The deepest bed of the cuticle is the Germinative bed and the top bed is the Stratum Corneum. The maintainance of a healthy cuticle depends on peeling surface cells ( korneocytes ) , effectual keratinization ( cells being filled with ceratin ) of cells and uninterrupted reclamation of cells in the deeper beds to force the cells above them upwards ( Ross and Wilson, 1996:360 ) .
Collagen and elastin fibers that are interlaced are some of the substances that make up the corium. Striae are formed when the tegument is being stretched beyond its bound. Tensile strength is given by the collagen fibres in the tegument that bind with H2O. Structures is the dermis include: blood vass, lymph vass, bodily nervus terminations, sudoriforous secretory organs and canals, hair roots, hair follicles and hair, erector spinae musculuss and greasy secretory organs ( Ross and Wilson, 1996:361 ) .
The tegument offers protection from harmful pathogens. It prevents pathogens from harming the tegument. The Lagerhans cells are portion of the adaptative immune system. The map of esthesis because the tegument contains assorted nervus terminations that react to trouble, force per unit area, touch, heat, cold and hurt. The tegument besides controls heat. The control of energy loss that is caused by radiation, convection and conductivity is besides a map of the tegument. Dilated blood vass allow more heat to get away and constricted blood vass keep heat indoors. The tegument controls the sum of H2O that evaporates from the surface of the tegument. The skin Acts of the Apostless as a storage infinite for lipoids and H2O. Assorted substances can be absorbed by the tegument through the semi-permeable barrier. The tegument besides functions as a H2O immune barrier that will forestall foods from get awaying from the organic structure ( Encyclopedia Wikipedia, 2001 ) .
Peptides are one of the most effectual anti-ageing ingredients found in tegument attention today. Their effectivity has been demonstrated in clinical tests and they have been shown to hike collagen production in skin cells. ( Coila, 2009 )
Other ingredients include: Allantoin, AHA ‘s, Collagen, Green Tea, Hyaluronic Acid, Lyposomes, Retinol, Vitamin C, E and K.
Pentapeptides have been proven to cut down furrow deepness and figure every bit good as make the tegument appears smoother by manufacturer-sponsored surveies. ( Coila, 2009 )
Copper Peptides has been proven to mend damaged tegument and to advance collagen production. Specifically utile for tegument that has undergone optical maser resurfacing or dermabrasion. ( Coila, 2009 )
Allantoin has been proven to be mending to the tegument and besides mending skin cells. It is anti-inflammatory and can smooth the tegument. ( Dolan, neodymium )
AHA ‘s the chief map is skin exfoliation, but can excite skin fix, collagen production and snap. It can better the teguments thickness which will better the ability of the tegument to protect itself. AHA ‘s can besides better the tegument tone. ( Dolan, neodymium )
Research shows that collagen improves hydration of the tegument. It has firming and plumping belongingss that works on the visual aspect on all right lines and furrows to cut down them. ( Dolan, neodymium )
Aging causes the collagen nowadays in the tegument to free H2O which gives rise to the tegument fring snap and finally age. A conducive factor is the fact that the greasy secretory organs and sudoriferous secretory organs lessening in activity ( Health24, 2007 ) . This procedure can so be slowed down to a certain extent by clinical tegument attention merchandises and interventions.
Intrinsic ripening is the internal procedure ; it is programmed into the cistrons. This intrinsic ripening procedure is inherited. Extrinsic ripening is the consequence of external attackers, such as the Sun and the environment, that aggravate ripening of the tegument ( healthy-skincare.com, nd ) .
The causes of intrinsic ageing include the decelerating down of collagen and elastin production. This means that the tegument is non as supple and does non travel back to its original province every bit easy as it used to. The production of new cells lessening which leads to dull-looking and dry tegument texture. The figure of cells incorporating pigment besides decreases. The cells incorporating pigment which remains, addition in size and this causes hyper-pigmentation ( blotchiness ) on the tegument. The tegument looses fat which means that there are less hypodermic fats in mature people ‘s teguments than in younger people ‘s teguments. The loss of fat leads to the tegument being less smooth and plump. The individual will hold hollows in the buccul country and besides in the orbicularis occuli country. Less oil on the skin surface will take to the individual sing waterlessness of the tegument and in will be probably that the tegument is flakey. Blood vass in the tegument are no longer every bit protected as it used to be and the tegument will contuse more easy. The castanetss in the organic structure of an ageing individual undergo shrinking that leads to drooping tegument ( healthy-skincare.com, nd ) .
