The goal from building investigation is to identify and solve indoor air quality Essay

Chapter 1


This chapter will be concentrating on debut and preliminary research background of the survey and subject by supplying a general apprehension of the research background. The end from this edifice probe is to place and work out indoor air quality ailments in a manner that prevents them from repeating and which avoids the creative activity of other jobs. To accomplish this end, it is necessary for the research worker ( s ) to detect whether a ailment is really related to indoor air quality, place the cause of the ailment, and find the most appropriate disciplinary actions.

1.1 Title of Study

Survey on indoor air quality in residential edifice. This research will be concentrating in certain sum of air atom in selected residential edifice.

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1.2 Background Study

Human can non afford to confront a assortment of hazards to our wellness as we go about our daily lives. Driving in autos, winging in planes, prosecuting in recreational activities, and being exposed to environmental pollutants all pose changing grades of hazard. Some hazards are merely ineluctable. Some we choose to accept because to make otherwise would curtail our ability to take our lives the manner we want. And some are hazards we might make up one’s mind to avoid if we had the chance to do informed picks. Indoor air pollution is one hazard that you can make something about.

In the last several old ages, a turning organic structure of scientific grounds has indicated that the air within places and other edifices can be more earnestly polluted than the out-of-door air in even the largest and most industrialised metropoliss. Other research indicates that people spend about 90 per centum of their clip indoors. Therefore, for many people, the hazards to wellness may be greater due to exposure to aerate pollution indoors than out-of-doorss.

In add-on, people who may be exposed to indoor air pollutants for the longest periods of clip are frequently those most susceptible to the effects of indoor air pollution. Such groups include the immature, the aged, and the inveterate sick, particularly those enduring from respiratory or cardiovascular disease.

An air pollutant has been around every bit long as adult male walked the Earth ( Roger D. Griffin, 1994 ) . Indeed, the earliest authorship extant Hagiographas from the morning of civilisation, air emanations from hammering operation for bronze, Fe, and others implements were good known and the emanation from smoking fires and blazing torches were besides known.

The quality of the air we breathe and the attendant effects for human wellness are influenced by assortment of factors. These include risky stuff discharge indoors and out door, meteoric and airing conditions, and pollutant decay and removable procedures. Recognition that the indoor air environment is non an exact contemplation of out-of-door conditions is of comparatively recent outgrowth. The impact of smoke, range and oven operation, and emanations from certain types of particleboard, cement and others constructing stuff are frequently the most important finding of indoor air quality ( Richard A. Wadden, 1983 ) .

By and large there are many factors set uping indoor air quality in edifice. Indoor air quality criterion in Malaysia was non created yet. Compare to the others state like United State of America, there already have the criterion and guidelines for concentration of indoors air contaminant in edifice. Medical research workers have revealed many hazarders material in edifice could do human to acquire illness.

Indoor air quality can be improved by many methods. The most importance to better the degree of air freshness is to hold good airing system. Ventilation system can be categorized into two which is natural and mechanical airing. Natural airing nowadays non plenty for edifice because is excessively crowded in edifice building. The uncontrolled growing of edifice building in metropolis causes the degree of air quality to go low. Natural airing installed in constructing non really applicable because, the outside air is already polluted. One thing to do the degree of air freshness in edifice is to put in mechanical airing like air status system. The installing of air status prove that can cut down the concentration degree of air pollute in edifice ( Richard A. Wadden, 1983 ) .

1.3 Problem Statement

As we are traveling into the new millenary, we have witnessed legion alterations such as technological promotion, demographic epidemiological and climate alterations. With the rise of industrialisation in the late 18th and 19 centuries, the effects of air pollutant emisions were noted on preater parts of the population ; nevertheless, air quality direction options, i.e. , controls and prohibitions, by and large lagged behind social concerns ofsanitation, H2O supply and solid waste ( Roger D. Griffin, 1994 ) .

Like many others states in which more expert in constructing maintaining and services, Malaysia merely like a kindergarten child which tried to became familiar which this work. A deficiency of proficient cognition in mending and keeping is one of the factors. But most likely the chief factor here is less concern between our citizens about the air quality in their edifice.

Over 80 % of our clip spent in indoor environments ( Richard A. Wadden, 1976 ) so that the influence of edifice constructions, surfaces, and airing are really of import considerations when measuring air pollution exposures.

Nowadays the installing of mechanical airing like air conditioning more applied in residential edifice comparison to endorse few decennary when homo usage to edifice house that have non mechanical airing. Mention to our state Malaysia, back so when there is no mechanical airing invented, people that live in traditional house merely use natural airing system ( Allard, F. 2002 ) .

Furthermore the installing of air conditioning and make-up air airing filters may cut down the eventual part pollutants like TSP ( Total Suspended Particle ) , and ambient ozone decays quickly on a assortment of air entry surface ( Richard A. Wadden, 1979 ) . TSP or entire suspended atom affair is by and large considered to dwell of all airborne soled and low force per unit area liquid particles less than a few hundred microns in diameter. Beside that the installing of air conditioning besides will better the comparative humidness in edifice. Residential edifice that use air status comparison to others residential edifice non installing of air status will hold the comparative humidness more stable.

1.4 Hypothesis

The degree of air freshness in residential edifice that use air conditioning system and edifice with none air conditioning system should be difference.

In add-on every edifice in same type of usage has its ain degree of air quality due to many factors such as when it was build due to the architecture manner and what sort of mechanical airing usage. But this research will be concentrating the difference of edifice that usage or non utilizing air conditioning system.

1.5 Aim

The purpose and intent of this research is to research issues associated with indoor air quality in residential country which include mensurating the bing degree of air quality and comparison with the benchmarking provide by universe organisation chosen.

