Reactive Oxygen Species Ros Sources Biology Essay

Harmonizing to Cheesemen and Slater, the definition of free groups stands for a chemical species that compose an odd negatron in the outer ( valency ) shell of the molecule. This is the ground why they are extremely reactive. The fact that they are extremely reactive agencies that they have a low chemical specificity that makes them to respond with most molecules in its locality. This includes proteins, lipoids, saccharides and DNA.

Besides that, free extremist molecules gain their stableness by capturing the needed negatron from the milieus, because they do n’t last in their original province for really long. Hence, free groups attack the nearest stable molecule by “ stealing ” its negatron. When the attacked molecule loses its negatron, it becomes a free extremist itself and begins a concatenation reaction ( figure 2.1 ) . Once the procedure is started, it can cascade, eventually ensuing in the break of a life cell. Free groups are produced continuously in cells either as byproducts of metamorphosis or intentionally as in phagocytosis. ( As cited by Dr. Tamer Fouad, 2007 ) .

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Figure 2.1: free groups attack the nearest stable molecule, “ stealing ” its negatron. When the “ attacked ” molecule loses its negatron, it becomes a free extremist itself.

2.1.1 Reactive Oxygen Species ( ROS ) beginnings

Reactive Oxygen Species ( ROS ) are indispensable intermediates in oxidative metamorphosis. However, when produced in surplus, ROS can damage cells by peroxidizing lipoids and interrupting structural proteins, enzymes and nucleic acids. Excess ROS are generated during a assortment of cell emphasiss, including ischaemia, exposure to ionizing and UV radiation. Reactive Oxygen Species ( ROS ) may lend to redness and tissue harm ( U-C Hipler, U.Wollina, D.Denning and B. Hipler, 2002 ) .

Harmonizing to Foyer and Noctor ( 2009 ) , chloroplasts, peroxisomes, and chondriosomes are major sites of ROS production in the works cell. However, Torres and Dangl ( 2005 ) stated that big sum of ROS can besides be produced at the plasma membrane during the oxidative explosion associated with the defence response against occupying pathogens and abiotic emphasis. It is a general observation that ROS production additions whenever a works cell is under emphasis and there is grounds that the chondriosomes contribute to that addition.

In the mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain ( ETC ) procedure, the two oxidases, cytochrome oxidase interact with O2 and reassign four negatrons to cut down it to H2O. However, O can besides pick up a individual negatron at sites in composites I and III ( Figure 2.2 ) . When this happens, superoxide ( O2-a-? ) is formed. Superoxide can be transformed into H2O2 by superoxide dismutase, an enzyme nowadays in the matrix cellular, and H2O2 can in bend, give rise to the really reactive hydroxyl extremist ( HOa-? ) if it interacts with free metal ions such as Fe2+ or Cu+ . Plant chondriosome contain several enzyme systems, all utilizing NADPH, dedicated to taking H2O2 from the matrix, as reviewed by Moller ( 2001 & A ; 2007 ) ( as cited in Dr. Frank, 2010 ) .

Figure 2.2: Sites of superoxide formation in the respiratory concatenation ( Julio, 2003 ) .

O2-a-? coevals has been often implicated in the control of normal cell growing and the publicity of malignant transmutation. Relatively high concentration of ROS will take to apoptosis or mortification, nevertheless low concentration of O2-a-? and H2O2 ( Johannes, 2003 )

2.1.3 Endogenous ROS

Endogenous oxygen-derived free extremist species occur of course as merchandises of aerophilic metamorphosis produced during normal oxidative metamorphosis as a consequence of oxidase activity, flavoprotein dehydrogenases ( enzyme found in chondriosome ) , mitochondrial ETC, cytochrome P450 activity, every bit good as autoxidation of thiols and hydroquinones ( affect in programmed cell death ) ( Fereidoon, 1997 ) .

ROS in air passages may arise from endogenous and /or exogenic beginnings. In Martin et al. , ( 1997 ) studies said that endogenous beginnings include respiratory explosions from activated inflammatory and immune cells, normal metabolic reactions with the ETC of the chondriosome ( major beginning ) , and resident airway epithelial cells themselves. As negatrons are passed along the concatenation from protein to protein, negatrons leak from the ETC onto O molecules and bring forth superoxide anion.

One of the illustrations is when neutrophils and macrophages produce ROS to destruct engulfed bacterial or fungous pathogens. In neutrophils, engulfed bacteriums are compartmentalized into phagosomes which fuse with ROS and hydrolytic enzyme rich lysosomes. The ingestion of O during the coevals of ROS is termed the ‘respiratory explosion ‘ . The respiratory explosion involves activation of the enzyme nicotinamide A dinucleotide phosphate ( NADPH ) oxidase, which produces big measures of O2-a-? . Superoxide dismutases later catalyze the transition of O2-a-? anions to H2O2 ( Sadis, 2008 ) .

