who are employed by us should acquire adequate to enable them to hold a house, acquire married, acquire transit and a retainer ”

( Mamaduke 1981, p-271 ) . The prophesier ( PBUH ) besides says, “ I will be the enemy of three people in the afterlife, person who benefited from name, so transgressed ; person who dealt in slave trade, and person who hired person and refused to give him pay ” ( Sanaullah, 2011 ) .

Peoples normally consider occupations on the salary footing. Peoples in developing states normally correlate wage with satisfaction and in bend with felicity. It was concluded that occupation satisfaction and pay satisfaction were significantly related ( Kim & A ; Loadman, 1994 ) .

Teacher ‘s salary degrees are found to positively act upon pupil results by ( Hanushek et al. 1999 ) . Many surveies fail to happen important betterments in pupil results and instructors ‘ wage is because the outside option, including alternate labour market chances and local quality of life indexs ( Loeb & A ; Page, 1999 )

The big literature on instructor effectivity looks at the consequence of instructor features on pupil public presentation, in other words what the instructor brings to learn, instead than what motivates instructors or how they teach. Teacher salary degrees may act upon pupil results either through enlisting and keeping of more able instructors and/or because higher rewards induce greater attempt ( Simon et al. July 2001 ) .

2.8 Compensation Experiments in Education

The grade-based compensation theoretical account was created in the late 1800s. Similar to the mill production theoretical account preoccupying most sectors of the American economic system, the grade-based compensation theoretical account paid instructors for the degree of accomplishment needed to educate

a kid at their specified point of educational attainment. Because it was believed that simple age pupils were easier to educate, and less formal preparation was required to learn at that degree, instructors who instructed kids in their early old ages earned less than secondary degree instructors ( Guthrie, Springer, Rolle, & A ; Houck, 2007 ) .

In the beginning of the twentieth century, the individual wage agenda, ab initio known as “ place automatic agenda wage ” surfaced in this helter-skelter period of fabrication associations. The system is based on unvarying wage for instructors with the same old ages of experience and makings obtain the same wage.

Since the beginning of the unvarying salary agenda, 96 % of public educational establishments had adopted this system up to 1950 to pay off instructors. However, this system had attracted unfavorable judgment that the agenda homogenizes compensation, striping the governments of school direction to set an single instructor ‘s wage on the footing of existent public presentation and labour market competition. As alternate, several instructor compensations theoretical accounts were proposed, like performance-related wage. Among these, merit-based wage and cognition and skill based wage were two most well-known types of improved plans ( Podgursky, 2007 ) .

Albeit, virtue based wage referred back to Great Britain in the early 1700s, and a similar thoughts produced in late sixtiess. A considerable figure of public school in the United States adopted merit-based wage as an option to the individual salary agenda ( Podgursky & A ; Springer, 2007 ) .

Harmonizing to Hassel ( 2002 ) , merit based wage wagess single instructors, groups of instructors, or educational establishment on any figure of factors, including pupil public presentation, schoolroom observations, and teacher portfolios. Merit-based wage is a wages system that hinges on pupil outcomes attributed to a peculiar instructor or group of instructors instead than on “ inputs ” such as accomplishments or cognition.

Since the 1990s, cognition and skill-based wage has garnered important attending as an alternate scheme for counterbalancing instructors. This new advanced thought embodied a policy via media between advocates and oppositions of performance-related compensation in instruction. Knowledge and skill based wage plans, at the University of Wisconsin, wages instructors for acquisition of new accomplishments and cognition presumptively related to better direction. Salary additions are tied to external judges and appraisals that gauge the grade to which an person instructor has reached specified degrees of “ competence ” ( Odden & A ; Kelly, 1996 ) .

Although the strategically focussed wagess can broaden and intensify instructors ‘ content cognition of nucleus instruction countries and facilitate attainment of schoolroom direction and course of study development accomplishments ( Odden & A ; Kelley, 1996 ) . The consciousness and accomplishments being rewarded in these “ input-based ” wage systems may hold a negligible impact on pupil results ( Ballou & A ; Podgursky, 2001, Hanushek & A ; Rivkin, 2004 ) .

