Terms of knowledge and skills Essay

Recommendation on Technological Knowledge and Skills:

I would farther wish to include different technological demands in footings of cognition and accomplishments that different employees of an organisation should be holding so as they can efficaciously work in the organisation and stay up to day of the month with the technological betterments in the organisation. The execution of engineering can so assist organisations accomplish its concern aims ; nevertheless the employees should every bit good stay competent to farther heighten the effectivity and efficiency of operations.

The Technological demands differ from organisation to organisation and individual to individual depending upon the appellation and occupation demands nevertheless a average demand agenda is presented so as to do an effort for a benchmark.

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I would wish to province some cognition, accomplishments and competence demands that different directors are recommended to hold to increase their competence to command the technological apparatus of an organisation. I would wish to reiterate that the Investment in Technology is usually excessively high and critical. A little ignorance or inability to manage, proctor, evaluate or implement engineering can do organisations to fall.


Broad Knowledge or skill Area:General systems Concepts

Main Topic Area:

A ) Nature and Types of systems

Instructive sub-topics:

  • The General systems theory and system aims
  • o Well structured or ill structured o Open or closed systems o Formal or informal

  • Operational / strategic / tactical/
  • Transaction treating vs. operational vs. determination support

B ) The System architectures ( the constituents and relationships between them )

Instructive sub-topics:

Sub-systems in a system, the distributed systems, webs, hardware and Mobile installations

The Networks, the telecommunication systems and the electronic informations transportation

Partss of machines, equipments and general cognition about them

Software: different types of package and the public-service corporations

  • The Application development environment
  • The organisation of informations while processing and its entree methods

  • Files, informations bases, tabular arraies, informations base direction

C ) The Control and feedback in the systems

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Aims, monitoring, steps, feedback and followups

D ) Systems development life rhythm

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Probe and feasibleness surveies
  • System acquisition/development stages, undertakings.
  • The Requirements analysis and initial design
  • System installation/ execution
  • The Detailed design specifications and the certification
  • Care
  • Management of the Undertaking

Tocopherol ) Types and the nature of Systems

Instructive sub-topics:

  • The Routine, exclusion, prognostic Quantitative, ad hoc, qualitative
  • Transaction paperss, studies, screens, messages, etc.
  • The Data vs. information vs. cognition

F ) Attributes of the information

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Quality, dependability, relevancy, cost.
  • Completeness, degree of collection, truth, seasonableness and currency, frequence, handiness, handiness, genuineness, mandate, privateness, confidentiality, etc.
  • Decision value and the competitory advantage

G ) The Role of information inside the concern

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Users: internal and external.
  • Human information processing strengths, restrictions
  • Monitoring, action, job determination, determination support, etc.
  • Decision theory.
  • Reporting constructs and systems.
  • The Communication of information.

H ) The concern systems types

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Transaction processing system ( TPS ) .
  • Management information system ( MIS ) .
  • Production support systems.
  • Executive information system ( EIS ) .
  • Decision support system ( DSS ) .
  • Knowledge direction systems ( KMS ) .
  • Expert system ( ES ) , nervous web ( NN )

Broad Knowledge or skill Area: Transaction processing in concern systems

Main Topic Area:

A ) The Transaction Processing Phases

Instructive sub-topics:

  • The Data entry
  • The Transmission
  • The Edit/validation
  • The Master file update
  • File look-ups, computations, logical comparings
  • The Storage, record keeping, back-up
  • Question, audit trail, ad hoc study
  • Coverage, accounting, control, direction
  • Error bar, sensing, rectification

B ) Processing manners

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Transaction-oriented processing
  • Batch-oriented processing
  • Real-time processing
  • On-line processing
  • The Multi-programming, the multi-tasking and multi- processing
  • Distributed processing

C ) The Business paperss, the accounting records, the information bases, control and the direction studies

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Purchases/payables/payments
  • Revenue/receivables/receipts
  • Fixed assets
  • Inventories/cost of gross revenues
  • Distribution direction, logistics
  • Production planning, scheduling and control
  • Delivery of services
  • Human resources and paysheet
  • Treasury/Administration
  • Logisticss

Broad Knowledge or skill Area: The Hardware and the Physical Components of a system

Main Topic Area:

A ) Facilities

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Storage, media libraries, backup vaults
  • Data centres, outsourced installations
  • Physical security, logical security
  • Catastrophe recovery sites
  • Uninterruptible power beginning ( UPS )

B ) The Processing units

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Stand entirely or multi-user/network
  • Micro/workstation/mini /mainframe/supercomputer
  • Multi-processor vs. individual processor
  • Cardinal treating unit ( CPU ) , chief memory, etc.
  • Server, waiter farm
  • Buslines, overseas telegrams, integrated circuit cards, registries, micro-code, direction sets, etc.

C ) The Input and end product devices

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Keyboard, mouse, text acknowledgment, scanner, smart card, voice acknowledgment, write, show, pressman, tape, disc, etc.
  • Control units, buffers, channels, etc.

D ) Data communicating Devicess

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Modem, switch, router, concentrator, span, proctor, etc.
  • Wireless sender, receiving system, etc.

Tocopherol ) The Physical storage Devicess

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Data representation by computing machine, informations compaction
  • Computer end product microfilm ( COM )
  • Tape, disc, Digital Video Devices ( DVD ) and the compact disc read merely memory ( CD-ROM )

Broad Knowledge or skill Area: Networks and the Electronic informations transportation

Main Topic Area:

A ) Network constituents, Configurations and their designs

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Local country webs, broad country webs Wireless and the nomadic systems
  • Data transmittal options, public and private bearer services, etc.
  • Distributed processing webs
  • Data communicating and transmittal devices/software

Broad Knowledge or skill Area: Software

Main Topic Area:

A ) The Components of a package constellation

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Software designs for assorted processors
  • The Distinction between system and the application package
  • Workflow directors, middleware and other public-service corporations
  • Open vs. proprietary systems

B ) The Operating systems

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Graphical user interfaces
  • Single user vs. multi-user
  • Network, client/server, etc.
  • Memory and file system direction
  • Process direction

C ) The Communications Systems

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Communication protocols
  • Terminal proctor, web directory, etc.