2.1.4 Exogenous ROS

Exogenous beginnings of ROS include exposure to environmental air pollutants ; ozone, heavy metals ( such as quicksilver, Cd, and lead ) and coffin nail fume ( Sadis, 2008 ) . Exposure to ionising radiation ( from industry, sun exposure, cosmic beams, and medical X raies ) can damage DNA straight, but the prevailing tract arises from radiolysis of H2O, which consequences in the formation of ROS that can respond with DNA ( Charles, 2007 ) .

2.1.5 Effect of ROS on human Health

Dr. Denham Harman ( 1950 ‘s ) foremost proposed the free extremist theory of aging. He proposes that the metabolic energy production produces toxic by-products called free groups, which damage cellular Deoxyribonucleic acid and are a primary cause of aging. When Deoxyribonucleic acid is damaged, it will impact the map of cells during proliferation procedure and later organize new cells. This procedure can take to malignant neoplastic disease when the cells divide with bad DNA encryption. Aging can therefore be thought of as cells retroflexing with bad instructions.

Free groups have different effects on organic structure constructions such as:

Cancer

Damage to the cardiovascular system

Damage to the immune system

Damage to the tegument and organ through collagen cross associating

Damage to the encephalon and cognitive maps.

Free extremist reactions are expected to bring forth progressive inauspicious alterations when they accumulate throughout the organic structure. Such alterations with age are comparatively common to all. However, superimposed on this common form are forms influenced by genetic sciences and environment alterations that modulate free extremist harm. It is possible that endogenous free extremist reactions, such as ionising radiation may ensue in tumour formation.

The extremely important correlativity between ingestion of fats and oils and decease rates from leukemia and malignant neoplasia of the chest, ovaries and rectum among old people ( over 55 old ages old ) may be a contemplation of greater lipid peroxidation ( surveies of Lea AJ, 1966 ) . Studies on coronary artery disease by Harman D. ( 1992 ) uncover the chance that the disease may be due to free extremist reactions affecting diet-derived lipoids in the arterial wall that cause serum to bring forth peroxides and other substances. These compounds induce endothelial cell hurt and green goods alterations in the arterial wall. ( as cited in K. Bagchi & A ; S. Puri, 1998 ) .

2.2 Oxidative emphasis and lipid peroxidation

Depletion of antioxidant defences and/or rises in ROS production can tip the ROS-antioxidant balance and do oxidative emphasis, which may ensue in tissue hurt. Oxidative emphasis can bring forth major interconnected mental unsoundnesss of cell metamorphosis, including:

DNA-strand breakage ( frequently an early event )

Rises in intracellular “ free ” Ca2+

Damage to membrane ion transporters and/or other specific proteins

Peroxidation of lipoids. ( onslaught on the fatty acid )

Harmonizing to Stainberg ( 1989 ) , Lipid peroxidation appears to be a extremely important effect of oxidative emphasis in injured human arterial walls, lending to the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Studies done by many researches showed that harm by oxidative emphasis is seldom mediated by speed uping the majority peroxidation of cell membrane lipoids, for an illustration, the sequence of reaction is frequently non

Oxidative emphasis lipid peroxidation cell harm

But may be more normally

Oxidative emphasis cell harm secondary increased lipid peroxidation of damaged cells.

Lipid peroxidation is frequently a late event, attach toing instead than doing concluding cell decease. However, Steinberg and Recknagel ( 1989 ) stated that lipid peroxidation does look to do a important part to the development of coronary artery disease, a major clinical job or ischaemic hurt to the encephalon or spinal cord, aging and etc. Detection of terminal merchandises of lipid peroxidation is the grounds most often quoted for a function of free groups in human disease or tissue hurt by toxins, and an apprehension of peroxidation is of major importance in the nutrient industry. ( Barry & A ; Susanna, 1993 ) .

2.3 Antioxidant

Antioxidants are substances that will forestall possible diseases, bring forthing cell harm that come from natural organic structure procedures and from exposure to certain chemicals. The organic structure can bring forth its ain antioxidants and besides obtain them straight from nutrient. Antioxidants are abundant in veggies and fruits and are besides found in grain cereals, teas, leguminous plants, and nuts. Example of antioxidants includes anthocyanins, beta-carotene, cathechins, coenzyme Q10, flavonoids, lipoic acid, xanthophyll, lycopene, Se, and vitamin C and E. Many antioxidants are besides available as dietetic addendums ( National Institute of Health, 2010 ) .

