Complexs of sugar cane bagasse in poly ( vinyl chloride ) ( PVC ) matrix were produced by a compaction modeling method followed by assorted heat intervention processes, affecting slow chilling ( tempering ) , fast chilling ( slaking ) , and re-heating to a temperature below Tg. The effects of the thermic history were examined by the measuring of tensile strength and elongation at interruption every bit good as by differential scanning calorimetry ( DSC ) . It was observed that the heat interventions affect the elongation at interruption of unfilled PVC significantly with less important consequence on the tensile strengths. In contrast, assorted tensile strengths of sugar cane bagasse PVC complexs were observed after assorted heat interventions with less important consequence to the elongations at interruption. In add-on, recycling of the complexs may wipe out the consequence of thermic history. Uniform tensile belongingss of the complexs were achieved after recycling procedure.
Keywords: Heat intervention, recyclability, bagasse, PVC, complex.
Mechanical belongingss of a polymer are affected by big figure of variables. Beside the chemical composing and molecular weight, a figure of thermally induced phenomena, such as crystallisation and physical ripening may lend to the microstructure and therefore influence physical every bit good as mechanical belongingss [ 1,2 ] . The construction of a polymer can change depending on its thermic history, which is affecting temperature and clip and, as a consequence, its belongingss can change every bit good [ 3 ] . It is hence necessary to analyze the effects of thermic history on the belongingss of a polymeric stuff.
Meanwhile, natural fiber reinforced polymer complexs have attracted a great attendings and involvements in recent old ages. One of the major grounds is the considerations of developing an environmentally friendly stuff. Furthermore, natural fiber complexs have advantages over presently used glass fibers in fiber reinforced complexs, which are including their low cost, low energy ingestion, zero CO2 emanation, low scratchy nature, low denseness, non-toxic, and high every bit good as uninterrupted handiness [ 4-7 ] .
Although there are a big figure of research on assorted natural fiber complexs [ 4,8-16 ] , the effects of thermic history on the belongingss of natural fiber complex, particularly sugarcane bagasse/PVC, has non been widely discussed. In this survey, the tensile belongingss of heat treated PVC and its complexs with sugar cane bagasse were evaluated to detect the consequence of thermic history on the tensile belongingss of sugar cane bagasse/PVC complexs.
Unplasticised poly ( vinyl chloride ) compound ( PVC ) IR045A supplied by Polymer Resources Sdn. Bhd. , Kelang, Selangor, Malaysia was used in signifier of pellets. It consists of medium molecular weight PVC with some additives. The studied sugar cane bagasse ( Saccharum officinarum ) was a residue of the sugar cane milling procedure which is obtained from sugarcane juice shapers in Malaysia. The bagasse was sundried and its fibers were extracted and chopped in a knife-ring flaker followed by screening to obtain 40 mesh size of fibers.
The chaff of the sugar cane works includes an outer rind and inner pith. The rind is made up of a difficult hempen substance environing a cardinal nucleus of pith, which is softer due to a spongy structured constituent [ 8,9 ] . Due to its mechanical feature, sugar cane bagasse rind ( SBR ) is used in this survey.
Preparation of complexs and samples
PVC and SBR were compounded in a Haake Polydrive R600 internal sociable at a temperature of 170oC and rotor velocity of 50 revolutions per minute. PVC pellets were fed into the chamber and assorted for five proceedingss, followed by feeding of the SBR for the entire mixing clip of 15 proceedingss. In this survey, the complexs were prepared in 50 % weight of the rind fiber.
Hot pressure was so carried out at a temperature of 170oC for 12.5 proceedingss, following by chilling the mixture under force per unit area to room temperature. The concluding merchandises were in the signifier of home bases with dimensions 15 centimeters x 15 centimeters x 1 millimeter.