1.6 Aims

The aims of this research are as follow: –

  • To supply general overview, symptom, and degree of consciousness in indoor air quality ( IAQ ) between human concern presents.
  • To stipulate indoor air quality degree ( IAQ ) in residential edifice, include all the symptom and consequence on selected parametric quantities.
  • To turn out that the air quality degree between suites with air conditioning system is fresher than constructing none have air conditioning system.

1.7 Scope of Study and Limitation of Work

The range of survey and restriction during this thesis are discussed as below. The range of survey contains first instance survey choice attack that will literally discourse feature of instance survey. Then go on to the type of instruments will be usage for mensurating intent. Last, questionnaire development to distribution residential proprietor.

1.7.1 Case Study Selection Approach

This survey will be carried out to four selected edifice. The edifice country that selected is in the same topographic point in order to do certain the type of natural airing applied is the same. Furthermore it is besides to guarantee that the selected edifice have the same infinite agreement. This will gave the better consequence when taking the information that needed to cipher the degree of indoor air quality ( IAQ ) . The four edifice that will be selected is really divided into two types. The first two edifice must hold air status system installed and the others two with non air conditioning installed indoors.

1.7.2 Measurement and Parameters

Measurement and all parametric quantities will transport out when making the study to the selected edifice. The instruments needed to transport out on measuring and quantitative informations aggregation is PPM FormaldemeterTM 2 Parameter IAQ Monitor and MultiRAE IR Multigas Monitor PGM-54. Parameters involve in the measuring are limited to temperature, comparative humidness, Carbon dioxide ( CO2 ) , Volatile Organic Compound ( VOC ) , Nitrogen Dioxide ( NO2 ) and Formaldehyde ( HCHO ) . All measuring will utilize equipment that provided in Build Environment Faculty. All the equipment must be calibrate first earlier been utilizing. This is really importance to do certain the informations took when making reading on equipment is prevailing. To graduate the equipment, there must be sent to original provider.

1.7.3 Questionnaire

A simple questionnaire will be distributed to all selected resident in the selected residential edifice in responsible house. Possibly merely two or three transcript of inquiry will be distributed to the resident based on their age.

1.8 Research Methodology

1.9 Chapter Review

This thesis carries 6 chapters in which the research done in each chapter is clearly stated.

Chapter 1.0 is an debut which indicates the background surveies and job statement of indoor air quality in office country. It besides shows the purpose and the aim of the thesis, range and restriction of work, every bit good as methodological analysis used to transport out this research.

Chapter 2.0 illustrate the literature reappraisal of the thesis ‘s subject. Several criterions from universe organisation is being discussed in this chapter. Sick Building Syndrome ( SBS ) and Building Related Illness ( BRI ) are besides discussed.

Chapter 3.0 is the 2nd portion of literature reappraisal where all the chief feature of residential country will analyze carefully. The chief map, design and residents ‘ activities which will act upon the indoor quality are included in the survey.

Chapter 4.0 demonstrates the quantitative and qualitative informations collected from the instance surveies chosen through station tenancy rating and physical observation and review.

Chapter 5.0 is the analysis of all the informations and inside informations gather in the old chapter. It shows all the determination and analysis. The correlativity between benchmark and IAQ parametric quantity are being determined.

Chapter 6.0 discussed the concluding chapter where recommendation and decision were made sing the research done for the thesis.

Chapter 2


Peoples may believe air quality is merely merely a list of possible constituents found and as simple affair merely. Malayan people particularly, degree of concern within the citizen are really low. Comparison to the others states, their degree of concern are really high and there besides an organisation was founded due to this affair. With small understanding about indoor air quality, these people frequently ignore the injury and impact that the air might convey to the residents in the edifice.

2.1 General overview of indoor air quality

Air quality standards were developed for the nine air pollutants that are the chief concern of the Illinois Department of Public Health ( IDPH ) Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality. The concentration of temperature, humidness, C dioxide, Carmon monoxide, H sulfide, ozone, particulates, methanal and N dioxide are all contamination in edifice.

The air quality in the air we breathe and the attendant effects for human wellness are influent by assortment of factors. These include risky stuff discharge indoors and out-of-doorss, metrological and airing conditions, and pollutant decay and remotion procedures.

Recognition that the indoor air environment is non an exact contemplation of out-of-door conditions is of comparatively recent outgrowth. The impact of coffin nail smoke, range and oven operation, and emanations from certain types of particleboard, cement, and others edifice stuffs are frequently the most important determiners of indoor air quality. Below are the lists of common factor that impacting indoor air quality.

2.1.1 Carbon Dioxide

Carbon dioxide is a normal component of exhaled breath and is normally measured as a testing tool to measure whether equal volumes of fresh outdoor air are being introduced into indoor air. The out-of-door degree of C dioxide is normally 300 – 400 parts per million ( ppm ) . The C dioxide degree is normally greater inside a edifice than exterior, accordingly the limited infinite and life thing unrecorded inside edifice. Even in edifices with few ailments about indoor air quality. If indoor C dioxide degrees are more than 1,000 ppm, there is likely unequal airing ; and ailments such as concerns, weariness, and oculus and throat annoyance may be prevailing.

2.1.2 Carbon Monoxide

Carbon monoxide is colorless and odorless and is a normal component of exhaust gases from uncomplete burning. Potential beginnings inside a edifice that may bring forth C monoxide include gas warming systems, gas ranges, gas hot H2O warmers, coffin nail fume, and portable kerosine warmers.

Degrees of C monoxide inside edifices should non transcend 9 ppm. Carbon monoxide exposure every bit low as 35 ppm, may do mild weariness. If degrees inside a edifice are detected above 100 ppm, the edifice should be evacuated until the beginning is identified and corrected.