The chemical nature of any antioxidant determines its solubility, and therefore its localisation in biological tissues. For illustration, lipid soluble antioxidants are localized in membranes and maps to protect against oxidative harm of membrane. Water-soluble antioxidants located in the cytosol, mitochondria matrix or extracellular fluids. They may non entree to ROS generated in membranes. Vitamin C, glutathione, uric acid and lipoic acid are most normally known H2O soluble antioxidants. Vitamin E and A, coenzyme Q, carotenoids, flavonoids, and polyphenols represent the most extensively studied of course happening fat soluble antioxidants ( Chandan, Lester & A ; Osmo, 2000 ) .

2.3.1 Types of antioxidant

Antioxidants are believed to forestall the oxidization of fats and oils by donating H. This can be carry throughing by either natural or man-made antioxidants. Examples of natural antioxidants are vitamin E and ascorbic acid while illustrations of man-made antioxidants are butylated hydroxytoluene, butylated hydroxyanisole and ethoxyquin ( John W. , 1989 ) . Besides this, antioxidant besides can be classifies into two groups: endogenous antioxidant and exogenic antioxidant. Examples of endogenous antioxidants are superoxide dismutase ( SOD ) , catalase ( CAT ) and gluthathione peroxidase ( GSH-Px ) . Examples of exogenic antioxidants are vitamin C, vitamin E and Beta-carotene.

2.3.2 Antioxidant Foods

The primary map of vitamin C ( ascorbic acid ) is the production of collagen, which forms the footing for connective tissue in castanetss, dentitions, and gristle. It besides plays a critical function in lesion healing, unsusceptibility, and the nervous system, and acts as a water-soluble antioxidant. Because vitamin C is water-soluble, its antioxidant maps take topographic point in aqueous organic structure compartments. It besides helps protect low-density lipoprotein cholesterin ( LDL-C ) against free extremist harm. As an antioxidant, it helps protect against malignant neoplastic disease and certain effects of aging. Severe lack of vitamin C leads to scurvy, which includes symptoms of shed blooding gums, joint hurting, easy bruising, dry tegument, fluid keeping, and depression ( June H, 2000 ) .

Surveies indicate that vitamin E decelerate the aging procedure and prevent premature aging by protracting the utile life of the cells, therefore keeping the map of the variety meats. Vitamin E utilized practically in tissues. The majority of vitamin E is stored in musculuss and fat tissues, but the highest concentration is found in the pituitary secretory organ, adrenal secretory organ, and testes. Much of vitamin E ‘s usefulness seems to come from its function as a powerful antioxidants and anticarcinogen. Part of vitamin E ‘s benefits may be due to its ability to protect vitamin A and C from oxidization, therefore maintaining them potent. In add-on, vitamin E helps to increase the organic structure ‘s degree of superoxide dismutase, an enzyme that is powerful free extremist scavenger. Because of its antioxidant capablenesss, vitamin E helps protect the organic structure from quicksilver, lead, C tetrachloride, benzine, the ozone, azotic oxide, and a assortment of other carcinogens and toxins that conveying approximately injury through their ability to move as free groups ( Sahri and Nancy, 2007 )

Carotenoids is a colorful works pigments which the organic structure can turn into vitamin A and assist forestall some signifiers of malignant neoplastic disease and bosom disease and act to heighten the immune response to infections. Its antioxidant behavior protects the liner of the arterias and fats in the blood from free group ‘s oxidative harm and age-related macular devolution of the oculus, which leads to vision loss. Beta-carotene is used to handle skin jobs caused by sun exposure such as swelling, inflammation, rubing and hurting. Typically this is the consequence of inordinate free extremist harm due to a cellular job ( Jennifer, 2010 ) .

2.3.3 Antioxidant Enzymes

The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase ( SOD ) , catalase ( CAT ) and glutathione peroxidase ( GSH-Px ) serve as the primary line of defence in destructing free groups. SOD first reduces ( add an negatron ) the extremist superoxide ( O2- ) to organize H peroxide ( H2O2 ) and O ( O2 ) ( equation 2.1 ) .

2O2- + 2H -SOD H2O2 + O2 Equation 2.1

Catalase and GSH-Px ( equation 2.2 ) so work at the same time with the protein glutathione to cut down H peroxide and finally produce H2O ( H2O ) .

2H2O2 -CAT H2O + O2 Equation 2.2

H2O2 + 2glutathione -GPx oxidized glutathione + 2H2O

The oxidised glutathione is so reduced by another antioxidant enzyme known as glutathione reductase. Together, they repair oxidised DNA, degrade oxidized protein, and destruct oxidised lipoids ( fat-like substances that are constitute of cell membranes ) . Assorted other enzymes act as a secondary antioxidant defence mechanism to protect the organic structure from farther harm. While primary defence mechanism are thought to interact straight with harmful free groups, the secondary defences mechanisms combat procedures elicited by reactive O species, such as lipid peroxidation, which include enzymes that breakdown proteins and lipoids and DNA fix mechanisms ( Ong, 2009 ) .