Extrinsic ageing include sun exposure. Sun exposure can do premature ageing in the tegument and it speeds up the intrinsic ripening of the tegument. Sun ageing ( photo-ageing ) depends on the type of tegument. Peoples with just teguments are more vulnerable to photo-ageing than people with darker teguments. Darker-skinned people are more susceptible to furrows and mottling of the tegument as the consequence of overexposure to the Sun. The UV beams of the Sun harm collagen and elastin fibers in the tegument and it besides interferes with the production of new collagen fibers ( healthy-skincare.com, neodymium ) .
The procedure of UV picture taking can be administered to uncover the sum of harm done by the Sun over old ages of exposure. This shows the harm underneath the surface of the tegument as shown in the exposure below.
This 64-year-old beach community occupant has skin that chronicles a life-time of
chronic Sun exposure. A UV picture taking is non necessary to see that her tegument is
dry, inelastic, wrinkled, and to a great extent mottled.
( AgeingSkinNet, 2010 )
Pollution, rough conditions conditions and fume are all lending factors to the premature ripening of the tegument. Polluted countries are responsible for free groups that damage the tegument cells ( healthy-skincare.com, neodymium ) .
Mechanical tegument ageing include gravitation. The pull of the Earth ‘s gravitation on the tegument is particularly seen around the age of 50. Sleeping in the same place every dark can take to furrows. Smoking makes the skin age faster because it causes chemical alterations in the tegument ( healthy-skincare.com, nd ) .
The usage of anti ageing skin attention merchandises suited for the tegument type and conditions can significantly better the tegument ‘s status and besides cut down the effects of ageing. Clinical tegument attention clinics offer different interventions such as microdermabrasion, ionic medication, faradic facial therapy, and modified seventh cranial nerves to the effects of ageing.
This intervention involves a figure of devices used to take the stratum horny layer of the tegument. Below is a diagram exemplifying how the procedure removes the stratum horny layer ( diagram 1 ) . Some of these microdermabrasion devices use scratchy crystals of paddles which are passed over the tegument with a suction manus piece to take the dead tegument cells from the surface of the tegument ( Zelickson, neodymium ) .
( Diagram 1 )
Microdermabrasion can cut down age musca volitanss ( solar lentegines ) , all right lines along with other hyper-pigmentation on the skin surface ( Zelickson, neodymium ) . Immediately after the intervention, hydrops and erythema will be present on the tegument ( Coustan, 2008 ) .
A individual session is R 390 ( Laserpoint, 2010 ) .
Sun protecting merchandises ( SPF sunblock )
SPF is a graduated table used to find the grade of protection signifier UV rays ( MedicineNet.com, 2009 ) . The intent of utilizing sunblocks on the tegument is to screen it from the detrimental UV-rays of the Sun. By using a shield ( sunscreen ) on the tegument it will non let the UV-rays to perforate as deep and minimise the harm it causes. This means that if sunscreen is worn every twenty-four hours, there will be minimum marks of photo-ageing on the tegument and the procedure will non be accelerated. The energy received from the Sun is turned into heat and is non every bit harmful to the tegument ( Health24, neodymium ) . Ageing is accelerated by over exposure to the UV-rays of the Sun.
Sunscreens form a protective shield on the skin surface forestalling the detrimental UV-rays of the Sun from doing premature ripening and damaging the tegument. Sunscreens contain one or more of three types of UV-filters. Organic chemical compounds absorb UV visible radiation. Inorganic atoms reflect, spread and absorb UV visible radiation. Inorganic atoms chiefly absorb UV visible radiation, but contain chromospheres that reflect or scatter a fraction of UV visible radiation ( Encyclopedia Wikipedia, 2001 ) .
The monetary value of a good sunblock can get down from R165 ( CosmeticWeb, neodymium ) .
Using addendums will assist the organic structure to decelerate down the marks of ageing and will give the organic structure excess needed energy which in bend will besides better the visual aspect of the tegument and well-being of the organic structure ( Ygoy, 2007 ) . Harmonizing to Ronald Klatz M.D, president of the Academy of Anti-Ageing Medicine, replacing endocrines that decline with age is every bit of import as insulin to a diabetic. These endocrines include estrogen, testosterone, DHEA, melatonin, and the late added HGH ( a growing endocrine ) ( NutraSanus, neodymium ) .
The usage of anti ageing addendums will retard the ripening procedure and will assist the organic structure in contending diseases. Aid in the production of DHEA. This is the chief edifice block of the endocrines: testosterone and estrogen. Addendums help the immune system of the organic structure that will reflect on the tegument every bit good ( Ygoy, 2007 ) .
The monetary values for these anti ageing addendums range from R95 to R260 ( CelluBeauty, 2007 ) .