2.1.3 Hydrogen Sulphide

Hydrogen sulfide is a normal component of sewer gas. It is colorless and has an odour similar to rotten eggs. Beginnings of H sulfide in edifices normally arise from dry drain traps or interrupt sewer lines. An probe should be conducted instantly after detecting a H sulphide odour to place and rectify the beginning. The degree at which people can get down to smell the gas is about 0.01 ppm.

2.1.4 Ozone

Ozone is a respiratory thorn produced by equipment that uses high electromotive force electricity. Photocopiers and ion generator air cleaners can let go of ozone into the indoor environment. IDPH recommends that ozone degrees non transcend 0.08 ppm.

2.1.5 Particulates

Particulate contain diverse components: carbon black, dust, pollens, lead, and some hydrocarbons ( Charles T. Stewart. Jr. , 1979 ) . Particulates can be classified as either respirable ( less than 5 micrometers in diameter ) or nonrespirable. Respirable atoms can perforate into the lower lung and can do harm. Nonrespirable atoms are trapped in the upper respiratory system and can do annoyance. IDPH recommends that particulates 2.5 to 10 microns in diameter.

The concentration of atoms in edifice besides contributed by smoking wonts inside the edifice ( Richard A. Wadden, 1976 ) . If smoke is allowed indoors, it should be limited to a designated smoke country with equal fumes offprint from the chief warming, airing, and air conditioning ( HVAC ) system. There besides non been revealed yet the particular of dose-effect relationships between baccy fume and wellness effects. However, considerable experimental and epidemiological grounds exists which point out between nonvoluntary smoke and inauspicious wellness conditions. Children life in family which have smoking wonts found to incur inauspicious pneumonic effects compare to those non-smoking family.

2.1.6 Formaldehyde

Formaldehyde is a common component of adhesives used in atom board, rug and furniture. The usage of methanal has been modified in recent old ages to cut down its release from these merchandises. Increased airing during and following redevelopment or new building should cut down the degree of methanal. IDPH recommends the degree of methanal non transcend 0.1 ppm for offices and 0.03 ppm for places.

2.1.7 Nitrogen Dioxide

Nitrogen dioxide is produced during the uncomplete burning of natural gas or other fuels. IDPH recommends that the degree of N dioxide non transcend the NAAQS of 0.05 ppm over a 24-hour period.

2.2 Contribution Affecting Indoor Air Quality

2.2.1 Outdoor Contribution

A major constituent in finding indoor air pollution degrees is frequently the out-of-door concentration. This is caused by the re-entrainment of antecedently exhausted contaminations, by and large caused by improper air intake arrangement or by periodic alterations in the air current conditions. A common job is vehicle exhaust exhausts from parking garages or lading docks being drawn into constructing airing system.

2.2.2 Indoor Contribution

The concentration of indoor air quality may be affected by part like transcript machines, office or residential merchandise, and chemical stored indoors. Besides that the indoor air environment is non an exact contemplation of out-of-door conditions is of comparatively recent outgrowth. The impact of others like coffin nail smoke, range and oven operation, and emanations from certain types of particleboard, cement, and others edifice stuffs are frequently the most important determiners of indoor air quality

2.3 Common Indoor Air Contaminants

There are really many thing can be calculated in finding the degree of air freshness in indoor air quality. Due to limited equipment provided in module, merely a few will be measured in this survey are as listed below. This listed below will be discuss in item on the factor cause the sum of concentration addition and the consequence of concentration addition to human wellness.

  • Carbon Dioxide ( CO2 )
  • Nitrogen dioxide ( NO2 )
  • Particulate
  • Formaldehyde ( HCHO )
  • VOC

For measuring intent, all the concentrations can be step utilizing specified instruments supply by the module. For the particulate, really there are specific instrument to mensurate its. The instrument rather expansive and is non at that place at the physic laboratory.Particle degrees in places without smoke or other strong atom beginnings are the same as, or lower than, out-of-door degrees. There are a few stairss to cut down exposure to respirable atoms such as blowhole all furnaces to out-of-doorss ; maintain doors to rest of house unfastened when utilizing unvented infinite warmers. Common beginnings like hearths, wood ranges, kerosine warmers and environment baccy fume. The consequence of baccy fume can be looked at developing lungs of immature kids are badly affected by exposure to secondhand fume for several grounds including that kids are still developing physically, have higher take a breathing rates than grownups, and have small control over their indoor environments.

But VOC reading really is based on particulate degree besides, it merely VOC are more focusing by and large in many aspect such as pigments and lacquers, pigment strippers, cleaning supplies, pesticides, edifice stuffs and trappingss, office equipment such as duplicators and pressmans, rectification fluids and carbonless transcript paper, artworks and trade stuffs including gums and adhesives, lasting markers, and photographic solutions.

2.4 Standards and Guidelines on selected IAQ Contribution

There are yet still no criterion and ordinance in Malaysia state. But in others developed state, there have been guided to this criterion long clip ago. Standards and Guidelines adopted are from a broad scope of organisations in both public and private sectors which help developing a better status for indoor air quality. These organisations include: International Council of Building Research ( CIBC ) , international organisation such as the World Health Organization ( WHO ) , wellness and edifice building such as NIOSH, governmental research labs such as US Environmental Protection Agency ( EPA ) , every bit good as private proficient organisation like ASHRAE and ACGIH.

There are rather excessively many criterion and guidelines can be refers to this thesis. But the most widely used criterion to place the strength of the acceptable degree for indoor air quality is as table below. Among them are Illinois Department of Public Health ( IDPH ) , International proficient society organized to progress the humanistic disciplines and scientific disciplines of warming, airing, air-conditioning and infrigidation ( ASHRAE ) , Occupational Safety and Health Administration Permissible Exposure Limit ( OSHA PEL ) , and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists Threshold Limit Value ( ACGIH TLV ) .

Table 1 below are demoing overall indoor air quality for residential house. Based on indoor air quality provide by IDPH below, there are besides standard by ASHRAE, OSHA PEL, and ACGIH TLV.