2.3.4 Polyphenol Antioxidant

Polyphenols are present in a assortment of workss utilized as of import constituents of both human and carnal diets. Frankel et al. , ( 1993 ) stated that, polyphenols are merchandises of the secondary metamorphosis of workss. Polyphenols exhibit a broad scope of biological effects as a effect of their antioxidant belongingss. They inhibit LDL oxidization in vitro. Besides, polyphenols likely protect LDL oxidization in vivo with important effects in coronary artery disease and besides protect Deoxyribonucleic acid from oxidative harm with of import effects in the age-related development of some malignant neoplastic diseases. These facts are supported by Halliwell ( 1999 ) . In add-on, flavonoids have antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory effects.

Several types of polyphenols such as phenolic acids, hydrolysable tannic acids and flavonoids show anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic effects. Polyphenols might interfere in several of the stairss that lead to the development of malignant tumours, demobilizing carcinogens, suppressing the look of mutant cistrons and the activity of enzymes involved in the activation of procarcinogens and triping enzymatic systems involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics. Several surveies have shown that in add-on to their antioxidant protective consequence on Deoxyribonucleic acid and cistron look, polyphenols, peculiarly flavonoids, inhibit the induction, publicity and patterned advance of tumours ( as cited in Ines & A ; Federico, 2000 ) .

2.3.5 Man-made Antioxidant

Phenolic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene ( BHT ) , butylated hydroxylanisole ( BHA ) , third butylated hydroxyl quinone ( TBHQ ) and propyl gallate ( PG ) are man-made antioxidants that have been used for old ages as nutrient preservatives to protract nutrient shelf life ( Table 2.1 ) ( Su, 2006 ) . These man-made substances have been shown to do several diseases, such as expansion of liver, cut down of nutrient consumption, growing suppression and etc. surveies performed by Lehman et al. , ( 1995 ) have shown that rats and mice fed high dosage degrees of man-made antioxidants produced hyperplasia of the fore-stomach and showed growing deceleration ( as cited in Leong & A ; Shui, 2002 ) .

Table 2.1: Type of man-made antioxidants and their uses ( Asim Kumar, 2007 ) .

Man-made antioxidant

Typical utilizations

L-Ascorbic acid ( vitamin C )

Fruit juice, drinks mayonnaise, cured meat, fish merchandises, butter etc.

Man-made I±-tocopherol

Infant nutrients, milk, fat, mayonnaise

Propyl gallate ( PG )

Chewing gum, veggies oils

Butylated hydroxy anisole ( BHA )

Animal fats, cheese spread, biscuits, murphy flakes, beef stock regular hexahedron.

Butylated hydroxy methylbenzene ( BHT )

Walnuts, masticating gum.

Citric acid

Vegetables oil, mayonnaise

Third butyl hydroquinone ( TBHQ ) B

Palm oil, frying oil.

2.4 Professionals and Cons of Antioxidant

Antioxidants have several benefits over our organic structure. One of it is devouring sufficient measures of antioxidants through the diet is really much of import to keep overall wellness, therefore maintain ourselves off from harmful diseases. Antioxidants have been linked to the bar of all kinds of malignant neoplastic disease since a really long clip. Antioxidants are besides critical in beef uping the immune system and hence prevent our organic structure from viral and bacterial infections.

The most popular ground why antioxidants are preferred by many people is their anti-aging benefits. Antioxidants prevent the aging procedure of the cells in the organic structure and hence contribute to improved organic structure maps for a long clip. Other than that, antioxidants help in forestalling bosom diseases and besides minimise the oxidization procedure of cholesterin. Apart from being healthy for the bosom, antioxidants are good for the bar of oculus related upsets such as macular devolution and glaucoma. Besides, antioxidants besides involve in part towards the protection of cardinal nervous system and keeping cardiovascular wellness in the organic structure ( Ujwal, 2007 ) .

Contrary to all this benefits, research workers have found that clinical tests have shown that there is no betterment mark in malignant neoplastic disease and bosom disease patients, even after devouring antioxidant addendum in the recommended dose. In some people, symptoms have been worsened after taking addendum and lead to unusual side effects. This is cause by the endogenous made antioxidants such as glutathione or dietetic antioxidants such as vitamin C that protect malignant neoplastic disease cells during therapy, and low doses of single dietetic antioxidant may excite the proliferation of residuary malignant neoplastic disease cells ( Kedar, 2004 ) .

