Risk management in project development Essay

Risk Management In Software development


Hazards are ever associated with any sort of undertaking development. It is of import to place and command the hazards associated with any undertaking as of import it is to develop a undertaking. Particularly with package undertakings there are many unexpected jobs which may impede the package development procedure. It is important to command these hazards from the proficient development of constituents for a undertaking to be successful. Hence the package industry is seeing package development hazard direction as an of import pattern to minimise the happening of hazards associated with the undertaking. This research papers gives an penetration into assorted hazards associated with package development and the methods to cut down these hazards.

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Risk direction is a really interesting subject in today ‘s universe. Now as yearss we see that package is an indispensable portion of any application and is used in every company for assorted intents. Software has become an of import portion of life and is practically used in mundane life for assorted intents. Now yearss, due to increase in package companies and use of cyberspace, a batch of complex and big package undertakings are developed. These undertakings have restraints of resources, cost and agenda. So it becomes necessary to construct these undertakings risk free as there are many factors and restraints associated with it.

In the present competitory universe, there are a batch of companies doing assorted packages which are big graduated table and little graduated table. With this immense range developing package, comes the hazards of managing and developing successful package. Technology is advanced enormously but still the jobs and hazards related to package development exist. Research has shown that 85 % of all undertakings being developed fail due to assorted hazards associated with undertaking development. Out of these 40 % wholly fail due to uncomplete demands and 46 % due to be and agenda over tallies and improper functionality. So, effectual hazard direction is of import for successful undertaking development.


A Hazard is the happening of an event which can adversely impact or impede the development procedure. A hazard is any event which is likely to go on or non but if it does go on will hold a negative consequence on the undertaking. Hazard can non be classified into assorted classs but it is the types of hazards that need to be identified which are associated with a undertaking. The hazards may change from pull offing squad members, resources and altering environment or engineering. Technical hazards lie at the bosom of most of the causes of package undertaking failures. Technical hazards can be defined as “ the possibility that the application of package technology theory, rules, and techniques will neglect to give the right package merchandise. Technical hazard is comprised of the implicit in technological factors that may do the concluding merchandise to be: excessively expensive, delivered tardily, or unacceptable to the client. ” ( Dhlamini, J. 2009 )

Risk Management and Factors Responsible for Risks:

Risk Management can be defined as “ An application of appropriate tools and processs to incorporate hazard within acceptable bounds by placing, turn toing, and extinguishing possible jobs before they damage a undertaking. “ ( Dhlamini, J. 2009 ) . It contains procedures, methods and tools for pull offing hazards associated with a package undertaking. The basic purpose of hazard direction is to early analyze and place the hazards associated with the undertaking development and take the necessary stairss change the class of action to minimise the hazards. Risk Management is fundamentally a uninterrupted and formalistic procedure of appraisal which requires a team-oriented and needs unfastened communicating between all the members.

The assorted factors responsible for hazards in development of package undertakings are range, resources, cost, communicating, integrating, clip graduated table, quality and contracts. Every factor has its ain hazard and affects the undertaking development in a manner if non managed decently. Like if the undertaking is outsourced there are times when the communicating is non clear between the offshore and onshore squad. Most of the times to cut the costs the direction, might non utilize the right beginnings required for the undertaking ensuing in a failure. Sometimes the demands are non defined decently with may ensue into a merchandise which is non per the outlooks therefore impacting the quality of the merchandise. At times, while the undertaking is half manner through and there is a alteration in the engineering and company policy which may impact the undertaking. Many times, stakeholder struggles may besides impact the undertaking cost and deadline. Integration is besides an issue if many squads are take parting in undertaking development.

Risk Management Models:

There have been assorted attacks and theoretical accounts proposed for package hazard direction based on the research on the hazards associated with undertakings and the experiences of the undertaking directors and professionals. There are a few basic attacks for hazard direction. They are traditional and risk-oriented method. The traditional attack is really generic to all the undertakings trades with the hazards associated with all the undertakings in general and specific to a peculiar undertaking. The 2nd attack is risk-oriented which deals with placing the hazards associated with a particular undertaking and aims to cover with those hazards before they harm the undertaking. Goal Driven Software Development Risk Management theoretical account is a risk-oriented attack to cover with the hazards associated with the package undertaking development. There are many such theoretical accounts that were proposed like the first one proposed by Barry Boehm in 1988. His proposed a model by roll uping all the demands and measures together. SEI ( Software Engineering Institute-1997 ) besides proposed a hazard direction model. The end of this model was to assist the director, developers and other determination shapers to place the hazards at an early phase of development, so that appropriate steps can be taken at the right clip to minimise the hazard. Karolak in 1996 besides proposed a theoretical account for hazard direction to manage high degree hazards. This theoretical account proposed a theoretical account to manage the hazards which affect the cost and clip of undertaking development. The assorted methodological analysiss for hazard direction are given below: a ) Goal Driven Software Development Risk Management Model ( GSRM ) :