D ) The Security package

Instructive sub-topics:

  • The Authentication and the entree control package
  • Invasion sensing
  • Anti-virus package
  • The Firewall
  • Security appraisal tools

Tocopherol ) The Utility package

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Text editor, directory director, file compaction, file backup/recovery, etc.
  • Performance monitoring package and the programming package, etc.

F ) The Programming Languages and the compilers

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Program control constructions
  • Machine code/assembly
  • Program specification, confirmation and proof
  • Procedural vs. non-procedural linguistic communications
  • Object-oriented linguistic communications and the multimedia authoring systems, etc.
  • Language rating and choice attacks

G ) The Programming AIDSs and the synergistic scheduling package

Instructive sub-topics:

  • The Application development environment
  • UML ( Unified Modeling Language )
  • Case tools and programming environment
  • Methods of plan design and development
  • Testing and certification

H ) The Library direction systems

Instructive sub-topics:

  • The Version control and the migration, etc.

I ) Data direction systems

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Tape and the disc direction systems
  • Report generators and informations retrieval package
  • The Hardcopy/microfiche/optical imagination
  • The On-line, archival
  • The Data base direction system

J ) The General applications package

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Differentiation from system package
  • Piecemeal vs. organization-wide development/ integrating
  • Competitive advantage
  • Package vs. usage package
  • End-user computer science
  • Distributed vs. centralised processing
  • Internet/intranet/extranet applications

K ) The E-business enabling package

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Customer Relationship Management ( CRM )
  • Supply concatenation direction ( SCM )
  • Gross saless force mechanization ( SFA )
  • Asset Management
  • Enterprise Resource Planning ( ERP )
  • Human Resources Management
  • Manufacturing ( CAD/CAM, CIM )
  • The Distribution and the logistics
  • Enterprise Application Integration ( EAI )
  • Booklet, catalog, exchange
  • Electronic commercialism systems
  • Order entry ( shopping cart ) , payment processing and fulfilment

The Knowledge direction systems

  • Knowledge creative activity, gaining control, sharing, care

Fiscal Coverage

L ) The Software for the professional usage

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Professional research tools
  • Accounting bundle
  • Presentation package
  • Word processor
  • Internet tools: the electronic mail, web browser, FTP
  • Spreadsheet
  • The Data base direction system

Broad Knowledge or skill Area: Protocols, criterions, enabling engineerings

Main Topic Area:

A ) The Common criterions

Instructive sub-topics:

Seven-layer OSI Reference Model

  • Presentation, Application
  • Physical, Data Link, Network, Transport, Session,

The Common Object Request Broker Architecture ( CORBA )

The Transmission control protocol/Internet protocol ( TCP/IP )

Electronic informations interchange ( EDI )

Wireless application protocol ( WAP )

B ) Internet protocols

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Package exchanging
  • Domain Name Server ( DNS )
  • Uniform Resource Locator ( URL )
  • File Transfer Protocol ( FTP )
  • Hypertext markup linguistic communication ( HTML )
  • Hypertext Transfer Protocol ( HTTP )
  • Extensile Business Reporting Language ( XBRL )
  • Extensile markup linguistic communication ( XML )
  • Internet Relay Chat Protocol ( IRC )

C ) The Standard-setting organisations

Instructive sub-topics:

  • American National Standards Institute ( ANSI )
  • Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers ( IEEE )
  • International Organization for Standardization ( ISO )
  • Open Systems Interconnections ( OSI )
  • Project Management Institute ( PMI )
  • Software Engineering Institute ( SEI )
  • World Wide Web Consortium ( W3C )

Broad Knowledge or skill Area: Data organisation and entree methods

Main Topic Area:

A ) Data constructions and file organisation

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Conceptual informations mold
  • Datas cryptography: characters, records, files, multi-media Preciseness of informations
  • Datas relationships: one-to-one, one-to-many, many-to-many
  • Entity-relationship schematization
  • Logical vs. physical
  • Standardization of informations
  • Referential unity
  • Table construction vs. user interface

B ) Access methods

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Direct ( random ) entree
  • Indexed consecutive entree
  • Consecutive entree

C ) Types of informations files

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Array, list, stack, waiting line, tree, index
  • Benefits of utilizing a database
  • Database: Relational, Network,
  • Hierarchical, Object-oriented
  • Master/transactions/tables

D ) Data base direction systems characteristics, maps, architectures

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Data storage, entree, and sharing
  • Performance tuning and prosodies
  • Roll back / journaling
  • Stored processs

Tocopherol ) Data base disposal

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Defining/ documenting informations base demands
  • File layout/ schema/ informations lexicon
  • Model information bases, distributed systems

F ) Document direction

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Computer end product microfilm ( COM ) , optical imaging systems, microfiche,
  • Capture, index, shop, retrieve, display/print

Broad Knowledge or skill Area: IT professionals and calling waies in IT organisations

Main Topic Area:

A ) Job maps

  • Instructive sub-topics:
  • Business analyst
  • Chief information officer ( CIO )
  • Data base administrator/data decision maker
  • Librarian
  • Network accountant
  • Operationss director and staff
  • Programmer
  • Quality confidence
  • Security officer
  • Systems analyst
  • Webmaster, web interior decorator