The pivot unfavorable judgment against virtue based wage plans relates to the monitoring of teacher public presentation. Past plans were besides unsuccessful due to irrelevant fiscal inducements for replacements. The teacher brotherhoods who were opposed to replace compensation systems and deficiency of an rating process that could measure results and recalibrate programmatic constituents to transport the plan to level

( Ballou, 2001 ) .

Similarly, merit-based wage plans apprehension squad production. Teachers perform responsibilities as members of a squad. Establishing the public presentation related wagess at the single degree might minimise inducements for instructors to join forces and as a consequence, lessening instead than increase educational establishment public presentation. Some survey argues that the squad moral force can be damaged between instructors every bit far as between instructors and decision makers, peculiarly if governments are put in a place of honoring single instructor public presentation ( Podgursky & A ; Springer, 2007 ) .

A similar statement was developed refering a performance-related wage strategy that was introduced in England and Wales during the 2000-2001 educational establishment old ages ( Vyrastekova, Onderstal, & A ; Koning,2006 ) .

Incentive strategies that tie teacher wage to achievement additions by students-whether at the single instructor or squad level-may create more chances for cheating or other timeserving behaviour in the long tally. For illustration, surveies of high-stakes answerability systems have documented instructors concentrating overly on a individual trial and pedagogues changing trial tonss and/or helping pupils with trial inquiries ( Jacob & A ; Levitt, 2003 ) .

2.9 Basic Pay Scales in Public Sector Universities of Pakistan

Government of Pakistan introduced National Pay Scale ( NPS ) , a similar form of wage construction for Government Servant including instructor cell, on 1st March 1972. Later on, it was renamed as Basic Pay Scales ( BPS ) in 1983. This is a non-performance based wage system which is being exercised about all public sector universities of Pakistan. Basic Pay Scales construction has twenty two classs and 15 to thirty one-year increase phases. Teachers are being appointed under this wage construction harmonizing to their academic makings or the demands of the occupation, as the instance may be, and Government has fixed a certain sum for each class as basic wage along with perquisite emoluments in the form of allowances which bit by bit increased from class one to rate twenty two. Furthermore, post retirement benefits are besides attached with this salary construction like tip and pension etc. The inside informations of wage construction since its origin, is given below:

2.9.1 Basic Pay chart since 1972 to 1991

Class

01-03-1972

01-07-1977

01-07-1983

01-07-1987

01-07-1991

Minute

Soap

Minute

Soap

Minute

Soap

Minute

Soap

Minute

Soap

1

100

140

250

280

440

640

600

860

920

1310

2

110

160

260

302

460

700

625

945

945

1425

3

120

150

270

325

480

760

650

1030

975

1530

4

130

170

280

352

500

820

675

1115

1005

1650

5

150

180

290

350

520

880

700

1200

1035

1770

6

165

205

315

399

540

940

725

1285

1065

1875

7

180

230

335

447

560

1020

750

1370

1095

1995

8

200

260

370

514

590

1110

790

1470

1140

2115

9

225

300

390

590

620

1200

830

1590

1185

2265

10

250

340

410

520

660

1300

830

1590

1230

2415

11

275

375

430

550

700

1400

910

1830

1275

2565

12

300

400

460

600

750

1550

970

2010

1355

2795

13

325

450

490

790

800

1700

1035

2195

1440

3045

14

350

475

520

730

850

1850

1100

2380

1530

3315

15

375

500

550

900

900

2000

1165

2585

1620

3585

16

400

750

625

825

1050

2050

1350

2925

1875

4065

17

500

1000

900

1150

1600

3040

2065

3925

2870

5450

18

1000

1750

1350

1650

2100

3600

2710

4660

3765

6475

19

1800

2200

2250

3050

2250

3050

4130

5770

5740

8590

20

2300

2600

2600

3600

3800

5240

4900

6780

6810

10060

21

2750

3000

4200

4200

6000

5420

7740

7535

11585

22

3000

3250

4850

4500

6500

5800

8400

8075

12575

2.9.2 Basic Pay chart since 2001 TO 2011

Class

01-12-2001

01-07-2005

01-07-2007

01-07-2008

01-07-2011

Minute

Soap

Minute

Soap

Minute

Soap

Minute

Soap

Minute

Soap

1

1870

3520

2150

4100

2475

4725

2970

5670

4800

9300

2

1915

3885

2200

4450

2530

5080

3035

6035

4900

10000

3

1980

4230

2275

4825

2615

5615

3140

6746

5050

11050

4

2040

4590

2345

5345

2700

6150

3240

7440

5200

12100

5

2100

5100

2415

5865

2780

3830

3340

8140

5400

13200

6

2160

5460

2485

6235

2860

7210

3430

8680

5600

14300

7

2220

5820

2555

6755

2940

7740

3530

9230

5800

15400

8

2310

6210

2655

7155

3055

8305

3665

9965

6000

16500

9

2410

6760

2770

7720

3185

8885

3820

10720

6200

17600

10

2490

7290

2865

8415

3295

9745

3955

11755

6400

19000

11

2590

7840

2980

8980

3430

10330

4120

12370

6600

20400

12

2745

8595

3155

9055

3630

11430

4355

13655

7000

22000

13

2925

9375

3365

10715

3870

12420

4645

14845

7500

24000

14

3100

10300

3565

11815

4100

13550

49220

16320

8000

26300

15

3285

11235

3780

12930

4350

14850

5220

17820

8500

29500

16

3805

12155

4375

14575

5050

16750

6060

20160

10000

340000

17

6210

15510

7140

17840

8210

20510

9850

24650

16000

40000

18

8135

19835

9355

22855

10760

26260

12910

31510

20000

50000

19

12400

24700

14260

28360

16400

32600

19680

39080

31000

63000

20

14710

28010

16915

32245

19455

37095

23345

44485

36000

68900

21

16305

31285

18750

35970

21565

41375

25880

49680

40000

76400

22

17440

34940

20055

40215

23065

46235

27680

55470

43000

85700

The abovementioned charts shows the chronological order of the basic wage graduated table since 1st March 1972 boulder clay 2011, this non public presentation wage construction presented addition in the wages of the authorities retainers including the instruction cell of the universities from clip to clip as per economic and political status of the Pakistan. This system does non narrate any relationship between the public presentation, cognition and learning accomplishment every bit good as result in form of pupils consequences, any advanced thought in teaching/learning activates or research / publications etc.

2.10 Meaning of Tenure

Tenure is a agency to certain terminals ; specifically, freedom of learning and research and of extramural activities, and a sufficient grade of economic security to do the profession attractive to work forces and adult females of ability. Freedom and economic security ; hence term of office, are indispensible to the success of an establishment in carry throughing its duties to its pupils and to society ( Tierney, 1997 )

If we agree that a democratic community revolves around the engagement of all parties and if we concur that single and group appraisal needs to take topographic point, so certainly we need to oppugn a system term of office that many position as arbitrary ( Tierny, 1993 ) .

Historical back land of the Tenure as Structure

Edward A. Ross, an economic science professor hired by President Jordan at Stanford University in 1893, found himself out of a occupation seven old ages subsequently. Initially, the immature Ross had the regard and esteem of the president, module, and pupils. President Jordan said of him, “ I do non cognize a adult male in this section in whose hereafter I have more assurance. I think, of all the younger work forces in the state in this line of work,

Dr. Ross is the most outstanding. He shows himself wholly free from either political biass or the biass of books. By 1900, Ross had embraced several controversial topics: the free mintage of Ag, the municipal ownership of public utilities, and the railroad brotherhood work stoppage of 1898. He had spoken at a public forum about “ pitiless capitalists. ” ( Tierney, 1997 )

The establishment, financed by the exclusive legal guardian, Mrs. Leland Stanford, could non defy such onslaughts from one of its ain. By November 12, 1900, Mrs. Stanford demanded and received President Jordan ‘s concurrency that Ross must be fired. Jordan dismissed him ; Ross had no resort but to go forth the establishment. Many pupils of higher instruction expression on this instance as the seed that planted the thought for the creative activity of a formalistic system-tenure-that would protect academic freedom. In the resulting old ages, extra instances became causes and added to the drift for a construction that protected module in their research and in the schoolroom. Richard Ely at the University of Wisconsin, Scott Nearing at the University of Pennsylvania, and John Macklin at Lafayette College are three extra illustrations of persons who expressed controversial thoughts in composing or in the schoolroom and faced countenance and dismissal ( Tierney, 1997 ) .