The GSRM is risk direction attack which consists of a theoretical account of four beds to pull off hazards in package development. The advantage of utilizing a superimposed attack is that any technique can be applied to any bed at any clip without impacting the other beds. The diagram for the GSRM is shown below,

Goal Layer:

This is the first bed in GSRM where identifying, lucubrating and mold of ends are done based on the constituents to be developed for undertaking to be successful. Success of a undertaking can be defined as anything like run intoing the deadlines, within estimated cost, to the full functional undertaking, run intoing the user demands, etc. So, success agencies placing all the proficient constituent development to be done every bit early as possible. In GSRM, the ends can be identified as undertaking range, concern demands, user demand, cost appraisal, agenda, etc. So these ends in the development procedure must be ensured to be within project range, maintained under distinct budget and to realistic clip graduated table, achieve all the concern demands and cut down hazards based on the nature of undertaking, for a successful undertaking development. Many times these ends may be excessively high so they are divided into little ends which can be achieved at different degrees of abstraction. So it is of import to achieve these little ends to achieve the concluding end. Due to this, it is easy to pattern the development constituents where fulfilling the end makes it easy to concluding undertaking fulfilment. ( Islam, S. 2009 )

Risk-Obstacle Layer:

This is the 2nd bed in the GSRM theoretical account, which identifies the hazards associated with the undertaking development. These hazards can be considered as possible obstructions which are identified from the early developed constituents and can impact the undertaking end. Many times there are processes that depend on each other and if there is an obstruction in one of the procedure it may do obstructor in other procedures besides. Obstacles can be due to human mistake, incorrect information, vague/incomplete demands, miscommunication, incorrect engineering execution, etc which may blockade the accomplishment of ends ensuing in impacting the clip graduated table and cost of development. So risk obstruction designation is done through questionnaire, cross look intoing the demands and brainstorming with the stakeholders. A set of brainstorming session and questionnaire is followed after the initial set of constituents developed to place the hazards before they worsen. These hazards are so assessed by the appraisal bed. ( Islam, S. 2009 )

Assessment Layer:

This is the 3rd bed in GSRM, where the hazard is decently analyzed and explained the event that caused the hazard to happen. The hazard event that has caused the hazard has two belongingss: likeliness and badness. Badness increases the negative impact of the hazard event and likeliness is the possibility of a hazard happening due to the event. There are some hazard factors that can give rise to one hazard event which may do many obstructions taking to upseting the concluding end. So this allows in analysing the assorted hazard factors and the impact that these hazards will hold on the set of ends to be achieved. So this bed considers hazards prosodies to place the likeliness of happening of the hazard event due to the hazard factors. These hazard prosodies considers the hazard factors, hazard happening likeliness and hazard badness for analysing and mensurating the hazards which makes the procedure really easy and simple to place the hazards at early phase of development. For the appraisal this theoretical account uses Bayesian ‘s subjective chance for analysing the hazards events that occurred due to put on the line factors. In this theoretical account, on those hazard events that have a negative consequence on the ends to accomplish are considered. So, this bed fundamentally gives the hazards in the order of likeliness and badness that may impact the satisfaction of the concluding end to be achieved through obstructor nexus. ( Islam, S. 2009 )

Treatment Layer:

This is the last bed in the theoretical account and this bed is to place the set of actions that can be taken to cut down the hazards and besides selects the most appropriate action required for the peculiar hazard so as to minimise the consequence of the hazard in accomplishing the concluding end. Basically, this bed comes into action when the ends, hazard factors and hazard events have been identified and analyzed by the old beds and a cost effectual step is required to be implemented to accomplish the end. For this, there can be assorted agents within the development environment like worlds or some tools are used to fulfill the ends. So it is really of import to see the cost benefit of utilizing a peculiar agent. Hence it becomes really much necessary to pattern, ground and follow a state of affairs in the package development atmosphere to command and minimise the hazards to achieve the concluding end. ( Islam, S. 2009 )

Boehm ‘s Model:

Boehm proposed a theoretical account in 1988 for hazard direction in package development. This theoretical account was based on coiling theoretical account and proposed a model for minimising the impact on hazard by incorporating hazard direction methods into package development theoretical account. The chief thought behind this attack is to take the awaited hazards at an early phase to avoid their happening and consequence on the ulterior phases of development. ( Dhlamini, J. 2009 )