20 % – 60 %

30 % – 60 %




68 – 75 ( winter )

68 – 75 ( winter )



73 – 79 ( summer )

73 – 79 ( summer )

Carbon Dioxide

1,000 ppm

1,000 ppm

5,000 ppm

5,000 ppm

( & lt ; 800 ppm preferred )

Carbon Monoxide

9 ppm

9 ppm

50 ppm

25 ppm

Hydrogen Sulfide

0.01 ppm


20 ppm

10 ppm


0.08 ppm


0.1 ppm

0.05 ppm


0.15 mg/m 3 ( PM 10 ) ( 150 µg/m 3 ) 24-hr 0.065 mg/m 3 ( PM 2.5 ) ( 65 µg/m 3 ) 24-hr


15 mg/m 3 ( sum )

10 mg/m 3 ( sum )

5 mg/m 3 ( resp. )

3 mg/m 3 ( resp. )


0.1 ppm ( office )


0.75 ppm

0.3 ppm

0.03 ppm ( place )

Nitrogen Dioxide

0.05 ppm


5 ppm

3 ppm

Table 1: Standard and Guideline for Indoor Air Quality

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2.5 Sick Building Syndrome ( SBS )

The term “ ill edifice syndrome ” ( SBS ) is used to depict state of affairss in which edifice residents experience acute wellness and comfort effects that appear to be linked to clip spent in a edifice, but no specific unwellness or cause can be identified. The ailments may be localized in a peculiar room or zone, or may be widespread throughout the edifice. In contrast, the term “ edifice related unwellness ” ( BRI ) is used when symptoms of diagnosable unwellness are identified and can be attributed straight to airborne edifice contaminations. Sick edifice syndrome ( SBS ) is a combination of complaints ( a syndrome ) associated with an person ‘s topographic point of work ( office edifice ) or abode.

A 1984 World Health Organization Committee study suggested that up to 30 per centum of new and remodeled edifices worldwide may be the topic of inordinate ailments related to indoor air quality ( IAQ ) . Often this status is impermanent, but some edifices have long-run jobs. Frequently, jobs result when a edifice is operated or maintained in a mode that is inconsistent with its original design or prescribed operating processs. Sometimes indoor air jobs are a consequence of hapless constructing design or occupant activities. Most of the ill edifice syndrome is related to hapless indoor air quality.

SBS and BRI are associated with ague or immediate wellness jobs ; radon and asbestos can do long-run diseases which occur old ages after exposure, and are hence non considered to be among the causes of ill edifices. This is non to state that the latter are non serious wellness hazards ; both should be included in any comprehensive rating of a edifice ‘s IAQ.

2.5.1 Symptoms

Constructing residents complain of symptoms such as centripetal annoyance of the eyes, nose, pharynx ; neurotoxic or general wellness jobs ; clamber annoyance ; nonspecific hypersensitivity reactions ; and olfactory property and gustatory sensation esthesiss.

It is possible for a twelve ill residents to describe a surprising array of single symptoms, which may be dismissed as unconnected. The key to find is the increased incidence of unwellnesss in general with oncoming or aggravation within a reasonably close clip frame – normally within a period of hebdomads. In most instances, SBS symptoms will be relieved shortly after the residents leave the peculiar room or zone. However, there can be lingering effects of assorted neurolysins, which may non unclutter up when the resident leaves the edifice. In peculiarly sensitive persons, the possible for long-run wellness effects should non be overlooked.

2.5.2 Causes of Sick Building Syndrome

Harmonizing to the expert in this SBS, there are four chief causes for ill edifice syndrome.

  • Inadequate Ventilation
  • Chemical contaminations from indoor beginnings
  • Chemical contaminations from out-of-door beginning
  • Biological contaminations

Inadequate airing means there are non adequate airing in edifice. In many instances these reduced outdoor air airing rates were found to be unequal to keep the wellness and comfort of edifice residents. Inadequate airing, which may besides happen if warming, ventilating, and air conditioning ( HVAC ) systems do non efficaciously administer air to people in the edifice, is thought to be an of import factor in SBS.

Most indoor air pollution comes from beginnings inside the edifice. For illustration, adhesives, rug, upholstery, manufactured wood merchandises, transcript machines, pesticides, and cleaning agents may breathe volatile organic compounds ( VOCs ) , including methanal. Environmental baccy fume contributes high degrees of VOCs, other toxic compounds, and respirable particulate affair. Research shows that some VOCs can do chronic and acute wellness effects at high concentrations, and some are known carcinogens. Low to chair degrees of multiple VOCs may besides bring forth acute reactions. Combustion merchandises such as C monoxide, N dioxide, every bit good as respirable atoms, can come from unvented kerosine and gas infinite warmers, woodstoves, hearths and gas ranges.

The out-of-door air that enters a edifice can be a beginning of indoor air pollution. For illustration, pollutants from motor vehicle exhausts ; plumbing blowholes, and edifice fumess for illustration bathrooms and kitchens can come in the edifice through ill located air consumption blowholes, Windowss, and other gaps. In add-on, burning merchandises can come in a edifice from a nearby garage.

Bacteria, molds, pollen, and viruses are types of biological contaminations. These contaminations may engender in dead H2O that has accumulated in canals, humidifiers and drain pans, or where H2O has collected on ceiling tiles, rug, or insularity. Sometimes insects or bird dungs can be a beginning of biological contaminations. Physical symptoms related to biological taint include cough, thorax stringency, febrility, icinesss, musculus achings, and allergic responses such as mucose membrane annoyance and upper respiratory congestion. One indoor bacteria, Legionella, has caused both Legionnaire ‘s Disease and Pontiac Fever.

These elements may move in combination, and may supplement other ailments such as unequal temperature, humidness, or illuming. Even after a edifice probe, nevertheless, the specific causes of the ailments may stay unknown.