Therefore rights and duties of the module instruction in the universities became country of involvement for arguments and duologue. Therefore, academic freedom received cardinal point in academic life of a instructor. Broadly talking, academic freedom refers to the competence and ability of an person to analyze and learn without any menace or sanctioned from the disposal or governments etc. Faculty should experience free to learn the society what they desired because such freedom finally helps society.

2.12 Tenure as Academic Freedom and Economic Security

Institutions of higher instruction are conducted for the common good and non to foster the involvement of either the single instructor ‘ or the establishment as a whole. The common good depends upon the free hunt for truth and its free expounding. Academic freedom is indispensable to these intents and applies to both learning and research. Freedom in research is cardinal to the promotion of truth. Academic freedom in its instruction facet is cardinal for the protection of the rights of the instructor in learning and of the pupil to freedom in larning. It carries with it duties correlate with rights.

2.13 Tenure Track System in the Universities of Pakistan

Tenure Track System ( TTS ) was introduced by Higher Education Commission Pakistan in public sector universities with an purpose of pulling qualified people and bettering public presentation of academic module of higher instruction establishment.

One of major aim of TTS was to control the tendency of encephalon drain phenomenon besides encourage research and do module members more productive. In order to accomplish these nonsubjective hefty wages bundles have been introduced to pull the Ph.ds to function in the universities at the place of Assistant Professors, Associate Professors and Professors. This freshly public presentation based system offered publicity path to the modules after functioning a specific period and carry through needed standards including research publication in national and international HEC recognized diaries.

Higher Education Commission introduced Tenure Track Statutes as theoretical account for the counsel of the universities to implement this new public presentation based salary system after acquiring blessing from their several Governance organic structures / executive councils etc. Since the debut of TTS in the populace sector universities of Pakistan, these legislative acts have been revised clip to clip to turn to the emerging demands.

HEC offered excess grants to the universities who modules are following TTS in topographic point of old BPS. However, a comprehensive periodical rating is being conducted annually and at the terminal of provisional term of office period to measure the worth of the module to offer lasting term of office or publicity path for following higher rank. Internal every bit good as external judges involved in the rating procedure and external judges are chosen in advanced technological states to estimate the public presentation of the module and its research publication as per international criterion. In order to accomplish this specific aim, Department Technical Review Committee are required to represent which consisting Dean, Chairman and senior module as members of the concerned institute. At the same clip, Dean of the concerned institute recommended a panel for the fundamental law of Technical Review Panel consisting experts from the technological advanced states to measure the public presentation of the under mention module ( TTS Statutes 2008 ) .

2.14 Tenure Track Process

Under the term of office path procedure a PhD grade holder appointed as Assistant Professor ab initio for a period of three old ages followed by a 2nd term contract assignment for an extra period of three old ages. An Assistant Professor appointed under TTS has to function at least for a period of six old ages. At the terminal of first and 2nd term assignment a comprehensive rating has been conducted to measure his public presentation and agreement finding of fact to engage or fire his services. Similarly, a PhD grade holder along with certain period of experience and publications as prescribed in TTS Statues may be appointed at a senior rank ( Associate and Full Professor ) for ab initio a period of four old ages i.e provisional period. Their services may be terminated merely for equal cause, except at the normal retirement age. ( TTS Statutes, 2008 )

2.15 Tenure Track Appointment Eligibility Criteria

2.15.1 Professor

Similarly, for the station of Professor an person is required to hold a Ph.D./Relevant terminal making from a recognized and reputable Institution plus 11 old ages experience after obtaining Ph.D./Relevant terminal grade, or lower limit of seven old ages of experience after obtaining Ph.d grade in add-on to twelve old ages of experience prior to the PhD. The claimed experience of the person may be counted of teaching/research in national or international reputed organisations. Furthermore, 15 research documents ( five documents in the last five old ages ) in Internationally Abstracted Journals as prescribed by the Higher Education Commission ( TTS Statutes 2008 ) .