B ) Enrolling / developing IT human resources

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Career waies
  • Sourcing
  • Training and development

C ) Organization

Instructive sub-topics:

  • IT administration
  • Organization construction
  • Relationships of the IT section
  • Geting or Developing a System

Broad Knowledge or skill Area: System acquisition/development life rhythm stages, undertakings

Main Topic Area:

A ) Approachs

  • Instructive sub-topics:
  • Effect of new development techniques and direction theories on formal systems development life rhythm
  • The Waterfall, the spiral, synergistic

B ) Acquisition/development stages

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Detailed design specification/documentation
  • Probe and feasibleness survey
  • Care
  • Requirements analysis and initial design
  • System installation/implementation

C ) Standards, methods and controls

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Documentation demands
  • Economic, proficient, operational, behavioural
  • Main hazards and grounds for failure of system undertakings

Broad Knowledge or skill Area: Probe and The Feasibility survey

Main Topic Area:

A ) Probe

Instructive sub-topics: Instructive sub-topics:

  • Analysis of bing systems ; concern procedure integrating ; concern procedure re-engineering
  • Nature and size of concern
  • Scope of proposed system and information demands, engineering options

B ) Feasibility Study

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Cost/benefit analysis
  • Feasibility analysis
  • Statement of application demands

Broad Knowledge or skill Area: Requirements analysis and initial design

Main Topic Area:

A ) User demands evocation

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Datas bases/files/records
  • Integration with bing applications and systems
  • Processing
  • User interface: screen, study, signifier layouts
  • Volume, scalability, extensibility demands

B ) System analysis/design tools and techniques

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Data flow diagrams ; entity-relationship theoretical account, etc.
  • Decision tabular arraies and determination trees
  • Questionnaires, interviews, papers analysis, observation
  • Structured analysis and design methodological analysiss
  • Computer aided package technology ( CASE ) tools
  • Object methods
  • Unified Modeling Language ( UML )

C ) Process design, information organisation, package demands

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Application architecture
  • Infrastructure demands: installations, hardware, web
  • Technical architecture

D ) Control demands

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Availability, security/privacy, unity, maintainability

Broad Knowledge or skill Area: System design, choice, acquisition/development

Main Topic Area:

A ) Infrastructure and package services

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Contracting/leasing/licensing considerations
  • Choice of hardware, installations, webs
  • Choice of package bundles
  • Choice of vendor/ supplier/service supplier
  • Service degree understanding

B ) Developed package

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Programing AIDSs: Structured, event driven, object-oriented attacks
  • Application development environment ( programming languages/ compilers, etc.

C ) System design

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Acceptance proving attack
  • Audit trail ; dealing flows
  • Computerized and user controls
  • Data base/file design ; system and informations base integrating
  • Interfaces
  • System and web dealing burden
  • User interface: screen and study design

D ) Documentation

Instructive sub-topics:

  • User and operations manuals
  • Statement of proficient demands

Broad Knowledge or skill Area: System execution

Main Topic Area:

A ) System execution program

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Change Management
  • Data Conversion
  • Requirements
  • Hazard Management
  • System roll-out
  • User Acceptance
  • User Training
  • Documentation
  • Operation and recovery processs

B ) Install/deploy system

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Install/deploy constituents: substructure, package
  • Recruit/train forces
  • User/operator processs and controls

C ) Acceptance proving

Instructive sub-topics:

Acceptance proving attack

  • Develop high degree proving scenarios
  • Identify resources required
  • Relate to functional and proficient / architectural demands

Tools and support

  • Automated trial tool
  • Support
  • Test environment

Quality assurance/pre-implementation reappraisal

Test books and related informations

D ) System transition / conversion

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Automated / manual
  • Data transmutation demands
  • Operational considerations ( pilot, parallel running and traveling unrecorded )
  • Hazard direction
  • Trials
  • Clocking consideration
  • Resources required
  • Data transmutation tool
  • Conversion environment
  • Support

Trials to guarantee that the information is complete, accurate and authorised

Tocopherol ) Post-implementation reappraisal

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Benefits realized
  • Impact on users, direction and staff
  • Meets concern demands
  • Opportunities for betterment
  • Undertaking agenda and resources ( fiscal and people ) consumed

F ) Care criterions

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Mandate controls
  • Business procedures
  • Documentation criterions and controls
  • Execution controls
  • Information architecture
  • Infrastructure
  • Migration planning
  • Forces competences
  • Software
  • Version direction

G ) Change Controls

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Detention ; alteration mandate
  • Emergency alteration controls
  • Testing and quality confidence

Broad Knowledge or skill Area: System care and plan alterations

Main Topic Area:

A ) Initiate the undertaking

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Apply undertaking direction tools and techniques
  • Project sponsorship and support
  • Stakeholders
  • Footings of mention

B ) Plan the undertaking

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Communication demands of all undertaking stakeholders
  • Goods and / or services that will be required to finish the undertaking
  • Undertaking agenda, including sequence of undertakings and mileposts
  • Quality criterions that will be used to measure the undertaking
  • Resources and budgets
  • Scope, aims and deliverables
  • Scheme to accomplish aims and deliverables

C ) Risk direction attack on the undertaking

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Business hazard
  • Project direction hazard

D ) Execute the undertaking program, guaranting

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Goods and services are selected and contracted, as required
  • Proper communicating is defined
  • Quality criterions are understood
  • Staff is decently trained and managed