The surveies performed by the researches in Kansas State show that some antioxidants are helpful for cut downing the effects of hapless oxygenation on the musculus. In some instances, they can rob the organic structure of oxidizers like H peroxide, and do the musculuss map less efficient. Hydrogen peroxide makes blood vass dilate to better O bringing. Antioxidants can take away natural vasodilatives taking to hapless musculuss map ( Kathleen, 2010 ) .

2.5 Plant Profile

2.5.1 Lycopersicon esculentumhttp: //t2.gstatic.com/images? q=tbn: ANd9GcRPDpIgQjnt7E11NxzMUvyLIkNvgIRjmGTrepmmSAR1PKvlyU44

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Figure 2.3: Assorted parts of Lycopersicon esculentum. Clockwise from the

top: Leafs, fruits and seeds.

Family: Potato family

Common name: Tomato

Habitat: Occasional flight from cultivation & A ; may prevail in waste countries.

Part used: Fruits and Seeds

Description: The genus Lycopersicon of the household Solanaceae is believed to hold originated in the coastal strip of western South America. Today it is merely cultivated. Harmonizing to Heiser ( 1969 ) in his research paper, stated that tomato was introduced into Europe as early herb teas in the mid-16th century. It was grown for the beauty of its fruit but was non frequently eat, except in Spain and Italy. The fruit was thought to be toxicant due to their bright and shiny fruit where a phytologist erroneously categorized it into a deathly nightshade household ( Solanaceae ) . The coloring material of the fruit foremost noted in Italy was xanthous. By the eighteenth century, the tomato began to be used as an comestible nutrient, although it was still listed among the toxicant workss ( J. Benton, 1999 ) .

Antioxidant belongingss: These workss are comprised of merely five percent solids. These solids are cell walls, sugars, and acids. The remainder of compartment is comprised of H2O ( James, 2010 ) . Tomatoes and tomato merchandises are rich beginnings of vitamin Bc, vitamin C, vitamin B, vitamin E and K. The most abundant phytonutrients in tomatoes are the carotenoids. Example of carotenoids is Lycopene which is the most outstanding carotenoid followed by beta-carotene, gamma-carotene and phytoene every bit good as several minor carotenoids. The antioxidant activity of lycopene every bit good as several other carotenoids and their copiousness in tomatoes makes these nutrients rich beginnings of antioxidant activity ( Beecher, 1998 ) .

Medicative usage: lycopene degrees have been shown to be reciprocally relative to malignant neoplastic diseases of the prostrate, neck, pancreas and tummy due to its highest vest oxygen-quenching capacity in vitro ( antioxidant ) . Tomatos are high in gamma-amino butyric acid ( GABA ) , a compound that can assist convey down blood force per unit area and the hazard of bosom disease. Tomato extracts contain effectual antioxidants such as carotenoids will demobilize free groups and decelerate down the patterned advance of coronary artery disease. Scientist believes that tomato may worsen urarthritis jobs and uric acid diseases. In Fiji, the fruit juice will be used to bring on purging in kids in instance of nutrient toxic condition and to halt inordinate hemorrhage from lesions by using the fruit mush. In Italy, it is used to bring around Scorpio and other insects ‘ bites. In Philippines, the fresh fruit is used to handle oedema by pregnant adult females. The fresh fruit is used by Americans orally for kidney and liver jobs, as a psychotherapeutic and besides to maintain good digestion ( C.V Singh, 2008 ) .

2.5.2 Abelmoschus esculentus

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Figure 2.4: Assorted parts of Abelmoschus esculentus. Clockwise from the

top: Leaves with flower, fruits and seeds.

Family: Mallow family

Common name: Lady ‘s Finger, Okra

Habitat: It is a cultivated harvest but it can be grown in garden under the right conditions for its hempen fruits or “ cods ” ( Phyllis, 2002 ) .

Part used: Fruits and seeds

Description: Abelmoschus esculentus normally known as okra or lady ‘s finger is an of import vegetable harvest in the tropical and semitropical states of the universe. Originating in Africa, okra is widely eaten in India, Africa and the Middle East, every bit good as the American South, but small known in more northern climes ( Megan Stoddard, 2002 ) . It produces a flower similar to the hibiscus works except that its flowers are either white or pale yellow with a Bourgogne colored bosom. The works bears legion dark green coloured cods that characteristic little, unit of ammunition, gluey white coloured seed arrange in perpendicular rows. The cods are harvested while immature and eaten as vegetable.

Antioxidant Properties: About half of them which are soluble fiber in the signifier of gums and pectins help to take down serum cholesterin, cut downing the hazard of bosom diseases. The other half is indissoluble fibre, which helps to maintain the enteric piece of land healthy. The works contains vitamin A and C. It is a good beginning of Fe and Ca and besides contains amylum, fat, ash, vitamin B1 and vitamin B2.