2.15.2 Associate Professor

Tenure path offered the station of Associate Professor to an person who have Ph.D./Relevant terminal making from a recognized establishments with six old ages post Ph.D. experience or lower limit of four old ages post-Ph.D. experience plus 6 old ages pre- PhD as good. The claimed experience of the person may be counted of teaching/research in national or international reputed organisations. Furthermore, 10 research documents ( four documents in the last five old ages ) in Internationally Abstracted Journals as prescribed by the Higher Education Commission ( TTS Statutes 2008 ) .

2.15.3 Assistant Professor

Tenure path system offered the occupation of helper professor to a Ph.D/Relevant terminus making degree holder from a recognized establishment. Furthermore, the officeholder must has first-class written communicating and presentation accomplishments. He attained good bid in the country of classs being taught and should hold a steadfast committedness to instruction, nevertheless, it does non intend that the single be expected an extended repute in the relevant field. During his stay as the Assistant Professor he should continues attempt to increase cognition and better instruction accomplishments. His professional competence should be recognized through documents to professional national and international organisations, through publications, or through other advanced work ( TTS Statutes 2008 )

2.16 Transferring of Existing Faculty to Tenure Track System

Tenure path legislative acts besides catered for the bing module members who are carry through the needed standard for the assignment under Tenure Track and bask brawny salary besides a path for rapid publicity. His assignment instance shall be dealt harmonizing to the prescribed process and he has to look before the university choice board to turn out himself as eligible campaigner for TTS. Previously, TTS statutes allowed keeping lien with their BPS occupation topic to do part from their bing salary bundle, nevertheless, this proviso has been with drawn by the HEC ( TTS Statutes )

2.17 Appointment and Responsibility under Tenure Track

Adjunct Professors working under TTS must perpetrate to manifold duties. It may integrate single functions and the university ‘s precedences and values, however, the cardinal functions assigned to freshly appointed module members are mainlyassociated with the teaching/learning services and research activities. The expense of one ‘s attempts pertains to these assorted duties will depend on the university civilization ( Toews & A ; Yazedjian, 2007 ) .

A figure of universities demand research and prefer authorship than learning and service, while the others demand teachingthan research. Conventionally, the measure of service expected from a new officeholder will be nominal, though outlooks of service may alter over clip ( Clark et al. 2010 ) .

As module members gained experience they are anticipated to offer excess service. The service integrating multiplex contexts: engagement in the composing of university commission for assorted intents, communityin-service activities, and state leading roles in subject specific associations. In bulk instances, the freshly appointed module member will be overscheduled, overworked, and under acknowledged ( Knowles and Cole 1994 ) .

Some module members province that the figure and type of duties enhance instead than cut down next the path of going tenured ( Neuman, 2009 ) .

Harmonizing to McCormick and Barnes ( 2008, p. 16 ) , to pull off these multiple duties, ”Research your passions, learn your cognition, and function your multiple communities ”

2.18 Pay Structure of Tenure Track Faculty

The preliminary salary bundle ( all inclusive ) for a freshly appointed module members are fixed, nevertheless, the naming authorization that is normally syndicate or executive council have the authorization to O.K. upper limit of 4 progress increases capable to excess making like station physician or figure of publications or making obtained in foreign states.The standard wage bundles for the different places under the Tenure Track System was approved by the Finance Division, Government of Pakistan and notified by the HEC ( TTS Statutes 2008 ) .

Annual increase under term of office path system is entitled to the module on 1st January of each calendar twelvemonth topic to function more than six months. However, these one-year increases are allowed on public presentation based punctually vetted by the Department Technical reappraisal Committee and approved by the University mob etc. Further more, one excess wage is besides entitled to the module on completion of one twelvemonth service topic to rating which based on public presentation and assessed by the prescribed process dwelling teaching/learning, research, invention undertaking completed other than university beginnings and personal traits and service accomplishments ( TTS Statutes, 2008 ) .