2.5.3 Solution to Sick Building Syndrome

Pollutant beginning remotion or alteration is an effectual attack to deciding an IAQ job when beginnings are known and control is executable. Examples include everyday care of HVAC systems, e.g. , periodic cleansing or replacing of filters ; replacing of water-stained ceiling tile and rug ; establishment of smoking limitations ; venting contamination beginning emanations to the out-of-doorss ; storage and usage of pigments, adhesives, dissolvers, and pesticides in good ventilated countries, and usage of these pollutant beginnings during periods of non-occupancy ; and leting clip for edifice stuffs in new or remodelled countries to off-gas pollutants before tenancy. Several of these options may be exercised at one clip.

Increasing airing rates and air distribution frequently can be a cost effectual agencies of cut downing indoor pollutant degrees. HVAC systems should be designed, at a lower limit, to run into airing criterions in local edifice codifications ; nevertheless, many systems are non operated or maintained to guarantee that these design airing rates are provided. In many edifices, IAQ can be improved by runing the HVAC system to at least its design criterion, and to ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 if possible. When there are strong pollutant beginnings, local fumes airing may be appropriate to wash up contaminated air straight from the edifice. Local fumes airing is peculiarly recommended to take pollutants that accumulate in specific countries such as remainder suites, transcript suites, and printing installations.

Air cleansing can be a utile adjunct to beginning control and airing but has certain restrictions. Particle control devices such as the typical furnace filter are cheap but do non efficaciously capture little atoms ; high public presentation air filters capture the smaller, respirable atoms but are comparatively expensive to put in and run. Mechanical filters do non take gaseous pollutants. Some specific gaseous pollutants may be removed by adsorbent beds, but these devices can be expensive and necessitate frequent replacing of the adsorptive stuff. In amount, air cleaners can be utile, but have limited application.

Education and communicating are of import elements in both remedial and preventative indoor air quality direction plans. When edifice residents, direction, and care forces to the full communicate and understand the causes and effects of IAQ jobs, they can work more efficaciously together to forestall jobs from happening, or to work out them if they do.

2.6 Chapter Summary

In decision, baccy fume could do and bring forth many jobs and supply all the chief contamination to constructing air quality. Consequently by utilizing the air-conditioning system could cut down the per centum of air contamination which is can clean the air accordingly. By utilizing the air conditioning system besides could assist in air quality by get awaying resident from utilizing natural airing like window. As explicating before beginning of air pollution are from indoor and besides from outdoor, but the chief part is came from the out-of-door beginning. So by utilizing the air-conditioning system could cut down one of the factors of air pollutant.

Ventilation system play importance function in guarantee the degree of temperature and humidness within the scope of comfort suitable in the guideline provide by IDPH. Cooling by airing can be classified by two which is natural airing and mechanical airing. In northern climes the usage of natural airing is already plenty in some instances. But with the nowadays of office equipment the resident burden requires more careful be aftering airing paths.

Chapter 3


Residential or place is the same sort of thing but difference sort of word to depict it. Over 80 % of our clip spent in indoor environments ( Richard A. Wadden, 1976 ) so that the influence of edifice constructions, surfaces, and airing are really of import considerations when measuring air pollution exposures.

The term of ‘home ‘ screens a big figure of demands and demands. A place requires difference countries, including those for kiping, cookery, eating and hygiene, in a individual location. Life at place is one manner people have of definition themselves. The topographic point individual chooses to populate place their penchants and restraints. The size, signifier and trappings of a place, and the manner it is occupied, act upon the province of head of the people in it. It is the topographic point for retreat, but besides a topographic point for communicating ; both introverted and extroverted state of affairss ( Jan Krebs, 2007 ) .

Home or residential edifice besides linked with invariably progressing personal alteration. This is peculiarly clear in the manner a individual develops in our society: childhood – young person – a period of instruction – a period of working and set uping a household – retirement – old age. These phases in life normally bring different demands with them, and therefore alterations in the life environment. The place is adapted to the altering life state of affairs every bit much as possible. Such possibilities are limited. It is frequently simpler to travel than modify, extend or better the current place while still populating in it. There are places for all walks of life and in all monetary value categories, but seeking for a place is rarely simple.

Planing a residential unit should non merely turn to the necessary maps and resultant edifice cost, but besides basically draw a bead on to making a higher quality of life. There have ever been and still are different signifiers of lodging all over the universe. Regional developments depend on different climatic status, local characteristics such as topography and material resources, and non least the general cultural state of affairs. Therefore, parametric quantities are different from those in temperate zones, metropoliss have difference demands from thinly populated countries, and so the universe ‘s many brooding design distinct from each others. The homo is the step of yesteryear, present and future developments.

There can be no full reply to the inquiry posed at the beginning, “what is a place? ” as each individual has his or her invariably altering thoughts about the topic of place and lodging, in add-on to general demands ( Jan Krebs, 2007 ) .

3.1 Functions and Characteristic of Residential

Residential or house where been the topographic point for human and others populating this interior to acquire comfy in order to go on populating in these modern universe. Back to era where homo were non civilization yet, there besides have house but in different sort of topographic point. There prefer to utilize cave buttockss their house for continue their life. When looked at the map and feature of the house, it can be classified into two chief things which are.

Housing design create sequences of events in life that are influenced by big figure of factors inside and outside the place. These indispensable considerations for every residential unit are summarized below.

3.1.1 Footing

a ) Life rhythms

Many demands made on a place are influenced by the life rhythm of human being. Freedom from is a peculiar status for human home.