Medicative usage: the superior fiber found in okra helps to stabilise blood sugar by controling the rate at which sugar is absorbed from the enteric piece of land. Okra ‘s mucilage binds cholesterin and gall acid transporting toxins and sends it to liver for filtration. Okra helps lubricate the big bowel due to its majority measures by absorbing H2O and helps prevent and better irregularity. Okra fibre is first-class for feeding the good bacteriums ( probiotics ) . This contributes to the wellness of the enteric piece of land. Besides, okra is used for mending ulcers and to maintain articulations limber. It helps to neutralize acids, being really alkaline, and provides a impermanent protective coating for the digestive piece of land. In India, okra has been used successfully in experimental blood plasma replacings ( Slyvia, 2009 ) .

2.5.3 Moringa oleifera

Figure 2.5: Assorted parts of Moringa oleifera. Clockwise from the

top: Leaves with flower, fruits and seeds.

Family: Moringaceae

Common name: horseradish tree, drumstick tree, benzolive tree, kelor, marango, mlonge, moonga, mulangay, nebeday, saijhan, sajna or Ben oil tree.

Habitat: found wild through the fields particularly hedges and in house paces. Plentiful in the flaxen beds of rivers and watercourses

Part used: The cods

Description: Moringa oleifera is native to the sub-Himalayan piece of lands of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan. It was utilized by the antediluvian Romans, Greeks and Egyptians ; it is now widely cultivated and has become naturalized in many countries in the Torrid Zones. It is a perennial deal tree with lumber of low quality ( Jed, 2005 ) . Leafs are normally 3-pinnate and cusps are in 6-9 braces with an uneven cusp elliptic-ovate or obovate. Flowers are pedicelled, white and honey scented in distributing ( Dr.Narain, 1999 ) . The cods of Moringa are really popular veggies in South India culinary art and valued for their clearly ask foring spirit ( Rajangam, Azahakia, Thangaraj, Vijayakumar & A ; Muthukrishan, 2001 ) . It can be easy planted and grown with minimal attention. The foliages have been said to bring around and mend over 300 diseases. Leafs can be eaten fresh, cooked, or stored as prohibitionists powder for many months without infrigidation, and reportedly without loss of nutritionary value. Moringa is particularly promising as a nutrient beginning in the Torrid Zones because the tree is in full foliage at the terminal of the dry season when other nutrients are typically scarve ( Jed, 2005 ) .

Antioxidant belongingss: The mature seed contains about 20 % of comestible oil, while the fresh cod contains ascorbic acid. Babatola and Lawal ( 2000 ) reported okra seed to be a possible beginning of high quality protein, a consequence of high lysine content while Al-wandari ( 1983 ) recommended moringa as a addendum to cereal-based diets ( as cited in Effiong, Ogban, Ibia & A ; Adam, 2009 ) . Moringa is low in Calories and is a good beginning of many foods including vitamin B6 and C, fibre, Ca, vitamin B1, vitamin B2 and folic acid. It is effectual for the bar of nervous tubing defects in developing fetuss chiefly due to its high content of vitamin B6, Ca, fibre, and folic acid ( Muray, 2005 ) .

Medicative usage: The foliages, fruit, flowers and immature cods of this tree are used as a extremely alimentary veggie in many states particularly India. In the Philippines, it is known as ‘mother ‘s best friend ‘ because of its use to increase adult females ‘s milk production and is sometimes prescribed for anaemia harmonizing to Estrella et.al. ( 2000 ) . The widespread combination of diuretic along with lipid and blood force per unit area take downing components make this works extremely utile in cardiovascular upsets. Moringa fruit has been found to take down the serum cholesterin, phospholipids, LDL, and really low denseness lipoprotein ( VLDL ) cholesterin to phospholipid ratio. Moringa roots and seeds have antibacterial activity and are reported to be rich in antimicrobic agents. Makonnen et Al. ( 1997 ) found Moringa leaves to be a possible beginning for antitumor activity. Moringa seeds are one of the best natural coagulators discovered so far by Ndabigengesere and Narasiah ( 1998 ) ( as cited in Farooq, Sajid, Muhammad, & A ; Anwarul, 2007 ) .

2.5.4 Nelumbo nuciferaIMG_0073.JPG

Figure 2.6: Assorted parts of Nelumbo nucifera. Clockwise from the

left: Leaves with flower, and seeds.

Family: Nelumbonaceae

Common name: Kamal, renkon, hasu, lian, Egyptian Nelumbo nucifera, teratai, sacred water-lily, sacred Nelumbo nucifera, bunga telpok, ngau, baino, nelun ala, bua-luang.

Habitat: the ruddy assortment flower is normally found in armored combat vehicles and pools. The white flower assortment is really rare ( Ajay, 2000 ) .