Boehm ‘s theoretical account stated that hazard direction can be divided into two subcategories i.e. “ Risk control ” and “ Risk Assessment ” . Risk Assessment can once more be sub-divided into hazard designation, hazard analysis and hazard prioritization. Risk Control can be sub-divided into hazard direction planning, hazard declaration and hazard monitoring. In hazard appraisal, the hazards are fundamentally identified, their impacts are analyzed and a precedence is set based on the impact of analyzed hazards. Then in Risk Identification all the possible hazards that can originate during the undertaking development stage. So this consists on keeping checklists, suggestions, certification, premise analysis and decomposition. The hazard analysis phase where the potency of the hazard is identified and the chance of its happening. It includes the analysis of public presentation and web. Now one time the hazard is identified and analyzed comes the hazard prioritization phase. In this phase the hazard is prioritized based on the value of the impact of that hazard. This fundamentally helps in exposing the hazard so that it can be taken attention of before it aggravates. ( Dhlamini, J. 2009 )

An illustration for the above can be given as below where the hazard factors impacting Satellite Experiments package are given in the tabular array below. The tabular array below shows assorted factors impacting the undertaking development. The column of Unsatisfactory Outcome shows the assorted grounds impacting the undertaking. The 2nd column shows the chance of that happening on the graduated table of 1-10. The 3rd column shows the loss happening and the last column shows hazard exposure.

Software Engineering Institute ( SEI ) :

The model provided by the SEI for package hazard direction is to enable three groups, viz. the Software Risk Evolution ( SRE ) , Continuous Risk Management ( CRM ) and Team Risk Management ( TRM ) . The chief motivation behind developing this model is to enable the determination shapers like the stakeholders, clients, directors and applied scientists to place the hazards associated with the package development rhythm like analysis, demand assemblage, developing, incorporating and proving, so that appropriate minimizing schemes can be applied at the right clip. These methodological analysiss have comparatively three basically different objects i.e. hazard bar, hazard extenuation and rectification and guaranting safe system failure. To accomplish these three aims there are seven rules for hazard direction. ( Dhlamini, J. 2009 )

They are,

  • Shared Product Vision: It focuses on consequences. It is based on sharing merchandise vision related to a common intent and shared ownership.
  • Teamwork: It defines working together as a squad for accomplishing a common end by pooling accomplishments, endowments and cognition.
  • Global Position: The system design and development is viewed from a planetary position of constructing a larger system. Identifying the potency of the concluding merchandise from a planetary position and besides the impact of inauspicious effects like cost and clip overproduction or non run intoing the demands.
  • Open Communication: Making certain that communicating is unfastened between all the members involved in the undertaking at all degrees. By back uping formal and informal communicating where required. Supports a consensus-based procedure where person is allowed to give an sentiment sing the hazard associated with the undertaking.
  • Advanced Position: It thinks about tomorrow, identifies the associated uncertainnesss and possible results along with managing undertaking resources and activities.
  • Integrated Management: Making hazard direction an built-in portion of undertaking development procedure. Adopting hazard direction tools and methodological analysiss to project development procedure.

Designation is the first measure in SEI theoretical account. In this measure the issues which will impact the undertaking end are identified. In the following measure of analysis, these hazards are analyzed by the determination shapers to work on these hazards. In the planning phase these hazards are prioritized in the order of value which might impact the concluding end. Then each hazard in the order of precedence is taken into consideration and a survey is done on that hazard is done during be aftering so that an appropriate action can be taken against them to avoid the hazard and minimising their impact. Then proper steps are taken so as to do certain that are hazards are handled as they are planned. Therefore tracking of all the steps taken is done to see if things are traveling as planned and all the necessary control steps are executed. Communication nowadays at the centre of the theoretical account facilitates connexion between all the stairss in the theoretical account. ( Dhlamini, J. 2009 )

While implementing the SEI theoretical account all the activities follow a sequence of stairss. The hazard and extenuation database lies at the centre of the theoretical account and is responsible for all the communicating between assorted activities. It is responsible for placing all the hazards and doing an entry for all the new hazards that have been identified. Hazards like cost overproduction, increase in clip graduated table, resources job, vague demands, improper functionality, improper testing, inefficient testing tools and no clip for proving. Many times the hazards are identified before they arise really. Like addition in the cost of development, deficiency of proper resources or uncomplete demands. At times when immense undertakings are to be handled, they are by and large broken into smaller sub-parts. ( Dhlamini, J. 2009 )