B ) Orientation

One of cardinal quality standard for a place is natural visible radiation. Basically the chief factor oriented the edifice is the light beginnings.

degree Celsiuss ) Areas for different utilizations

A place allocates on every usage countries for every event, and these construction the land program.

vitamin D ) Zoning

The country in place has certain sort of usage, as described above. Examples of districting country in house are like kitchen, dining and populating suites.

vitamin E ) Making infinite

The architecture manner design creates countries and volume. The size of the infinite and volume depend on activity held and map of the infinite.

3.1.2 Component of Leaving

a ) Sleeping

Sleeping is the basic human demand. The quality of one ‘s environing affects sleep significantly. The particular environment must take really different demand in history and can be characterized by assorted conceptual attacks.

B ) Eating

Few societal activities have been cultivated traditionally to such an extent as feeding. It is celebrated at political and cultural events, and particular event like festival repast that invite friends and household.

degree Celsius ) Working

Work has an importance portion to play in our every life. It determines our beat of life, our environment and our societal place in society.

vitamin D ) Diversion and leisure

Many leisure activities take topographic point in enclose infinite and infinite is by and large provided for diversion and relaxation in the place.

vitamin E ) Hygiene

Physical hygiene is expressed in assorted signifiers. Whatever single cleansing rites may look like, there are importance to life and wellness.

degree Fahrenheit ) Cooking

Cooking has lost its critical importance in recent decennaries. Nowadays is no longer necessary for single to cook in order to eat. But sometimes cookery can be approximately more than fixing nutrient in a manner that is clip salvaging as possible.

g ) Ancillary maps

Included map like rinsing, drying and pressing apparels. A particular room is non needed for this, and others country can be used impermanent for accessory maps to execute this undertaking.

H ) Storage

Peoples usually need a big of figure of objects in the classs of normal twenty-four hours. A place is frequently a assorted aggregation of a whole assortment of objects and besides a sort of personal museum that reflect resident ‘s personality.

I ) Circulation countries

The indoor circulation country in a place provides entree to the country dedicated to difference usage. They need infinite merely like all the others infinite in a place they need to associate right to constructing cost and designated utilizations.

3.2 Assortment of Ventilation Systems

The human organic structure, considered as a thermodynamic system, produces mechanical work and low temperature heat, utilizing nutrient ( fuel ) and O as input. This system require, in healthy conditions, to keep a changeless internal temperature around 37+0.5 oC, otherwise the functionality of of import variety meats like liver, lien, etc, may be badly damaged. In order to execute this end, the rate of heat coevals of the organic structure must be equal to the rate of heat loss from it. The occupation of our thermoregulatory system is to keep the heat balance, that is a cardinal status for endurance and necessary ( but non sufficient ) for comfort. Skin temperature is non changeless, and it altering consequently to the environing temperature ( C. Gallo, 1998 ) .

In order to keep the heat in our organic structure, one manner of it is to put in or to hold good airing. A good airing system will supply a good indoor air quality and including indoor temperature. Amount of usage air can be recycle by new one utilizing airing system. There are many type of airing such as airing from roofs, active drape wall, integrated airing, chilling engineering and out-of-door infinite ( C. Gallo, 1998 ) .

3.2.1 Cooling Technology

The topic of chilling engineering references issues runing from the devising of edifice to post-construction applications of chilling techniques. Effective chilling non merely additions by the remotion of heat from the edifice but besides the decrease of heat addition by the edifice

Air conditioning, still considered a luxury during 1950s has become a modern ‘necessity ‘ whether or non a contemplation of design competency in modern-day edifice or merely a consequence of higher outlooks of thermal of thermic comfort by constructing residents. Cooling can be classified into several parts which is ;

  • Cooling with airing
  • Beaming chilling
  • Evaporative chilling
  • Earth chilling
  • Dehumidification

Cooling by airing can be classified by two which is natural airing and mechanical airing. In northern climes the usage of natural airing is already plenty in some instances. But with the nowadays of office equipment the resident burden requires more careful be aftering airing paths.

Beaming chilling in combination with movable insularity is utile in hot climatic parts where airing succeeds merely in heating the edifice and hot external air must be cooled earlier entry to the edifice.

Evaporative chilling is possibly like the most effectual signifier of natural chilling methods. Useful in hot countries it takes advantage of the physical rule of latent energy ; that is require the big sum of energy to alter the physical province of substance. This evident in the chilling esthesis experienced as ethyl intoxicant evaporates form tegument: it is besides the same rule on which the icebox is based.

Earth chilling involves the building of portion or all of a edifice below land taking advantage of the Earth heat sink to brace its internal temperature. In the subterraneous colonies to be found in North Africa built-up heat is transmitted by building to the Earth which is at lower temperature. A more indirect attack is to pre-cool the entrance air by agencies of belowground canals or trough a subterraneous cellar floor.

3.2.2 Mechanical Ventilation

Mechanical airing is the proviso of out-of-door air or extraction of room air by the usage of one or more fans. Unlike natural airing, this signifier of airing offers the ability to command the air flow rate within the edifice harmonizing to demands and it is basically independent of the external conditions conditions. There two type of mechanical airing system: –

  • Unbalanced system
  • Balance system

In imbalanced system, the air is either supplied to the edifice and extracted at the same time utilizing fan. In the mechanical infusion system, fan take the air from assorted locations within the edifice trough canals and the air which is extracted is replaced by air escape through Windowss, purpose-provided gap or cleft in the edifice envelope. This type of system is effectual by taking the pollutants at their points of coevals. However the consequence of negative force per unit area created within the edifice, back flow from flukes, healthful blowholes, and etc. could be induced. Heat recovery from the exhaust air can be achieved utilizing heat pump to heat H2O for domestic or cardinal edifice, such as from kitchen and bathrooms.