These substances are necessary to battle the detrimental effects of free groups. Free groups are the cause of natural and besides premature ageing. Cells in the organic structure are damaged because the free groups damage the construction of the cells ( Edginton, 2007 ) . Free groups specifically damage cell the membranes.
Common effects of antioxidants are mending and exciting of new collagen. Surveies have shown that high adequate concentrations can cut down furrows. Vitamin E can assist the tegument fix itself from harm. This will besides assist protect the tegument from bacteriums and creates the wet barrier ( Edginton, 2007 ) .
Green tea is besides a good antioxidant. It fights free groups and besides has diuretic belongingss. It speeds up the remotion of toxins from the skin surface to the kidneys ( Edginton, 2007 ) .
Alpha-hydroxyl acids or beta-hydroxyl acids
These acids are mild and aid with skin exfoliation. When the concentrations of these acids are high enough they are able to move inside the corium to excite the production of new collagen and elastin fibres. It besides stimulates the production of glycosaminoglycans ( molecules that attract wet ) . These ingredients have the possible to annoy the tegument which can excite cell reclamation and a healing response. This means that overexploitation of the ingredients can make harm to the tegument if it is over used ( Edginton, 2007 ) .
This ingredient is besides other wise known as coenzyme Q. This is a substance that is present in most eucaryotic cells and is oil-soluble. This substance is chiefly found inside chondriosome ( Encyclopedia Wikipedia, 2001 ) .
This food has been shown to modulate the energy production inside the cells. Surveies have shown that this food will cut down furrows and all right lines around the orbicularis occuli country ( Mayo Clinic Staff, 2008 ) . Coenzyme Q10 is besides a powerful antioxidant ( Todorov G, neodymium ) .
Naturally the organic structure produces coenzyme Q10, but with ripening and the usage of medicine every bit good as emphasis can change the degrees of coenzyme Q10 in the organic structure. Coenzyme Q10 can better the fix of the tegument and regeneration. This ingredient can besides minimise the free extremist harm to the tegument because of its antioxidant belongingss ( Todorov G, neodymium ) .
Peptides are a fragment of proteins. Some of these fragments have an avinity for Cu. When they bind they form Cu peptides ( Todorov G, neodymium ) .
Copper peptides will better lesion healing. The ingredient will excite collagen production and will heighten the antioxidants ‘ action ( Mayo Clinic Staff, 2008 ) .
This is a works growing factor ( Mayo Clinic Staff, 2008 ) . This ingredient has been proven to be an anti-oxidant. Kinetin can contend the effects of oxidative damaged caused by the Sun ( GreatVista Chemicals, neodymium ) .
This ingredient will assist battle all right lines by assisting to better the ability of the tegument to retain H2O. It stimulates the production of collagen ( Mayo Clinic Staff, 2008 ) . The consequences of clinical surveies show that this ingredient has the ability to change by reversal the effects of exposure harm to the tegument. These surveies besides show that this ingredient improves the tegument ‘s barrier map, significantly. It besides improves the tegument ‘s ability to retain wet which makes the skin appear more smooth and softer ( GreatVista Chemicals, neodymium ) .
This ingredient contains isoflavones. This is what stimulates collagen production in the tegument which improves the thickness and snap of the tegument. The isoflavones is responsible for a procedure called, matrix metallo-proteinases. During this procedure enzymes in the tegument interrupt down the protein web in the tegument ( Alien, 2008 ) . The protein web in the tegument is the support of the tegument and with the support bed of the tegument being destroyed the tegument will droop.
This ingredient has antioxidant belongingss and is anti-inflammatory. The thickness and snap of the tegument is besides improved by the stimulation of collagen production. This besides protects the tegument ( Pharmacymix, neodymium ) .
This ingredient is a peptide concatenation of fatty acids that combine with aminic acids to excite collagen production in the tegument ( Ageing Arsenal, neodymium ) . In other words this ingredient is called a protein.
This ingredient has shown to excite the production of some of the cardinal components in the construction of the tegument. This includes: collagen, elastin and glycosaminoglycans ( Pharmacymix, neodymium ) .
High Frequency Beauty Machine
A high frequence current is conducted through a glass electrode and so onto the tegument ( Beautymachine.Net, 2009 ) .
This machine calms nervousnesss and has an analgetic consequence. Ozone is produced for a sterilising consequence and besides helps in lesion healing. Different maps on the machine aid to neutralize the tegument. The machine has maps for anti ripening and anti furrow and tightening ( Beautymachine.Net, 2009 ) .
Power 3nity Lifting Machine
This machine is a computerized device which is non-invasive and works to inspissate the tegument by regenerating of cells ( 88DB.com, 2009 ) .