Part used: the seeds

Description: Nelumbo comes from the name of the works in Singhalese ( Sri Lanka ) , and nucifera means “ nut bearing ” . This water-lily is native to Asia from Iran to China and Japan, and to north-eastern Australia. The elegent, odoriferous Nelumbo nucifera flowers have long been regarded with fear by Buddhists in China, India and elsewhere in the Orient. It is an aquatic, perennial herb, the Nelumbo nucifera produces big umbrella-shaped foliages, which grow on long chaffs good above the surface of the H2O. The flowers may be in white, pink or ruddy. The seed bearing construction is a flat-topped receptacle in which many single-seeded carpels are embedded. The seeds are eaten natural, like nuts before they are to the full mature. When mature, the alimentary seeds, rich in vitamin C are by and large roasted or boiled and may besides be grounded into flour, or dried for storage. Roasted and land Nelumbo nucifera nuts make a tolerable replacement for java ( Frederic, 2004 ) .

Antioxidant Properties: The rootstock has many alkaloids. Leaves contain alkaloid nuciferin, romerin and nerenyuferin. The dried seeds contain protein 17.2 % , fat 2.4 % and carbohydrates 66.6 % . Besides this, it besides contains Ca, P, Fe, ascorbic acid and sugar. The root contains moisture 83.80 % , protein 2.7 % , fats 0.11 % , starch 9.25 % , sucrose 0.41 % and Ca. Other than this, vitamin B, Vitamin C, and aspirin 2 % are besides present in it ( Ayushveda, 2010 ) .

Medicative Use: Nelumbo nucifera are classified as styptics, being sweet and impersonal, and profiting the lien, kidney, and bosom. The sweet gustatory sensation and nourishing qualities help to halt diarrhea associated with qi lack. The acerb quality helps prevent loss of kidney kernel, so the seed are used to handle weak sexual map in work forces and leucorrhoea in adult females. The seed besides has quieting belongingss that alleviate restlessness, palpitations, and insomnia. The bosom of the nelumbo nucifera ( embryo ) , is classified as bitter and cold and profiting the bosom ; it dispels infective heat from the bosom to handle restlessnesss and self-generated hemorrhage due to heat. The acrimonious constituents are isoquinoline alkaloids with ataractic and antispasmodic effects. The alkaloids dilate blood vass and thereby cut down blood force per unit area. ( Subhuti, 2001 ) .

2.5.5 Brassica oleraceaIMG_0063.JPG

Figure 2.7: Assorted parts of Brassica oleracea. Clockwise from the

top: Leafs, flower, and seeds.

Family: Cruciferae

Common name: Broccoli, Brassica oleracea botrytis, collard leafy vegetables and Brussels sprouts.

Habitat: Grow wild in hills and gardens ( National Institute of Industrial Re, 2000 ) .

Part used: Flower

Description: Brassica oleracea ( broccoli ) is a fast growth and branched works. It 24-35 inches tall that produce heavy green bunchs of flower buds at the terminals of the cardinal axis and the subdivisions. In Britain, the term Brassica oleracea italica refers to the Brassica oleracea botrytis ( another assortment of Brassica oleracea ) . Native to the eastern Mediterranean and Asia, shooting Brassica oleracea italica was cultivated in Italy in ancient Roman times and was introduced into England and America likely during colonial times. ( Encyclopedia Britannica, 2011 ) . They can be categorised into three chief sorts that is smooth green, ruddy, and Savoy. The smooth green chous may hold unit of ammunition, flattened or conelike caputs, and can be green, bluish green, or yellow-green. The ruddy chous are reddish-purple and have really tight caputs. The Savoy chous have crinkled, pucker bluish-green foliages and looser caputs ( Chinese chou ) ( Steve, 2003 ) .

Antioxidant belongings: Brassica oleracea incorporate high degrees of antioxidants and vitamins A, B1, B2, and C. it should non be over cooked because the heat will destruct much of the spirit and most of the foods. ( Steve, 2003 ) . Brassica provides many flavonoids in important sum including flavonoids kaempferol and quercitin. A really high concentrated in Brassica are the carotenoids xanthophyll, zeaxanthin, and beta-carotene. Other antioxidants provided by Brassica in good sums include vitamin E and the minerals manganese and Zn. Brassica is besides concentrated in phytonutrients. One peculiar phytonutrient is glucosinolates is merely outstanding. The isothiocyanates ( ITCs ) made from Brassica ‘s glucosinolates are the key to Brassica ‘s cancer-preventive benefits ( George, 2009 ) .