E ) Control the undertaking

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Control and co-ordinate alterations across the undertaking
  • Ensure consequences meet choice criterions and place methods
  • Pull off the undertaking budget
  • Ensure effectual hazard direction
  • Identify new hazards and alteration program consequently
  • Issue designation, escalation and declaration procedure
  • Monitor hazard extenuation
  • Report undertaking public presentation and revised agenda, as necessary
  • To rectify any jobs noted

F ) The Complete the undertaking

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Open points
  • Post-implementation reappraisal
  • Stakeholder communicating and sign-off
  • IT Management

Broad Knowledge or skill Area: IT Organization

Main Topic Area:

A ) The IT procedures, policies and the methodological analysiss

Instructive sub-topics: Instructive sub-topics:

  • Alliance with entity ‘s strategic program
  • Procedure to make and amend IT organisation
  • Procedure to keep certification
  • IT organisation to turn to:
  • Infrastructure, Software, People,

Procedures, Datas

B ) IT human resource policies

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Career waies
  • Compensation programs
  • Job descriptions
  • Performance rating
  • Recruitment and keeping
  • Skills appraisal
  • Training and enfranchisements

Broad Knowledge or skill Area: Management of IT operations, effectivity, and efficiency

Main Topic Area:

A ) The Human resources direction processs used to keep organisational efficiencies

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Care of updates and ascents
  • Ongoing support processs
  • Resource procurance

B ) The Relationship of the substructure to applications and the demands of the users

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Compatibility of constituents
  • Data/information architecture
  • Developing operational precedences
  • Impact of IT on processs
  • IT substructure ( hardware, installations, webs ) Software ( systems, applications, public-service corporations )
  • Planing IT capacity

C ) The Monitoring service provider activities

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Collaborative computer science
  • Distributed systems
  • EDI and electronic commercialism
  • Performance measuring ( productiveness, service quality )
  • Outsourced services ( ISPs, ASPs, etc )

Broad Knowledge or skill Area: Asset Management

Main Topic Area:

A ) The rhythm of Asset life

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Acquisition
  • Retirement
  • Change

B ) The Asset control and the direction

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Contracts and licences and rational belongings issues
  • Cross-border transit and storage of informations
  • Data ownership, dependability and privateness issues
  • IT stock list
  • User certification, ongoing preparation and end-user support
  • Service supplier certification

Broad Knowledge or skill Area: Management of system alteration and job declaration

Main Topic Area:

A ) The techniques of Change control

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Blessing
  • Mandate
  • Documentation
  • Human resources, including preparation
  • Impact analysis
  • Internal control
  • Migration programs
  • Release direction
  • Testing / Feedback

B ) The Problem direction

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Help / Service desk support system
  • Integration with alteration control direction
  • Problem analysis and trending
  • Problem declaration / escalation processs
  • Routing and assignment of jobs

C ) The Management of the end-user computer science

Instructive sub-topics:

  • End-user system security
  • Information centre, aid desk
  • Support for end-user applications
  • Technology diffusion

Broad Knowledge or skill Area: The Performance of monitoring and the fiscal control over the IT resources

Main Topic Area:

A ) The Performance prosodies

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Defined
  • Deviations from criterions are reported
  • Measured and compared to criterions
  • Monitored

B ) The IT cost controls

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Accounting for system costs
  • Charge and chargeback processs to user sections
  • Capital budget
  • Costing processs as defined and implemented
  • Costss identifiable and mensurable
  • Time/expense tracking

C ) IT control aims

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Conformity with applicable Torahs and ordinances
  • Effectiveness of controls ( design, operation )
  • Effectiveness, efficiency, economic system of operations
  • IT plus safeguarding
  • Dependability of fiscal coverage
  • The System dependability
  • Access controls ( physical, logical )
  • Handiness and the continuity ( the back-up and the recovery )
  • Privacy, confidentiality
  • Processing unity ( completeness, truth, seasonableness, mandate )

Data unity

Information Technology Strategy

Broad Knowledge or skill Area: Enterprise scheme and vision

Main Topic Area:

A ) Internal and external concern issues

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Business focal point of the entity
  • Business procedures as they relate to the strategic program
  • Operational kineticss that influence the concern
  • Position of the entity within its industry
  • Relationship of IT scheme and concern scheme

B ) Factors that impact IT

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Budgets
  • Business units ( Customers, Markets, Industries )
  • Flexibility of alterations in engineering or concern
  • Legal, regulative and confidence
  • Service degree and operational demands: handiness, scalability, security, unity, extensibility, maintainability, manageableness
  • Speed to market

Broad Knowledge or skill Area: Assess current and future IT environment

Main Topic Area:

A ) Current position of entity ‘s usage of IT to back up concern procedures

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Datas
  • Infrastructure
  • Peoples
  • Procedures and controls
  • Software

B ) IT risks and chances

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Business and IT alignment
  • Conformity with service degree understandings / marks Capacity and public presentation capablenesss
  • Stakeholder attitudes
  • Tendencies, issues concerns in current environment

Broad Knowledge or skill Area: IT strategic planning

Main Topic Area:

A ) Envision future position of the entity ‘s system

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Communicating with stakeholders
  • Critical success factors, appropriate measurings
  • Sourcing scheme

B ) Align hereafter IT scheme with concern scheme

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Action programs, timelines, passage elements
  • Business restraints ( quality, clip, cost )
  • IT direction ‘s ends and aims
  • Overall feasibleness and range
  • Sponsor and stakeholder blessing

Broad Knowledge or skill Area: Ongoing administration and outcome monitoring procedure

Main Topic Area:

A ) Model for IT administration

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Control environment / civilization
  • Policies and processs
  • Hazard appraisal
  • Monitoring of controls and hazards
  • Information and communicating