In a mechanical supply system, a positive force per unit area is created within edifice and indoor air forced to leak out through gaps and clefts in the edifice cloth. This system allows air trough the cleansing and filtration of the supply of air and prevents the immersion of out-of-door air trough adventitious gap and is suited in countries where the out-of-door air is polluted such as in town. This system nevertheless, does non let the usage of a heat recovery device because indoors air leaves in the edifice from many locations. It usually use in big edifice where a balanced system or an air conditioning system in dearly-won to put in.

Balanced systems provide both mechanical supply of out-of-door air and mechanical infusion of indoor air. This system can besides be use as air cleansing and heating systems by the usage of sir filters and pre-heaters. They are most suitable to heat recovery systems where heat from exhaust air is used to heat the supply air utilizing the assortment of air-to-air recovery devices. These systems can supply a good control of air supply and extraction to a edifice and they should be merely installed in air-tight edifice for illustration house.

3.3 Natural Ventilation

Natural airing apply when is utilizing natural forces of air current and perkiness to present fresh air into edifices. Fresh air is required in edifices to relieve smells, to supply O for respiration, and to increase thermic comfort or comparative humidness. At velocity air speeds of 160 pess per minute ( fpm ) , the sensed interior temperature can be reduced by every bit much as 5°F.

The consequence of natural airing depends on the form, location and orientation of the edifice. High rise edifice fundamentally is a good illustration for intent of natural airing. Beside air brought by the natural airing at high rise edifice are fresher than at the land degree. This is because air pollution is chiefly happening at land degree cause by vehicle and mill.

However, unlike true air-conditioning, natural airing is uneffective at cut downing the humidness of incoming air. This places a bound on the application of natural airing in humid climes.

3.4 Indoor Air Quality in Residential Building

In all systems affecting of air supply but to a great extent it is besides non merely inflowing by the quality of air supply but to a great extent it is besides influenced by the air flow form in the room. The latter is determined by the type of air distribution system used for providing the air to ventilated infinite. The most widely use mechanical air distribution system briefly described in the approaching subdivision.

That why, the difference type of infinite in house will utilize difference sort of airing system? For illustration, infinite for kitchen is usually utilizing natural airing system due to the type of usage degree Fahrenheit that subdivision. Compare to the other infinite in house like life room and sleeping room, there more prefer to utilize mechanical airing like air status ( C. Gallo, 1998 ) .

In residential edifice or house, there is a batch of infinite agreements will use even in little house edifice. The common infinite that about all residential will hold like, kitchen, sleeping room, life, dining, and lavatory. Theory said that, all this infinite in house will hold difference sort of air freshness.

An indoor air quality probe process is best characterized as a rhythm of information assemblage, hypothesis formation, and hypothesis testing. It by and large begins with a walkthrough review of the job country to supply information about the four basic factors that influence indoor air quality are the residents, HVAC system, possible pollutant tracts and contaminations beginnings.

3.5 Chapter Summary

Based on the map of the place or residential edifice, place should be a topographic point for loosen uping after heavy and burden work at working topographic point. Peoples should soothe plenty to derive the true experience of remainder and relax. For the airing intent, stated that house that utilizing mechanical airing is fresher than house utilizing natural airing. This because, related to the fact that chief air pollution are from the exterior and non from the interior of house.

Beside the mechanical airing system besides have a capableness in cleaning the air inside the edifice. Based on old survey, air conditioning system will absorb air inside edifice and chilling its. Before the air been realise, there are filter to forestall from dust been realise together. Beside the filter should be cleaning every three month, and when the resident do so, its can be seen soiled dust been trapped at at that place.

For the natural airing, it ‘s besides applicable because, the degree of air freshness will be improved based on the factual and practical. But it needs to be sing the location, form and orientation of edifice.

Chapter 4


The choice of instance survey is really importance to supply apparent or bring forth good consequence. Consequently the choice of this instance survey besides will find the proof of the survey consequently to the rubric and aim of survey. For this thesis, the instance survey will be automatically a residential country. There are certain demand and restriction for residential country that been chosen.

4.1 Methodologies

A few methodological analysiss will be implied to execute the informations aggregation process of indoor air quality. Figure below will demo about the item of overall informations aggregation processs and sequence.

From the figure 1 above, constructing auditing and observation is the first will be carried out. The scenario buttocks is to hold a general position of the instance surveies such as chief activities, trappings, airing, building stuff and every bit good as the layout of it. After the aggregation of this information, questionnaire subsequently so distributed to the respondents before the measuring utilizing instruments took topographic point. This is to the possible job infinite within the inn or pupil residential country which can assist in choosing measurement point.

4.1.1 Building Auditing and Observation

For the edifice auditing and observation intent, many tools will be needed. Example of tools used such as cameras, documents and letter papers for record intent. The record intents will the ocular of the edifice. Some illustration of recording will be covering a batch thing such as infinite agreement, trappings, types of airing, and studies of relevant layout. Then go on to the edifice which is will be concentrating more on collected physical information such as trappings, building stuffs, equipment, airing system and overall layout and agreement of the inn infinite for farther reappraisal on IAQ.

4.1.2 Questionnaire

The questionnaire is developed based on the old questionnaire developed by others pass twelvemonth pupil. The questionnaire besides will be advice check by responsible thesis advisor whether its suited or non. Based refers to their illustration and besides advice from advisor talk, the development of this questionnaire become stable and suited for distributed to selected topographic point and residents. The design of this questionnaire is based on two chief pages. In this questionnaire, there are categorize in a few subdivision which is: –

Questionnaires are distributed to the respondent by manus and the information gained are confidential. It is of import to understand that all the informations and information gathered during this interview non hundred percent factual.

The inquiry is tried to be simple as possible while the informations roll uping intent from the inquiry is tried to be every bit much as possible. The ground is, respondent will non took it for granted and merely click every bit shortly as the inquiry finished reply. While the studies behavior besides, it will be guided and a few inquiries will be inquiring for excess info. The development of this two page questionnaire is divided into four chief subdivisions. The subdivision named as Section A, Section B, Section C and Section D.