The machine has nine plans. Regeneration will increase the collagen and elastin fibres in the tegument. Surveies have shown that there is an addition in ATP that will do a encouragement in cell reclamation and cell fix ( 88DB.com, 2009 ) .
Lift is besides one of the nine plans which have been shown to raise musculuss. This plan besides has been shown to increase ATP ( 88DB.com, 2009 ) .
Harmonizing to Dr. Anna Ragaz M. D, a prima skin doctor and innovator in anti ageing dermatology and anti-ageing medical specialty, the engineering this machine makes usage of has given them consequences that are far better than any other techniques ( 88DB.com, 2009 ) .
Galvanic Facial Therapy ( Iontophoresis )
This machine uses a finely screened voltaic current which alters the phospho-lipid bi-layer parts of the tegument and presenting water-soluble ions into the unbroken tegument by heightening the procedure of diffusion. The ions involved in the voltaic intervention will be either positive or negative. The machine works on the rule that like charges repel.
The machine has got an electrode which is positive and another electrode which is negative. Merely one of the electrodes is the active electrode at a clip. This means that the other electrode merely completes the circuit.
When the active electrode is the anode ( + ) it is positive. It pushes the cations into the tegument. The cations are besides positive. When the cathode ( – ) is the active electrode, it pushes anions into the tegument.
Depending on the merchandise guidelines the machine is on positive for a certain sum of clip and on negative for a certain sum of clip. One minute between the two scenes must be left for the ions to settle into the tegument. If the ions are non left to settle the antecedently deposited ions would merely be removed once more and the intervention will hold no consequence.
If an anti furrow readying is used during a voltaic intervention ( Iontophoresis ) the effects of lifting and firming of the anti furrow readying will be so much more noteworthy and achieved much faster because of the ions being forced into the unbroken tegument. When the tegument is damaged the merchandise does non perforate every bit deep as with voltaic therapy.
This machine uses a surged interrupted direct current. The electrodes are placed over the motor point of the facial musculus. The motor point of a musculus is the point at which the nervus enters the musculus, in the abdomen of the musculus as seen in figure A.
Figure A ( Natchem WordPress, neodymium )
The current stimulates the musculuss to contract. The stimulation that is sent to the musculus from the faradic machine is similar to the impulse sent to the musculus from the encephalon. This stimulus causes the facial musculus to contract ( Martin, neodymium ) .
The machine will chant the face. Similar to normal manual exercising the contraction of the musculus by the machine will better micro- circulation and will construct the musculus. The tegument will be smoother because the machine causes the musculus underneath the tegument to construct up and better in tone. This means that all right lines and furrows will look reduced ( Martin, neodymium ) .
Botox prevents the musculuss that form furrows caused by smiling ( zygomaticus musculus ) , glowering ( corrugator ) and express joying from undertaking and in making so prevents the formation of furrows in those countries ( Court House Clinics, nd ) .
This is a merchandise that is either located or injected into the corium of the tegument. The effects of this cuticular filler injection last up to three months ( Bader R. S M.D, Johnson D. L PA-C, MPH, 2008 ) .
Cuticular fillers correct rhytides and cicatrixs instantly ( Bader R. S M.D, Johnson D. L PA-C, MPH, 2008 ) .
Below are photographs which show the visual aspect of the nasolabial country and the orbicularis oris country, before and after cuticular fillers were injected.
( skinrenewal, neodymium ) ( skinrenewal, neodymium )
This process involves fat being removed from the topographic point it is non wanted and injected or transferred to the topographic point where there is a demand to plummet up ( Oprah.com, 2006 ) .
This process gives volume and plummet up the countries that have sunken in with age. Areas on the face where this commonly occurs are on the buccal country. This process has besides proven to better the visual aspect of tegument that has sagged ( Oprah.com, 2006 ) .
Mesotherapy ( Mesolift )
This is an alternate to surgery. Vitamins, aminic acids and minerals are introduced into the tegument, straight ( Mesotherapie & A ; Estetik, neodymium ) .
This intervention rejuvenates, nourishes and promotes the production of elastin and collagen inside the tegument. It besides stimulates your tegument ‘s metamorphosis. Increased metamorphosis means that the tegument ‘s micro-circulation is improved so that the toxins inside the tegument can be removed expeditiously and foods can be delivered to the cells to work optimally ( Mesotherapie & A ; Estetik, neodymium ) .
This method involves bantam strings being inserted underneath the tegument and attached to the facial tissues to raise the tegument. During the process the strings are stretched and the tegument pulls on itself ( Oprah.com, 2006 ) .
The process improves the visual aspect of lower jaw and sagging in the cervix country ( Oprah.com, 2006 ) .