B ) The Outcome measuring

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Cost-effectiveness of IT processes
  • Linkages between IT and enterprise administration
  • Satisfaction of stakeholders
  • Sharing of cognition and information
  • Staff productiveness
  • Use of IT substructure
  • Business Process Enablement

Broad Knowledge or skill Area: Stakeholders and their demands

Main Topic Area:

A ) The Monitoring service of the flat public presentation against the service degree understandings

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Amending service degree understandings
  • Handiness
  • Privacy
  • Processing unity
  • Quality of service
  • Redresss
  • Response clip
  • Security and controls

Broad Knowledge or skill Area: The entity ‘s concern theoretical accounts

Main Topic Area:

A ) Business theoretical accounts

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Gross
  • Distribution
  • Supply
  • Market
  • Organization
  • Legal and regulative issues

B ) Effectiveness of the entity ‘s concern procedures

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Revenue/receivables/receipts
  • Purchases/payables/payments
  • Inventories/cost of gross revenues
  • Fixed assets
  • Production planning, scheduling and control
  • Distribution direction, logistics
  • Human resources and paysheet
  • Delivery of services
  • Logisticss
  • Treasury/Administration

Broad Knowledge or skill Area: Hazards and chances

Main Topic Area:

A ) Barriers and enablers

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Technology
  • Alignment of concern procedures and IT with concern scheme
  • Business Process Re-engineering
  • Organizational construction and civilization
  • Leadership
  • Human resources
  • Capital
  • Legal and Regulatory

Broad Knowledge or skill Area: Impact of IT on the entity ‘s concern theoretical accounts, procedures and solutions

Main Topic Area:

A ) Applications of Internet-commerce

Instructive sub-topics:

Business to concern ( B2B )

  • Credit mandate, Wire lines ( ACH, EFT )
  • Exchange, Portal, Public / private exchange, EDI,

Internet-commerce issues and tendencies

Business to consumer ( B2C )

Business to employee ( B2E )

Consumer to consumer ( C2C )

Distance acquisition ; distributed acquisition

Electronic authorities

B ) Enterprise systems

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Architecture
  • See e-business enabling package under IT


Broad Knowledge or skill Area: Control models

Main Topic Area:

A ) The Risks and the exposures in the computer-based information systems

Instructive sub-topics:

Mistake, fraud, inordinate cost, vandalism/abuse, concern break, deficient grosss, competitory disadvantage, statutory countenances, societal costs, etc.

Consequence of IT audit on organisation, controls:

  • Cost/benefit
  • Economic, proficient, operational, behavioural considerations

B ) IT control models

Instructive sub-topics:

COBIT, SysTrust, ITCG, BS7799, WebTrust, OECD, etc

Broad Knowledge or skill Area: Control aims

Main Topic Area:

A ) Effectiveness, efficiency, economic system of operations

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Cost effectivity of control processs

B ) Reliability of fiscal coverage

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Relevance, comparability/consistency, dependability

C ) Effectiveness of controls ( design, operation )

Instructive sub-topics:

  • At any point in any clip ; during a period of clip

D ) IT plus safeguarding

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Evaluation of installations direction and IT plus safeguarding

Tocopherol ) Conformity with applicable Torahs and ordinances

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Prevention/detection of fraud, mistake and illegal Acts of the Apostless
  • Privacy, confidentiality, right of first publication issues

F ) System dependability

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Availability and continuity ( back-up, recovery )
  • Access controls ( physical, logical )
  • Maintainability
  • Processing unity ( completeness, truth, seasonableness, mandate )

G ) Data unity

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Input/output ; reception/distribution controls
  • Completeness, truth, consistency/ comparison, currency/timeliness, mandate, audit-ability

Broad Knowledge or skill Area: Layers of control

Main Topic Area:

A ) Societal Organizational environment Technology substructure Software Business procedure

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Attitudes, Torahs and ordinances
  • Hardware, installations, web
  • Board degree, direction degree, IT administrative/operational degree
  • User section, single user
  • System, application

Broad Knowledge or skill Area: Duty for control

Main Topic Area:

A ) Roles and duties of cardinal parties

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Board, top direction
  • IT direction and IT forces
  • User sections, persons
  • Hearers

Broad Knowledge or skill Area: Control Environment

Main Topic Area:

A ) External regulative controls

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Record maintaining, privateness, right of first publication, revenue enhancement, etc

B ) Board/audit commission administration

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Regulatory conformity, fiducial duties, IT administration, system dependability

C ) Management doctrine and operating manner

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Integrity and ethical values, committedness to competence

D ) Plan/structure of organisation

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Leadership for IT organisation, organisation of IT map, segregation of incompatible IT and user maps, partnerships with other organisations

Tocopherol ) Methods to pass on the assignment of authorization and duty

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Business patterns, codifications of behavior, certification of systems, operations, user duties, describing relationships

F ) Management control methods

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Strategic planning, budgeting, concern system/IT integrating planning, supervising conformity with policies, public presentation measuring

G ) Human resource policies and patterns

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Hiring, preparation, rating, compensation of IT forces, calling waies

H ) Financial policies and patterns

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Budgeting procedure
  • Cost charge out methods

Broad Knowledge or skill Area: System acquisition/ development procedure

Main Topic Area:

A ) Probe and feasibleness survey

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Cost/benefit analysis
  • Hazard appraisal
  • Steering Committee

B ) Requirements analysis and initial design

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Control demands

C ) Detailed design specification / certification

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Controls

D ) Execution

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Acceptance Testing
  • Conversion/changeover
  • Post-implementation reappraisal
  • Quality confidence
  • System installation/ execution

Tocopherol ) System care and alteration

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Change mandate, logging and proving
  • Care of hardware and package
  • Forces preparation and development
  • Systems certification and operations manuals

F ) Project direction / planning/control methods and criterions

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Documentation demands
  • Expense budget
  • Undertaking features and hazards
  • Undertaking stages, undertakings and controls
  • Undertaking scheduling
  • Undertaking staffing

Broad Knowledge or skill Area: Hazard Appraisal

Main Topic Area:

A ) Hazard classs

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Economic, proficient, operational, behavioural
  • Mistake, fraud, vandalism/abuse, concern break, competitory disadvantage, inordinate cost, deficient grosss, statutory countenances, societal costs, etc.