Faculty Member

Minimum

Increase

Maximum

phases

Professor

234000

11440

405600

15

Associate Professor

156000

9100

292500

15

Assistant Professor

104000

7150

211250

15

( TTS Statutes 2008 )

This survey was conducted to compare the public presentation of the module executing responsibilities on old Basis Pay Scales Structure and Tenure Track System in the populace sector universities in the state of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa at Peshawar. The chief intent of the survey is to beg the sentiment of the module who are working in BPS and TTS sing TTS practicableness besides the sentiment of the Heads of section about the public presentation differences in both systems and roll up their judgements to make a decision.

A batch of resistance is being faced to implement this new public presentation based salary construction from the public sector peculiarly from the bing module who are executing responsibilities in BPS. To determine the on land worlds that gauge the success of this new enterprise, it is indispensable to compare the public presentation of both classs in the universities in the context of learning and occupation satisfaction/retention etc.

Chapter NO 3

3. METHOD AND PROCEDURE

This chapter deals with the methodological analysis and process of the survey. The survey is descriptive in nature and study method was used for aggregation of informations. Data was collected through questionnaires ( Appendix. A & A ; B ) . The t trial was applied for analysing and reading of informations. SPSS package was used for the said intent.

3.1. Population

The population of the survey comprised as followers:

All 51 Assistant Professors working on TTS in the populace sector universities of Peshawar.

All 211 Assistant Professors working in BPS in the populace sector universities at Peshawar

Heads of Department O supervised Assistant Professors under TTS and in BPS in four public sector universities at Peshawar.

Sampling

Following process was adopted in the procedure of sampling.

The population of survey was heterogenous, hence, stratified random sampling technique was chosen to choose sample.

No. of Assistant Professors working in BPS and on TTS in the populace sector universities of Peshawar were selected for their sentiment about given questionnaire. Sample of the survey is given as under

Class

University of Peshawar

University of Engineering & A ; Technology

Agriculture University

Peshawar

Khyber Medical

University

Peshawar

Entire

Sample size

Bits per second

Assistant Professor

90

52

44

25

211

113

Terrestrial time

Assistant Professor

4

21

18

8

51

45

Research Tools

The undermentioned tools were used for the aggregation of required informations for sample

A questionnaire was developed for the Heads of section for the universities at Peshawar

A questionnaire was developed for the Asstt. Professors working in BPS and on TTS in the populace sector universities of Peshawar.

Thirty inquiries were formulated to determine the public presentation of the module working in public sector universities of Peshawar. The questionnaire was based on following facets.

The environment of the university is contributing for teaching/learning.

The work burden of R occupation is equated.

Freedom about occupation public presentation.

Adequate cognition of capable affair.

Instructional methods to run into pupils ‘ changing demands.

Use modern audio-visual AIDSs.

Manage pupil behaviour and reshape it.

Engagement in co-curricular activities

You Participate in staff meetings and keep good relationship with co-workers

Annual appraisal is just and recognized part

Satisfied with Salary and fringe benefits.

Job is unafraid and stable in the university

Promotion chances are available in your service construction

Prefer to exchange over Tenure Track System

TTS primary benefits is to increase module gaining

TTS provide equal support for module development

Research and publication have been beginning of emphasis during occupation

Research and publications improved cognition

The questionnaires were sent to the respondent for the aggregation of responses.

3.2.3. Pilot-testing of Tools

The questionnaires developed for two classs were tested through a pilot survey. Two caput of sections, three Assistant Professors working in BPS and three Assistant Professors working on TTS were taken as the sample of the pilot survey. The chief ground of this pilot survey was to determine the defect and restriction of the questionnaires to minimise the possibilities of vagueness and misconceptions. Improvements were made on the footing of feedback.

3.3 Procedure of Data Collection

The research worker approached to Registrar Offices/ Heads of Department of the populace sector universities of Peshawar

The undermentioned information were collected

List of Assistant Professors working in BPS with names and departments/institutions.

List of Assistant Professors working on TTS with names and departments/institutions.

Name and contact Numberss of caputs of department/institution.

The questionnaires were delivered to 30 caputs of sections out of which 20 have given response. Similarly, 120 questionnaires were given to Asstt. Professors who were working responsibilities in BPS and 40 questionnaires were distributed among the Assistant Professors who were working in TTS in four public sector universities in Peshawar.