In each sub-part different methods and standards of managing hazards. In this instance, there is less clip and cost required to manage these hazards and is expeditiously handled. These hazards are prioritized based on their impact value, dependence, cost and resources required to minimise them. Risk extenuation program is so made based on the precedence of the hazard, so as to give penchant to high chance hazard. This program is documented so as to maintain a path all the hazards in the order of precedence and a record of all the hazards that are handled and 1s staying. This program is so updated on regular footing as and when a hazard is taken attention of and they no longer be. ( Dhlamini, J. 2009 )

Riskit Method:

Riskit Method was proposed by Jyrki Kontio in 1996 which chiefly focused on ends and stakeholders. This theoretical account is really much based on theoretical constructs based on the experience. This theoretical account was proposed based on the old developers ‘ experience. The chief features of this theoretical account are to the full operational definition of procedure, hazard direction, range, focal point, authorization, procedures and stairss for placing and specifying ends of the undertaking. Riskit method has five elements of hazard.

Hazard Elementss in Riskit Method:

  • Hazard Factor: It is an property which may impact the likeliness of happening of a hazard.
  • Risk Event: It is an event of happening of a negative incident.
  • Hazard Result: It is a state of affairs that occurs between the hazard happening and before disciplinary steps implemented.
  • Hazard reaction: It is an action taken in response to the happening of the hazard and the consequence of the hazard happening.
  • Hazard Effect Set: It is the consequence of the hazard event happening and the set of features which are affected by the hazard event.

The seven stairss in Riskit procedure are:

  • Risk Management Mandate Definition: In this measure the range and frequence of hazard direction are defined with all the stakeholders being recognized. The end product of this measure is to mandate hazard direction like how, why, when, where, what, whom, etc.
  • Goal Review: In this measure all the predefined ends of the undertaking are reviewed and refined and the new refined ends are clearly defined. Then the stakeholders ‘ associations analyze the redefined end.
  • Hazard Designation: In this measure, assorted possible hazards associated with the undertaking are identified and listed down.
  • Hazard Analysis: In the analysis stage, all the identified hazards are classified in the order of precedence. These hazards effects are so estimated for all the possible scenarios. Then the chance of public-service corporation losingss due to these hazards is estimated. Finally, a graph is prepared based on the estimated hazards and their scenarios.
  • Risk Control Planning: Now, one time the hazards have been graphed based on their value of impact, the most of import hazard is taken for hazard control planning. Then all the members decide and propose control actions to be taken for a peculiar hazard. Then a commanding action is decided and finalized. Finally, the distinct action is taken to command the hazard.
  • Hazard Control: In this stage, the action for hazard control decided in the old phase is executed, ensuing in decreased hazards.

Hazard Monitoring: After the hazard control phase, the hazards are monitored to look into their state of affairs ensuing hazard position. ( Dhlamini, J. 2009 )

FMEA Technique:

FMEA technique is a hazard direction technique which stands for Failure Mode Effect Analysis. These yearss due to heavy competition companies realize the demand for invention but fear failure or sometimes disregard the hazards associated with it, ensuing in failure. Due to bad design, execution and proving it may ensue in heavy loss, uncomplete functionality or even worsen in market portion. To get the better of this fright of failure and we need a procedure that will place the failure modes that will damage client satisfaction, acknowledge the ground for failure and see the causes of failure. This will assist to place the critical failure countries and take the necessary action to avoid the state of affairs. So FMEA technique is used which provides a tool for acknowledging the hazard countries from design to production which may take to failure. ( Stunell, P. 2003 )

The FMEA procedure consists of a certain stairss. The first measure is designation of the hazards that can happen during the undertaking development procedure from design to development. In this measure, first natural information is gathered from the stakeholders, directors and squad members and old undertakings in a structured format so that a cognition base is create to place all the possible hazards that can originate taking to project failure. The following measure is to delegate a value to that hazard based on its chance of happening, the impact of hazard and sensing based on the analysis of squad members, stakeholders and other professionals. Then a Hazard Priority Number ( RPN ) which is used to place the chance of happening of a hazard and the consequence of its happening. This will assist in taking a disciplinary step at the right clip so that the merchandise goes every bit distinct and has client satisfaction.RPN uses evaluation graduated tables based on the badness of the effect for a peculiar hazard, chance of the failure due to its happening and chance of a hazard happening. ( Stunell, P. 2003 )

The evaluation is done on the graduated table of 1 to 5 or 1 to 10 based on this evaluation the badness of the hazard is calculated. For illustration, in the evaluation of 1 to 5, by and large a hazard whose value is 5 is really likely to happen than the one holding a value 1. The figure below shows a graduated table of 1 to 5.