Heat interventions were executed in four different procedures, as described in figure 1. After hot-pressing, the merchandises were cooled to room temperature in two different chilling rates. Fast chilling ( slaking ) was conducted by puting the merchandises between two H2O circulated platens and pressed. Decelerate chilling ( tempering ) was performed by turning off the warming faculty of hot-press machine and allow the complexs chilling to room temperature over a period of 7-9 hour. The satisfied merchandise was denoted by HP-Q, while the annealed was denoted by HP-A. Three home bases of fast cooled and one home base of slow cooled composite were prepared.
Two home bases of fast cooled complexs were so re-heated to 60 oC and keep for 30 min. One of them was so quenched and the other was annealed. In this procedure, the quenched was denoted by T-Q and the annealed was denoted by T-A.
All of the heat-treated stuffs were crushed into little pieces. The pieces were so fed into thermic sociable at 170 oC for 10 proceedingss. The remainder process was following the readying of complexs ( hot-press and cutting ) .
Tensile trial samples were cut utilizing a dog-bone dumbbell as per ASTM D638. An Instron 3365 machine was used for tensile proving with a crosshead-speed of 2 mm/min. Tensile strength, modulus and strain at interruption were calculated and recorded. The study was based the mean values of at least five measurings.
Differential scanning calorimetry ( DSC )
DSC thermogram were recorded utilizing a Mettler Toledo DSC setup with samples weighing 5-10 milligram, under a N atmosphere with the heating rate of 10 oC/min.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Effectss of thermic history on tensile belongingss of PVC
Tensile trial consequences of PVC complexs after assorted heat interventions are presented in Figures 2 to 4. It is observed that there is no important consequence of thermic history on the tensile strength and modulus of PVC. Various heat treated PVC performed unvarying values of tensile strength and modulus ( see Figures 2 and 3 ) . Assorted consequences, nevertheless, were observed on the strain at interruption of PVC after assorted heat interventions. The highest value of strain at interruption strength was performed by the HP-Q specimen followed by T-Q, T-A, and HP-A, severally. It indicates that the thermic history influences more on tensile strain at interruption instead than on tensile strength and modulus.
The recorded DSC thermograms of PVC after assorted heat interventions are shown in Figure 5. The exothermic extremum observed on the het samples at a temperature above Tg ( between 80-90 oC ) is recognized as crystallization extremum which is considered to be caused by rapid crystallization from the formless portion and occur when PVC is heated above Tg [ 17,18 ] . Hence, higher country of the extremum indicates lower crystallinity of the sample at ambient temperature. Figure 5 shows that the crystallization extremum was revealed on HP-Q, T-Q, and T-A samples. It is an grounds that there is no direct consequence of heat intervention below Tg on the crystallization. On the other manus, different consequence was performed by PVC that was straight slow cooled after hot imperativeness ( HP-A ) . There is no crystallization peak observed on the thermogram of HP-A sample, bespeaking higher crystallinity of HP-A sample as compared to the others. As a consequence, low tensile strain at interruption was obtained.
Another extremum that is interesting to detect is the endothermic extremum which was revealed at the temperature below crystallization extremum ( between 60-80 oC ) . This extremum is associated with free volume of the formless parts. Higher country of the endothermic extremum indicates lower free volume formation of the sample at room temperature [ 18 ] . Figure 5 shows that the endothermic extremum was revealed in all specimens with assorted countries. It is observed that the endothermic peak country of fast cooled samples ( HP-Q and T-Q ) were lower than that of slow cooled samples ( HP-A and T-A ) , bespeaking that the endothermic extremum was influenced by chilling rate every bit good as low temperature heat intervention ( below Tg ) . The fact that lower chilling rate consequences in higher country of endothermic extremum indicates that a glassy polymer with a smaller free volume is formed on lower chilling rate, which is in understanding with the consequences of other research workers [ 1,17,18 ] . The little free volume was besides resulted in low strain at interruption of the polymer.