3.4 Analysis and Interpretation of Data

The sentiments of caputs of sections i.e. Associate Professors/Professors and Assistant Professors working in BPS and TTS were collected through questionnaire about different activities in establishments. The obtained information was tabulated, interpreted and analyzed by using SPSS for ciphering T mark

Following graduated table was used to cipher the mean mark.

SA: Strongly Agreed 5

A: Agreed 4

United nations: Uncertain 3

District attorney: Disagreed 2

SDA: Strongly Disagreed 1

SPSS was used to cipher the T value. The degree of important used in this survey was 0.05.

Chapter 4

4. Presentation AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

The analysis of informations and its reading was given into 2 parts i.e. portion A analysis of sentiments from Assistant Professors working in BPS and Assistant Professor working on TTS. Part B analysis of responses from caputs of section. On the footing of the chief findings the decision were drawn and recommendations were made and presented in chapter 5.

4.1 Part A: The Analysis of sentiments of Assistant Professors Working in BPS and on TTS

Table 4.1.1: t-test for environment of the university

Statement

Status of service

Nitrogen

Mean

df

Calculated value

Table Value

The environment of the university is contributing for learning

Bits per second

38

4.29

58

.362

2.000

Terrestrial time

22

4.23

p=0.05

Application of t trial yielded the value of.362 which is less than table value at 0.05 degree. It means that void hypothesis that there is no important difference between BPS and TTS module while environment of the university is contributing for teaching/learning is accepted.

Table 4.1.2: t-test for fall ining service by pick

Statement

Status of service

Nitrogen

Mean

df

Calculated value

Table Value

You have joined the university learning service by pick

Bits per second

38

4.25

58

.047

2.000

Terrestrial time

22

4.25

p=0.05

Table value of T is 2.000 at 0.05 degree. Calculated value is.047 which is less than table value so void hypothesis that there is no important difference between BPS and TTS module while they joined university by pick is accepted.

Table 4.1.3: t-test for instruction of pupils

Statement

Status of service

Nitrogen

Mean

df

Calculated value

Table Value

Teaching is an chance of service for pupils

Bits per second

38

4.18

58

-.886

2.000

Terrestrial time

22

4.32

p=0.05

Table value of T is 2.000 at 0.05 degree. Calculated value is -.886 which is less than table value so void hypothesis that there is no important difference between BPS and TTS module while learning is an chance for service for pupils is accepted.

Table 4.1.4: t-test for position

Statement

Status of service

Nitrogen

Mean

df

Calculated value

Table Value

Your position in the university is equal to your making.

Bits per second

38

3.84

58

-1.750

2.000

Terrestrial time

22

4.32

p=0.05

Table value of T is 2.000 at 0.05 degree. Calculated value is -1.750 which is less than table value, so void hypothesis that there is no important difference between BPS and TTS module while position in the university service is equal to their making is accepted.

Table 4.1.5: t-test for work burden

Statement

Status of service

Nitrogen

Mean

df

Calculated value

Table Value

The work burden of your occupation is equated with your assignment

Bits per second

38

4.18

58

-1.755

2.000

Terrestrial time

22

4.25

p=0.05

Table value of T is 2.000 at 0.05 degree. Calculated value is -1.755 which less than table value. It means thatthere is no important difference between BPS and TTS module while work burden is equal with their assignment is accepted, hence, void hypothesis is accepted.

Table 4.1.6: t-test for freedom of occupation public presentation

Statement

Status of service

Nitrogen

Mean

df

Calculated value

Table Value

There is freedom about your occupation public presentation

Bits per second

38

3.89

58

1.084

2.000

Terrestrial time

22

4.14

p=0.05

Table value of T is 2.000 at 0.05 degree. Calculated value is 1.084 which less than table value, so void hypothesis that there is no important difference between BPS and TTS module for freedom about their occupation public presentation is accepted.

Table 4.1.7: t-test for equal cognition

Statement

Status of service

Nitrogen

Mean

df

Calculated value

Table Value

You have equal cognition of capable affair being taught by you.

Bits per second

38

6.50

58

1.027

2.000

Terrestrial time

22

4.50

p=0.05

Table value of T is 2.000 at 0.05 degree. Calculated value is 1.027 which less than table value, so void hypothesis that there is no important difference between BPS and TTS module for equal cognition of capable affair being taught by them is accepted.