The difference between male and female teguments
The male tegument contains smaller greasy secretory organs. Product soaking up chiefly takes topographic point through the greasy canals ( healthy-skincare.com, neodymium ) .
Oil on the tegument
Male tegument is oilier than female tegument. This is due to the endocrine called, testosterone. This endocrine is responsible for exciting more greasy secernments. The male tegument being oilier makes the male tegument more prone to acne and acne related conditions ( healthy-skincare.com, neodymium ) .
The female tegument will endure more easy from ageing than a male tegument because the male tegument is thicker than a female tegument ( health-skincare.com, nd ) .
Fragility of the tegument
The male tegument is more delicate than that of a female. The ground is that male teguments have a history of non being decently cared for and this means that the tegument is exposed more to detrimental environmental factors. Shaving besides amendss the tegument ( healthy-skincare.com, nd ) .
Ripening of the tegument
The male tegument thins with age. A female tegument will most likely alteration coloring material and texture. This is due to the decrease in estrogen production after climacteric. The collagen content will diminish more in the female tegument than in the male tegument ( healthy-skincare.com, nd ) .
Overall males have are at higher hazard for any tegument malignant neoplastic disease than adult females. Females tend to develop melanoma more on countries such as the hip and lower leg ( refer to calculate 1 ) country. The upper dorsum is a really common country for work forces to develop melanoma. Melanoma on ears ( refer to calculate 2 ) , face, cervix and caput are countries in which work forces frequently develop melanoma due to the fact that there is less hair nowadays in the country to cover it ( healthy-skincare.com, nd ) .
Figure 1 ( Captain cutaneum, neodymium ) Figure 2 ( Captain cutaneum, neodymium )
Skin at 20
The oil content of the tegument is still high even though the endocrines have settled down after the teenage old ages. As the late mid-twentiess are reached the tegument will go more evidently dry and the formation of all right lines around the orbicularis oris start ( Fairley J, neodymium ) .
The usage of SPF everyday will ensue in the tegument being damaged less badly by the UV beams from the Sun. The usage of an orbicularis occuli pick at this age will assist command the formation of look lines ( Fairley J, neodymium ) .
Skin at 30
“ Ageing truly begins at 30 ” : Dr Brademas. ” At this age the skin underneath the orbicularis occuli will get down to thin. Collagen and elastin in the skin start to interrupt and this causes the formation of all right lines. The skin becomes dry really rapidly and the general tegument type for this age group is diffused inflammation ( oily on the t-panel and dry on the buccal country ) . Broken capillaries start looking on the tegument, and towards the terminal of this decennary solar lentegines besides start looking ( Fairley J, neodymium ) .
This tegument needs a rich dark pick to work intensively on the effects of ageing and an orbicularis occuli gel is besides needed. The ground for specifically an orbicularis occuli gel is that swelling under the orbicularis occuli may get down to go a job at this age. The tegument can non return to its normal form and tone as it used to at a younger age ( Fairley J, neodymium ) .
Skin at 40
The lines on the countries of the orbicularis oris, around the orbicularis occuli and frontalis appear deeper. Skin at this age is dry. The tegument will be more sensitive at this age because it is approaching the age of the oncoming of climacteric. The tegument will appears more dull all around ( Fairley J, neodymium ) .
At this age the tegument needs more than merely basic anti ageing intervention. The tegument needs more foods and stimulation. The usage of anti ageing serums and dark picks are necessary to maintain the tegument in the best status it can be ( Fairley J, neodymium ) .
Skin at 50
The all right lines and furrows present on the face at this age normally now develop into creases. The ground for this is that one time climacteric has passed the estrogen degree in the organic structure is much lower and the tegument becomes thinner and is more delicate. The tegument no longer has an efficient ability to retain its wet and collagen and elastin is really small. Around this clip it is really common for tegument to droop and peculiarly develop into lower jaw around the mandible part of the face ( Fairley J, neodymium ) .
The tegument needs intensive anti ageing intervention at this phase. The best is to include machine interventions to heighten the soaking up of merchandises into the deeper beds of the tegument. Care must be administered when utilizing active ingredients on the tegument as it is really sensitive ( Fairley J, neodymium ) .
In this literature survey it shows that the consequence of utilizing clinical tegument attention on an ripening tegument is marked. When utilizing merchandises suited to the aged tegument ‘s type and status it is seen that the merchandises will better the visual aspect on furrows and all right lines. Treatments including machines in a salon environment, done by a qualified healer, will hold a more pronounced consequence than merely utilizing the correct place attention. This is harmonizing to the information recorded in the literature survey.