Main grounds for failure of computing machine undertakings

B ) Probability of loss

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Quantitative/qualitative

C ) Consequences

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Balancing costs of controls vs. costs of unmitigated hazards
  • Monetary, non-monetary

Broad Knowledge or skill Area: Control Activities

Main Topic Area:

A ) Control design

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Eventuality programs, insurance
  • Detective application controls
  • Effect of control environment ( personnel direction methods )
  • Legal, ethical, professional standards/requirements
  • Aims, model, environment, activities, monitoring
  • Preventive application controls
  • Preventive/detective/corrective schemes

B ) Control processs

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Adequate paperss and records
  • Asset precautions ; restriction of entree to assets
  • Mandate
  • Comparison of accounting records with assets
  • Computer-dependent controls ( edit, proof, etc. )
  • Independent cheques on public presentation ; confirmation of accounting records, Separation of incompatible maps ( organisational design, user designation, informations categorization, user/function/data mandate matrix, user hallmark )
  • User controls ( control reconciliation, manual followup, etc. )
  • Audited account trails
  • Error identification/investigation /correction/tracking

C ) Control over informations unity, privateness and security

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Access direction controls
  • Consideration of forces issues and confidentiality
  • Categorization of information
  • Data security techniques
  • Logical entree controls ( user mandate matrix )
  • Monitoring and surveillance techniques
  • Network security ( encoding, firewalls )
  • Physical design and entree controls
  • Program security techniques
  • Understanding of informations protection statute law

D ) Availability/ continuity of processing, catastrophe recovery planning and control

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Alternate processing installation agreements
  • Catastrophe recovery procedural program, certification
  • Integration with concern continuity programs
  • Periodic trials of recovery processs Insurance
  • Software and informations backup techniques ( jobs of online systems, etc. )
  • Menace and hazard direction

Tocopherol ) IS processing/operations

Instructive sub-topics:


  • Business procedures
  • Human resources ( skill sets and staffing degrees )
  • Infrastructure ( hardware, installations, webs )
  • Software

Planing and scheduling ; service degrees ; hazards

Performance monitoring

  • Business drivers that impact IT ( e.g. , scalability, right-sizing flexibleness of alterations in engineering or concern, velocity to market, cross-platform capableness )
  • Costs/benefits ( quantitative and qualitative impact on direction, occupations and office processs )
  • Control over productiveness and service quality
  • Input/output distribution and control
  • Security and endorse up and recovery
  • Software/data library direction

Broad Knowledge or skill Area: Information and communicating

Main Topic Area:

A ) Information processing system

Instructive sub-topics:

Key procedures

Peoples, processs, informations, package, substructure

  • Appropriate measurement/valuation
  • Appropriate presentation
  • Appropriate timing/cut-off
  • Designation and recording of all valid minutess
  • Proper/timely categorization of minutess

B ) Communication of authority/ duties

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Documentation of systems, operations, user duties,
  • Business patterns, codifications of behavior, policy manuals, memos, etc.
  • Training, supervising
  • Reporting relationships

Broad Knowledge or skill Area: Monitoring of control conformity

Main Topic Area:

A ) Roles of direction users, hearers ( internal, external )

Instructive sub-topics:

  • External monitoring procedures
  • Internal monitoring procedures
  • Performance reappraisal procedures
  • Procedures for turn toing non-compliance

B ) Computer-assisted audit techniques

Instructive sub-topics:

  • Administrative AIDSs ( e.g. , word processing, audit plan coevalss, work paper generators, etc. )
  • Data unity testing ( e.g. , generalized audit package, public-service corporations, usage plans, trying modus operandis, etc. )
  • Problem work outing AIDSs ( e.g. , spreadsheet, database, online information bases, etc )
  • System analysis and certification ( e.g. , flowcharting bundles, reappraisal of plan logic, etc )
  • System/program testing ( e.g. , trial informations, integrated trial installation, parallel simulation, etc )

Competences for Controling the Technology

Feature: Select suited control standards for control rating

  • Identify relevant IT control model to use to the analysis and rating of internal control
  • Identify relevant IT control objectives to use to the analysis and rating of internal control
  • Identify relevant beds of control to be included in the analysis and rating
  • Identify countries of duty for identified control aims

Feature: Evaluate control environment

Understand external regulative controls

  • Analyze and measure effectivity of board of managers or audit commission engagement
  • Analyze and measure effectivity of direction doctrine and operating manner
  • Analyze and measure the effectivity of organisational constructions
  • Analyze and measure the effectivity of assignment of authorization and duty
  • Analyze and measure the effectivity of direction control methods
  • Analyze and measure the effectivity of human resource policies and patterns
  • Analyze and measure the effectivity of fiscal policies and patterns
  • Feature: Evaluate system acquisition / development procedure and controls
  • Analyze and measure effectivity of systems acquisition/development methodological analysis, including make/buy standards
  • Analyze and measure effectivity of criterions for systems development undertaking direction and control
  • Analyze and measure conformity with criterions for system probe and feasibleness survey
  • Analyze and measure conformity with criterions for finding of user demands and initial system design
  • Analyze and measure conformity with criterions for system design, choice, acquisition/development
  • Analyze and measure conformity with criterions for system execution, including system testing, preparation, informations transition and quality confidence
  • Analyze and measure conformity with criterions for system care and alteration direction