Table 4.1.8: t-test for instructional methods

Statement

Status of service

Nitrogen

Mean

df

Calculated value

Table Value

You select different instructional methods to run into pupils ‘ varying demands

Bits per second

38

4.62

58

1.592

2.000

Terrestrial time

22

4.21

p=0.05

Table value of T is 2.000 at 0.05 degree. Calculated value is 1.592 which less than table value, so void hypothesis that there is no important difference between BPS and TTS module for choice of different instructional methods to run into pupils ‘ changing demands is accepted.

Table 4.1.9: t-test for audio-visual AIDSs for learning

Statement

Status of service

Nitrogen

Mean

df

Calculated value

Table Value

You use modern audio-visual AIDSs to learn your topics

Bits per second

38

4.29

58

-.909

2.000

Terrestrial time

22

4.50

p=0.05

Table value of T is 2.000 at 0.05 degree. Calculated value is -.909 which less than table value, so void hypothesis that there is no important difference between BPS and TTS module for utilizing modern audio ocular AIDSs for instruction is accepted.

Table 4.1.10: t-test for manage pupil behaviour

Statement

Status of service

Nitrogen

Mean

df

Calculated value

Table Value

You manage student behaviour and reshape it in the schoolroom

Bits per second

38

4.18

58

-1.552

2.000

Terrestrial time

22

4.36

p=0.05

Table value of T is 2.000 at 0.05 degree. Calculated value is -.1.552 which less than table value, so void hypothesis that there is no important difference between BPS and TTS module for pull offing pupils behavior in class-room and reshape it is accepted.

Table 4.1.11: t-test for developing self assurance in pupils

Statement

Status of service

Nitrogen

Mean

df

Calculated value

Table Value

You try to fulfill and develop self assurance in your pupils

Bits per second

38

4.26

58

-.449

2.000

Terrestrial time

22

4.32

p=0.05

Table value of T is 2.000 at 0.05 degree. Calculated value is -.449 which less than table value so void hypothesis that there is no important difference between BPS and TTS module for developing self assurance in pupils is accepted.

Table 4.1.12: t-test for counsel to the pupils

Statement

Status of service

Nitrogen

Mean

df

Calculated value

Table Value

You provide counsel to the pupils in trim clip

Bits per second

38

4.50

58

1.450

2.000

Terrestrial time

22

4.27

p=0.05

Table value of T is 2.000 at 0.05 degree. Calculated value is 1.450 which less than table value so void hypothesis that there is no important difference between BPS and TTS module for counsel to the pupils in trim clip is accepted.

Table 4.1.13: t-test for gap and shutting categories

Statement

Status of service

Nitrogen

Mean

df

Calculated value

Table Value

Prompt at gap and shutting of categories harmonizing to agenda

Bits per second

38

4.27

58

.948

2.000

Terrestrial time

22

5.82

p=0.05

Table value of T is 2.000 at 0.05 degree. Calculated value is.948 which less than table value so void hypothesis that there is no important difference between BPS and TTS module for gap and shutting category as per agenda is accepted.

Table 4.1.14: t-test for rating of pupils ‘ public presentation

Statement

Status of service

Nitrogen

Mean

df

Calculated value

Table Value

You observe and evaluate pupils ‘ public presentation and redesign it.

Bits per second

38

5.42

58

.745

2.000

Terrestrial time

22

4.29

p=0.05

Table value of T is 2.000 at 0.05 degree. Calculated value is.745 which less than table value so void hypothesis that there is no important difference between BPS and TTS module for rating of pupils public presentation and redesign it is accepted.

Table 4.1.15: t-test for engagement in co-curriculum activities

Statement

Status of service

Nitrogen

Mean

df

Calculated value

Table Value

You participate in co-curricular activities

Bits per second

38

.924

58

-1.084

2.000

Terrestrial time

22

.640

p=0.05

Table value of T is 2.000 at 0.05 degree. Calculated value is -1.084 which less than table value so void hypothesis that there is no important difference between BPS and TTS module for engagement in co-curriculum activities is accepted.

Table 4.1.16: t-test for engagement in staff meeting