Effectss of thermic history on tensile belongingss of SBF/PVC complexs
In contrast with tensile belongingss of heat treated PVC, The heat treated SBF/PVC complexs perform assorted consequences in tensile strength and modulus ( see Figure 6 and 7 ) with unvarying consequences in the tensile strain at interruption ( see Figure 8 ) . It is interesting that there was a immense difference between the tensile strength of HP-Q complexs with that of HP-A complexs ( Figure 6 ) . Furthermore, the tensile strength of HP-A complexs was lower than that of PVC after the same heat intervention procedure ( 26.90 MPa and 39.63 MPa severally ) . Poor tensile strength of a composite compared to the matrix indicates that the bed between fiber and matrix are non able to reassign the emphasis efficaciously, as a consequence of hapless adhesion [ 19 ] . This consequence indicates that chilling rate affected the fibre-matrix adhesion quality, which can be explained by the fact that there is a different rate of shrinking between fiber and matrix. The different rate of shrinking or contraction may develop an internal emphasis at the interface bed and, at worst, dividing the two substances that can be observed as a cleft that decreased the strength of the composite. In this instance, crystalline cellulose that is incorporating SBF execute lower rate of shrinking compared to the semi-crystalline PVC. Higher internal emphasis was achieved at low chilling rate due to complete shrinking of the polymer. At high chilling rate, the stuff had been & amp ; acirc ; ˆ?frozen & A ; acirc ; ˆA? before the shrinking occurred wholly. For that ground, fast chilling resulted better tensile strength of complexs compared to decelerate chilling.
Similar tendency was besides found on the values of tensile modulus ( Figure 7 ) . Tensile modulus was calculated as ratio of strength and strain at the elastic part. Hence, it is besides affected by the emphasis transportation efficiency. The lessening of tensile modulus of annealed complexs, nevertheless, was non every bit big as the lessening of tensile strength. The value was comparable with that of PVC with the same thermic history. This is due to the fact that the tensile modulus is calculated at lower strength, before the cleft extension was occurred. Hence, the presence of clefts do non act upon the tensile modulus every bit much as it affected the tensile strength.
The DSC thermograms of the complexs are represented in Figure 9. It can be seen that the curves were different from the those performed by unfilled PVC. However, the consequence of different chilling rate can be observed clearly. When endothermic extremum was revealed on fast cooled samples, the slow cooled samples revealed the baseline displacement due to glaze passage. Hence, the thermic history was besides influence the structural order of the matrix in SBF/PVC complexs, such as crystallinity and free volume, which lead to fluctuation in shrinking rate of the matrix.
Effectss of recycling
Figures 10 to 12 show that there is no difference among tensile belongingss of recycled complexs. The effects of HP-A, T-Q, and T-A interventions that antecedently was conducted to the samples is no longer revealed. It indicates that recycling procedure may wipe out the consequence of heat intervention. When the complexs were recycled, the thermic history was & A ; acirc ; ˆ?forgotten & A ; acirc ; ˆA? , bespeaking the alteration of belongingss occurred without lasting alteration of the construction of the stuff [ 20 ] . Furthermore, it can be observed that the tensile belongingss of recycled complexs were lower than that of non-recycled HP-Q complexs, bespeaking there was debasement of stuff during recycling procedure.
The incorporation of sugar cane bagasse rind into PVC has changed the effects of thermic history on mechanical belongingss of the stuff. In an absence of fiber, thermic history affects more on the strain at interruption instead than on other tensile belongingss, such as tensile strength and modulus. Contrary, in the presence of fiber, thermic history affects more on the tensile strength and modulus instead than on strain at interruption. The fluctuation strain at interruption of PVC in assorted thermic histories was chiefly caused by structural order of the polymer after heat intervention. Heat intervention above Tg caused alteration in the crystallinity, while heat intervention below Tg affected the free volume. On the other manus, the fluctuation of tensile strengths an moduli of SBF/PVC complexs was chiefly influenced by the assorted internal emphasis at the fibre-matrix interface bed due to different rate of shrinking.
Furthermore, slaking procedure after hot pressure was the best processing method for both unfilled PVC and SBR/PVC complexs. It offered the best tensile belongingss. Lower chilling rate would ensue lower strain at interruption of orderly PVC and lower tensile strength and modulus of SBF/PVC complexs.