Feature: Evaluate hazard appraisal procedures and activities

  • Analyze and measure procedure for placing the entity ‘s exposures to hazards
  • Analyze and measure procedure for gauging chance of loss
  • Analyze and measure procedure for gauging pecuniary and non-monetary effects
  • Analyze and measure procedure for developing cost-efficient preventive/ detective/corrective schemes to turn to hazards

Feature: Evaluate information system processing operations and controls

  • Analyze and measure effectivity of design and operation of entity ‘s information processing and communicating activities in support of organisational aims
  • Analyze and measure effectivity of controls over informations unity, privateness and security
  • Analyze and measure effectivity of controls over completeness, truth, seasonableness and mandate of system processing
  • Analyze and measure effectivity of controls over system handiness, continuity of concern processing and catastrophe recovery planning

Feature: Evaluate information system processing operations and controls

  • Analyze and measure internal monitoring procedures, including their effectivity in taking to alterations in controls or control environment
  • Analyze and measure public presentation reappraisal procedure
  • Analyze and measure procedure for turn toing non-compliance or impairment in conformity identified by supervising activities of direction, users, internal hearers, external hearers
  • Use appropriate computer-assisted audit techniques to analyse and measure monitoring procedures and activities.

Competence required for Users of Technology

Feature: Apply appropriate Technical systems / tools to concern / accounting jobs

Explanation of Feature:

Relevant both accounting/business contexts include undertakings such as:

  • Gather, organize, sum up, construe informations
  • Evaluate and take alternate classs of action
  • Document observations and determinations
  • Devise schemes and tactics
  • Evaluate public presentation
  • Plan, agenda and proctor activities
  • Direct allotment of resources
  • Communicate with others
  • Apply runing system ( Windows, Other )
  • Apply word processing package in a relevant accounting/business context
  • Apply spreadsheet package in a relevant accounting/business context
  • Apply database package in a relevant accounting/business context
  • Apply Internet tools ( E-mail, Web Browser, FTP, Other ) package in a relevant accounting/business context
  • Apply professional research tools in a relevant accounting/business context
  • Apply concern presentation package in a relevant accounting/business
  • Apply anti-virus and other security package in a relevant accounting/ concern context
  • Apply public-service corporation package and other relevant package in a relevant accounting/ concern context

Feature: Demonstrate apprehension of concern and accounting systems

  • Demonstrate apprehension of accounting bundles
  • Demonstrate apprehension of e-business systems ( ERP, CRM, and other concern mechanization systems )
  • Demonstrate apprehension of webs ( LAN )
  • Demonstrate apprehension of electronic commercialism characteristics ( B2C and B2B theoretical accounts, encoding tools, digital signatures/certificates, cardinal direction )
  • Ensure treating unity of IT resources
  • Ensure security and safeguarding of IT resources
  • Ensure availability/continuity commissariats ( back-up and the recovery ) for IT resources

Competence required for Directors pull offing the Technology

Feature: Manage entity ‘s IT scheme

  • Understand endeavor scheme and concern issues and related IT hazards and chances
  • Develop an IT strategic program to back up the entity ‘s concern program
  • Align/integrate IT strategic program with entity ‘s business/program aims and success factors
  • Translate strategic business/program aims into operating rules for IT planning
  • Facilitate concern procedure enablement through the usage of IT

Feature: Manage IT organisation

  • Define occupation maps and duties of the IT section
  • Define organisation chart/reporting relationships of the IT section
  • Define and implement procedure forrecruiting, staffing, forces development and public presentation rating

Feature: Manage IT operations effectivity and efficiency

  • Measure, analyze and measure consistence and compatibility of system constituents
  • Analyze, evaluate and program IT capacity
  • Analyze and evaluate impact of IT on direction, occupations and office processs
  • Define/maintain data/information architecture
  • Acquire/develop/maintain antiphonal IT substructure ( hardware, installations, communicating webs )
  • Acquire/develop/maintain package ( systems, applications, public-service corporations )
  • Plan and agenda system operations precedences and allocate resources
  • Measure, analyze and evaluate IS effectivity and productiveness sweetening
  • Measure, analyze and measure IT map public presentation, productiveness and service quality, quality confidence processes, uninterrupted betterment
  • Monitor outsourced services ( ISPs, ASPs, etc. ) and inter-organizational computer science such as EDI and e-commerce services

Feature: Maintain fiscal control over IT

  • Develop capital budget
  • Account for system costs
  • Implement systems for tracking costs
  • Proctor disbursals

Feature: Manage IT controls

  • Implement physical and logical precautions for hardware, installations, package and information
  • Implement system and informations security ( i.e. , physical, logical/electronic entree controls )
  • Implement system handiness and concern continuity controls ( back-up/ recovery, catastrophe planning )
  • Implement system treating unity ( i.e. , completeness, truth, seasonableness and mandate ) controls
  • Implement informations unity, privateness and confidentiality controls

Feature: Manage system acquisition, development and execution

  • Identify and measure appropriate development/ acquisition options such as in-house/ outsourcing
  • Implement and proctor system acquisition/ development and execution criterions
  • Determine and supply system undertaking staffing demands and budgets
  • Implement undertaking direction processes to pull off and supervise system undertakings
  • Use appropriate methodological analysiss to place, analyse, measure and choose appropriate provider ( s ) and system ( s )
  • Manage outlooks by pass oning system acquisition/development programs and position to users, top management/steering commission