4.1.3 IAQ Measurement

The IAQ measuring utilizing specially catered instrument is conducted after finished edifice scrutinizing and observation. Choice of parametric quantities to be measured is done after preliminary visit to the instance surveies and after verbally short interview which selected residential lodging. The intent of preliminaries visit to the site is to cognize some complain about their satisfaction in air quality and besides will give thought for topographic point of point measuring.

For equipment MultiRAE IR Multi-gas Monitor PGM-54, continuance of measuring is set to a 15 proceedingss interval. The clip interval will be go on the others four point which are decide earlier. The 15 minute clip interval really is the suited clip stated in the usher book which besides is the minimal clip interval besides. For PPM FormaldemeterTM 3 Parameter IAQ Monitor, measurings were taken three times to acquire truth value which is the median of the informations.

All the consequence so will be compare with the benchmark develops through the available criterion and guidelines that were outlined before in Chapter 2.0. Benchmark or criterion for both of all contaminations, temperature and comparative humidness are from the ASHARE criterion as shown in table 1.

4.2 Case Study ‘s Building Background

Two instance surveies have been chosen to execute the IAQ appraisal. The instance surveies that been selected is located in C33-12-2 Villa Puteri Jalan Tun Ismail, 50480 Kuala Lumpur and the other one is located in country Kota Damansara, 47810 Seksyen 7, Petaling Jaya, Selangor.

The ground the two instance study been chosen is to guarantee informations been cod base on the same utilizing mechanical airing. Same location means the same outdoor air environment impact to the selected instance survey. When the outdoor been fixed, the indoor will be alterations within the two instance surveies. Besides the two houses is in difference in size and all the supplying implied by the proprietor. Then there will be more theoretical to writer to discourse on the consequence of indoor air quality.

4.3 Preliminaries study

Case survey one is located in country Kota Damansara fundamentally this lodging country type of medium cost patio house. While instance survey two located in Kuala Lumpur which is multilevel condominium. This information based on toilets interview behavior for preliminaries visit to the house.

Suitable for the intent of survey, the first demand of this house must hold mechanical airing before it can be use as a instance survey. Table below shows, the location of infinite in house that will be taken reading and the available of mechanical and natural airing.




Type of Ventilation



Populating Room

Land Floor




Land Floor



Maestro Bedroom

First Floor



Medium Bedroom

First Floor



Small Bedroom

First Floor



Table 2: Type of Ventilation within Space in House 1

( Beginning: Field Study 2010 )

Table 2 above shows the applicable of natural and mechanical airing in first instance survey which is located in patio house in Kota Damansara.




Type of Ventilation



Populating Room

All located in same degree which at the degree 12.






Maestro Bedroom



Medium Bedroom



Small Bedroom



Table 3: Type of Ventilation within Space in House 2

( Beginning: Field Study 2010 )

From the tabular array 3 above, it ‘s demo the application of natural and mechanical airing of 2nd instance survey which is located in Villa Puteri. Compare to the first instance survey, the 2nd 1 is difference because is multilevel house and this house at the degree 12.

Basically these two edifice have about same characteristic. Both edifice is dual storey edifice, same type of edifice. Space divider size for each room had about same metre square. The difference is these two edifice located in difference topographic points and accordingly difference type of environing development. These make this two edifice really suited for my instance survey.

The ground is when all it ‘s about the same, the lone thing will be difference it the location of both edifice. Lapp goes to the environing development around the country. From this it will O.K. that the chief factor that contributed to indoor air pollution it ‘s the out-of-door part as stated in my Chapter Two determination. From the same edifice, the chief factor that bedrooms chosen will O.K. that size can impact the air freshness inside that will be discuss more in Chapter 5. The life suites and the kitchen besides make into history because this two suites or dividers usually wo n’t utilize mechanical airing. From this it will O.K. the chief aim that mechanical airing its better comparison to natural airing.

4.4 Building Auditing

Constructing scrutinizing being done while the informations roll uping utilizing equipment which is PPM FormaldemeterTM 2 Parameter IAQ Monitor and MultiRAE IR Multigas Monitor PGM-54. Parameters involve in the measuring are limited to temperature, comparative humidness, Carbon dioxide ( CO2 ) , Volatile Organic Compound ( VOC ) , Nitrogen Dioxide ( NO2 ) and Formaldehyde ( HCHO ) .

4.5 IAQ Measurement

The IAQ parametric quantities that were measured for this thesis are the dry bulb temperature, comparative humidness, CO2, NO2, VOC and HCHO. The instruments used for the measuring are PPM FormaldemeterTM 3 Parameters IAQ Monitor and MultiRAE IR Multi-gas Monitor PGM-54. There are two or three selected point in each location as batch point were consider. The location of each point is shown in the appendix program B. The importance of several point were taken in each location or divider in each room for the accurate when the information being taken their average value. The consequences of the measuring are shown in the tabular array in the undermentioned sub-chapters. From the Benchmark, the grade Celsius given in F, to change over into oC merely uses the undermentioned method.

4.5.1 Result IAQ Measurement Case Study 1








( OC )

RH ( % )

Carbon dioxide

( ppm )


( ppm )



( ppm )










Populating Room






















Maestro Bedroom



















Medium Bedroom



















Small Bedroom



















*A=Average Reading ; P=Peak ; M=Minimum

Table 4: Concentrations Value House 1

( Beginning: Field Study 2010 )

From the tabular array 4 above and table 5 below, the first reading is for indoor air quality without air conditioning system for all suites. While the 2nd reading shown consequence for the indoor air reading when air conditioning being applied. But there are certain infinite in both house that merely utilizing natural airing, so its will be let as space in that peculiar rows. In by and large air temperature at all location in each room taken, reading first with none air conditioning show result out of the benc