Then one time this is done a graph or spread secret plan is created based on the RPN and hazard value. Then based on these calculated values a precedence list is created for all the hazards. A hazard response program is created after the precedence is created and the hazards are re-evaluated based on the RPN and hazard value. Once the hazard is identified so consequently the disciplinary stairss are taken to cut down the hazard. After the action is taken once more, the computations are done to see the effectivity of the action. This helps in cognizing the per centum decrease in RPN. ( Stunell, P. 2003 )

Advantages & A ; Disadvantages of Risk Management:


  • Risk Management helps in early sensing of jobs associated with the undertaking.
  • It helps in fixing the development squad to confront the hereafter jobs.
  • It reduces overall cost of the development which might increase due to hazards associated with the undertaking.
  • Helps in taking the right stairss like proper developers, engineerings, clip graduated table, etc.


  • It takes clip during the initial phases as it requires analysis and information assemblage on the possible hazards associated with the undertaking.
  • It may besides increase the overall cost of development.

My View-Point:

This paper is based on my research on the assorted hazards associated with the undertaking development and the methods to minimise these hazards. Since the promotion of engineering and range for package development a batch of complex undertakings are developed. But there are ever some hazards associated with the development of these big graduated table undertakings. Hazards can be like cost addition, resources job, clip agenda and many more. Many methods are proposed based on the experience of the directors and other professionals to avoid and minimise the hazards associated with package undertaking development. Based on my experience with undertakings and apprehension of these methods I feel that hazard direction is every bit of import as undertaking development. Risk Management should be a portion of package development rhythm because it of import to pull off and place the hazards associated with the development as of import it is to develop a full functional merchandise under the given clip and cost to fulfill the client. Many times unexpected jobs may originate during the development stage or proving stage which may ensue in backtrack to the design stage ensuing in increasing cost and clip graduated table. At times, developers may go forth a undertaking half-way which may ensue in resource job. So risk direction execution in undertaking development may give the stakeholders, developers and directors to clip to analyse the hazards associated with the development and fix themselves hazards to come in progress.

From my research on the above methods of hazard direction, I feel that end driven attack and FMEA engineering are better to be used for assorted types of undertaking. Goal Driven Software Development Risk Management Model is a end based attack. In this theoretical account the ends of the undertaking are defined at the really start of the undertaking like the mistake free demands, end user engagement, range, concern demands, realistic clip graduated table, cost appraisal and managing resources. This will cut down the happening of unexpected jobs during the development procedure. Even if a hazard arises out of the blue, it has a series of stairss to follow like the obstacle- nexus bed for the obstructions that arise for a distinct end to accomplish. Then the analysis bed which is used to analyse the obstruction and the intervention bed where a proper action is taken based on the analysis bed. This attack is truly good for little and average sized undertakings as they are with one squad and the user can be in direct communicating with them and the squad knows the whole development rhythm.

FMEA engineering is chiefly used in pull offing hazards in big complex undertakings. In this engineering foremost the hazards which are likely to happen are decided based on the experience of senior professionals and stakeholders. Then, this natural information is made as a cognition base and all the other hazards are besides identified. Then these hazards are prioritized based on their value of impact on the undertaking development. After that these hazards are analyzed and a papers is made. Then based on this analysis a disciplinary method is decided and implemented to cut down the hazard. This truly helps in big undertakings because the basic hazards are associated with all the squads working on the undertaking but few hazards are face by the squads working on different faculties. So these squads have their ain set of hazards to manage and the basic 1s of they occur. This will cut down the clip and cost in hazard direction as squads will confront their ain little hazards to manage instead than a individual squad on big undertaking managing all the hazards entirely. So FMEA engineering can be used for pull offing hazards in big scale undertakings. Other undertakings are every bit utile but they can non be implemented entirely. They are combined with other theoretical accounts to command hazards associated with package development. 7 ) Decision:

Risk Management is an built-in portion of any undertaking development rhythm. It is something that the package industry needs to pay equal attending to as package development. This is because the statistics show that more than 70 % of the undertakings fail due to assorted grounds and hazards associated with them. There have been surveies done in this country and professionals have proposed and implemented assorted methods for hazard direction. But still this job does be in the industry. Undertaking development should be after a hazard direction program along with the development program to do certain that the undertaking is completed on clip, within the estimated cost and to the full satisfaction of the client. Thus Risk direction is really good and highly of import for any undertaking to be successful and satisfy the client demands. 8 )


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