Feature: Manage system alteration and job declaration

Manage engineering diffusion

  • Implement and manage information centre, aid desk
  • Implement and proctor criterions and controls applicable to IS care activities
  • Implement and supervise version direction
  • Manage detention of systems, alteration mandate
  • Implement and proctor procedure for migrating systems from bequest to province of the art
  • Implement and proctor exigency alteration controls
  • Implement and proctor testing and quality confidence for all system alterations

Competence required for Designers planing the Technological System

Feature: Analyze and evaluate function of information in the entity ‘s concern procedures and organisation

  • Facilitate the development of the entity ‘s strategic vision for IT
  • Identify stakeholders and their demands
  • Assess the concern impact of entity ‘s strategic vision for IT on the entity, its clients, providers and employees
  • Facilitate communicating between users, engineers and direction
  • Analyze, evaluate and design information architecture ( i.e. , function of informations bases and informations base direction systems including knowledge direction systems, informations warehouses )
  • Analyze, evaluate and design entity ‘s concern procedures
  • Analyze, evaluate and design entity ‘s system development life rhythm ( SDLC ) phases, undertakings
  • Analyze and measure system hazards and chances
  • Analyze, evaluate and design controls

Feature: Apply project direction methods

  • Analyze and measure undertaking features and hazards
  • Form undertaking into stages and undertakings matching to relevant phases of the systems development life rhythm
  • Identify appropriate staff and other resources and assign to project stages and undertakings
  • Assign clip, disbursal and other resource budgets to project stages and undertakings
  • Apply appropriate criterions and controls to the undertaking phases and undertakings
  • Identify required undertaking certification and assign duty for its readying
  • Monitor undertaking activities for conformity with budgets, criterions, controls and certification demands and take disciplinary action when required

Feature: Apply system probe, undertaking induction methods

  • Perform system probe
  • Identify concern procedure integration/re-engineering chances
  • Research relevant engineering options
  • Prepare feasibleness survey and measure undertaking hazards

Feature: Apply user demands finding and initial design methods

  • Apply information demands evocation methods
  • Document information demands ( including control demands )
  • Facilitate communicating of information demands between squad members, users, direction
  • Analyze demands and execute initial design ( including controls )

Feature: Apply elaborate system design, acquisition / development methods

  • Prepare and papers elaborate design specifications
  • Evaluate and get substructure
  • Evaluate and acquire/develop needed system, application and public-service corporation package
  • Choice providers and service suppliers
  • Prepare hardware contracts, installations rentals, package licences, web service degree understandings in audience with legal advisers
  • Prepare certification and operations manuals

Feature: Apply system execution methods

  • Prepare execution program
  • Supervise installation/deployment of system constituents
  • Develop user/operator processs and controls and recruit, train Forces
  • Test ( verify and validate ) system against specifications and demands
  • Convert system, equilibrate pre-post informations, and start-up
  • Perform post-implementation reappraisal

Feature: Apply system care and alteration direction methods

  • Keep IT substructure
  • Maintain package ; control versions
  • Test all system alterations
  • Maintain forces competences through hiring, preparation
  • Keep IT criterions and controls
  • Maintain information architecture
  • Maintain concern procedures

Competence required for Technology Evaluators

Feature: Plan system rating

  • Identify IT confidence service demand or chance.
  • Analyze/evaluate and rede on entity ‘s IT confidence demands based on legal, ethical, professional criterions and other demands and best patterns.
  • Identify nature of peculiar IT confidence battle or undertaking and criterions and other demands regulating the battle.
  • Analyze and make up one’s mind whether to accept the IT confidence battle or undertaking.
  • Specify the range of the IT confidence battle or undertaking.
  • Identify, analyze and evaluate hazard factors and concern issues impacting the IT confidence battle or undertaking and their deductions.
  • Define level/frequency of system mistakes, defects and failures that are deemed significant/material.
  • Design effectual and efficient confirmation processs, including computing machine assisted audit techniques ( CAATs ) , to run into rating aims while following with professional criterions.
  • Assign and schedule staff with appropriate IT skills, including IT specializer forces, to execute the IT confidence battle or undertaking.

Feature: Evaluate System

  • Collaborate with co-workers, client and others, including IT specializer forces.
  • Perform planned processs, including CAATs, exerting required controls over their executing.
  • Adjust planned processs for alterations in fortunes.
  • Document processs and their findings.
  • Analyze and measure evidence/results of processs.
  • Perform supervising, reappraisal and quality confidence processs.

Feature: Communicate consequences of ratings and follow up

  • Prepare appropriate type of communicating, including verbal communicating, “ seal ” or printed study.
  • Present communicating verbally, electronically or in printed format to client or other intended receivers.
  • Update communicating every bit often as required ( e.g. , review the “ seal ” or describe posted on a web site ) .
  • Follow up every bit required.

Competence required for Technology Evaluators

Feature: Business Strategic Planning

  • Understanding the concern or endeavor vision and schemes
  • Appraisal of current environment
  • Visualizing the hereafter environment
  • Appraisal of a strategic program
  • Constitution of a monitoring system and result measuring

Feature: Systems Management

  • Appraisal of the organisation
  • Appraisal of the operations, effectivity, and efficiency with engineering
  • Appraisal of plus an organisation has
  • Appraisal of alteration control / job direction
  • Monitoring public presentation and fiscal control over technological resources

Feature: Enterprise Technology Architecture

  • Analysis of the entity ‘s Technology architecture
  • Understanding the current capacities
  • Describing the entity ‘s patterns
  • Understanding the criterions, protocols, enabling engineerings and application development environment

Feature: System Dependability

  • Understanding the basic rules of dependable system
  • Developing or happening a standard for rating of a system
  • Understanding the controls for system dependability
  • Understanding the privateness issues
  • Understanding the assura