Medicative utilizations: Brassica antioxidant belongingss provide cardiovascular protection and incorporate many anti-cancer and anti-helicobacter compounds. The profusion in vitamin C promotes organic structure ability to absorb Fe and Ca therefore provides protection against seasonal flukes. It is besides rich with fiber that reduces the LDL cholesterin. The natural combination of Ca and vitamin C aid in osteoporosis. Brassica detoxifies the organic structure and removes all the toxins that cause arthritis, tegument jobs and allergic reactions. Natural beginning of Fe promotes in bar of anaemia. ( Janni, 2009 ) .

2.7 Antioxidant Assay

There are assortments of methods to verify the antioxidant capacity. These methods differ in footings of their assay rule and experimental status ( Paixao, Perestrelo, Marques & A ; Camara, 2007 ) . There are two mechanisms whereby antioxidants neutralise groups: individual negatron transportation ( SET ) reaction and H atom transportation ( HAT ) reaction. The former is monitored through coloring material alteration which occurs as the oxidizer is reduced whereas the latter involves the competition between the antioxidant and the substrate ( investigation ) for free groups ( Huand, Ou & A ; Prior, 2005 ) .

There are methods which utilises both SET and HAT mechanisms. DPPH check are usually categorised as SET, but can be deactivated either by direct decrease through negatron transportation or by extremist slaking through HAT ( Jimenez, Selga, Torres & A ; Julia, 2004 ) . Whereas both FTC and TBA are categorised into HAT. All antioxidant checks differ from each other in footings of substrate, investigations, reaction conditions, and quantisation methods. It is highly hard to compare the consequences from different check as Frankel and colleagues have already concluded ( Frankel & A ; Meyer, 2000 ) .

2.7.1 Rapid Evaluation utilizing Thin Layer Chromatography ( TLC )

The antioxidant components were analysed by thin bed chromatography ( TLC ) utilizing aluminium-backed TLC home bases ( Silica gel ) followed by DPPH techniques harmonizing to Moore et Al. ( 2006 ) with somewhat alterations ( R.Ragupathi et al. , 2010 ) . To observe antioxidant compounds extraction in assorted dissolvers, TLC plates will be sprayed with DPPH in methyl alcohol, as an index. The presence of antioxidant compound will be detected by xanthous musca volitanss against a violet background ( Miroslav, Zuzana & A ; Janka, 2009 ) . Assorted detached musca volitanss will be note as their deceleration factor ( Rf ) values.

2.7.2 DPPH free extremist Scavenging Assay

The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl ( DPPH ) is a free group with one negatron delocalised over the molecule ( Figure 2.3 ) which gives it a deep purple coloring material with maximal soaking up of 517 nanometers in methyl alcohol or ethyl alcohol solution which is relative to concentration of free extremist scavenger added to DPPH reagent solution. Upon decrease, the initial dark violet solution will melt and give rise to light yellow coloring materials due to the transportation of H atom. The diminution in soaking up is measured spectrophotometrically and compared with a methyl alcohol control to find the DPPH extremist scavenging activity ( Shetty, 1982 ) . DPPH can merely be dissolved in organic dissolver ; therefore, can merely be applied in finding the antioxidant activity of lipotropic compounds ( Wojdylo, OszmiaA„ski & A ; Czemerys, 2007 ) .

Figure 2.3: Chemical Structure of DPPH group.

2.7.3 Ferric Thiocyanate ( FTC ) Assay

The Ferric thiocyanate ( FTC ) method was used to mensurate the sum of peroxide at the beginning of lipid peroxidation, in which peroxide will respond with ferric chloride and signifier ferrous ions. Ferric ions will so unify with ammonium thiocyanate and output ferrous thiocyanate. The substance is ruddy, and dense coloring material is declarative of higher optical density ( Farrukh, Iqbal & A ; Zafar, 2006 ) .

Lipid peroxidation is produced by ROS which abstract a H atom from a methylene group of an unsaturated fatty acid and later organize free groups such as peroxyl extremist. Once these free groups are formed, lipid peroxidation advancements and accordingly, lipoids produce assorted secondary merchandises such as ketones and aldehydes ( Joon & A ; Takayuki, 2009 )

2.7.4 Thiobarbituric Acid ( TBA ) Assay

Among lipid peroxidation merchandises used for antioxidant checks, malonaldehyde ( MA ) has been most widely used to measure the antioxidant activity of chemical ( s ) in lipid peroxidation systems. Particularly, MA is really utile as a biomarker to look into the concluding phase of lipid peroxidation harmonizing to Neff et Al. ( 1984 ) and Pryor et Al. ( 1976 ) . However, it is highly hard to analyze MA in a lipid sample because it is really soluble in H2O and tends to show as a polymer in an aqueous solution. Consequently, the MA-TBA check became one of the most popular checks for surveies related to lipid peroxidation and it is presently used widely to measure antioxidant activities of assorted natural merchandises ( Joon & A ; Takayuki, 2009 ) .