Q. ( a ) how do single differences and environmental factors influence human behaviour in an organisation? Justify your reply with illustrations.
( B ) A fabrication company doing automotive parts finds that workers working on the assembly line have hapless attending, leave for place early and are by and large unproductive. They are to the full nonionized and resist any efforts by direction to train them. If you are the HR Manager of such a company, what would you make? Discourse with mention to theories of motive, leading, participative direction and quality circles.
Is a field of survey which explores the impact that persons, groups and constructions have on behaviors within organisations for the intent of using such cognition towards bettering organisation ‘s effectivity.
Importance of Organization behavior:
OB is traveling to explicate the cause-and consequence relationship to modify behavior for organisational demands. Here no two human existences will act in an indistinguishable mode. OB seeds to research certain consistences in behavior, in order to advance a rational apprehension of behavior and some grade of predictability.
Approachs in Organizational Behaviour:
Factors Influencing Human Behavior
In order to turn to human factors in workplace safety scenes, peoples ‘ capablenesss and restrictions must foremost be understood. The modern working environment is really different to the scenes that worlds have evolved to cover with. The undermentioned human features that can take to troubles interacting with the working environment.
Attention -The modern workplace can ‘overload ‘ human attending with tremendous sums of information, far in surplus of that encountered in the natural universe. The manner in which we learn information can assist cut down demands on our attending, but can sometimes make farther jobs
Percept -In order to interact safely with the universe, we must right comprehend it and the dangers it holds. Work environments frequently challenge human perceptual experience systems and information can be misinterpreted.A A A A A A
Memory -Our capacity for retrieving things and the methods we impose upon ourselves to entree information frequently put undue force per unit area on us. Increasing cognition about a topic or procedure allows us to retain more information relating to it.
A A A A A A
Logical logical thinking -Failures in concluding and determination devising can hold terrible deductions for complex systems such as chemical workss, and for undertakings like care and planning.
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Environmental, organisational and occupation factors, in brief, act upon the behaviour at work in a manner which can impact wellness and safety. A simple manner to see human factors is to believe about three facets: the person, the occupation and the organisation and their impact on people ‘s wellness and safety-related behaviour.
Following figures shows that all three are interlinked and have common influence
The typical illustrations of immediate causes and lending factors for human failures are given below:
low accomplishment and competency degree
bored or disheartened staff
single medical jobs
unlogical design of equipment and instruments
changeless perturbations and breaks
losing or ill-defined instructions
ill maintained equipment
high work load
noisy and unpleasant working conditions
Administration and direction factors
hapless work planning, taking to high work force per unit area
deficiency of safety systems and barriers
unequal responses to old incident
direction based on one-way communications
lacking co-ordination and duties
hapless direction of wellness and safety
Poor wellness and safety civilization.
It is concluded that the public presentation of homo is being strongly influenced by organisational, regulative, cultural and environmental factors impacting the workplace.
For illustration, organisational procedures constitute the genteelness evidences for many predictable human mistakes, including unequal communicating installations, equivocal processs, unsatisfactory programming, deficient resources, and unrealistic budgeting in fact, all procedures that the organisation can command.
Following figure summarizes some of the factors lending to human mistakes and to accidents
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What is Perception?
How we view and interpret the events and state of affairss in the universe about us.
FACTORS INFLUENCING PERCEPTION:
Percept is influenced by chiefly three sets of factors:
I ) Factors in the percipient ( perceiver variables ) ;
two ) Factors in the mark ( capable features ) ;
three ) Factors in the state of affairs ( situational variables ) .
Factors in the percipient include following issues:
aˆ? Self-concept of the percipient ; aˆ? Attitudes of the percipient ;
aˆ? Motivations of the percipient ; aˆ? Interests of the percipient ;
aˆ? Experience of the percipient ; aˆ? Expectations of the percipient.
Factors in the mark include following issues:
aˆ? Physical visual aspect ; aˆ? Verbal and Nonverbal Communication ;
aˆ? Status ; aˆ? Occupations ;
aˆ? Personal features ; aˆ? Novelty of the mark ;
aˆ? Motion of the mark ; aˆ? Sounds of the mark ;
aˆ? Size of the mark ; aˆ? Background of the mark ;
Factors in the state of affairs include following issues:
aˆ? Social context ; aˆ? Organisational function ;
aˆ? Work scene ; aˆ? Location of event ;
Jointly, these three sets of factors determine our perceptual experiences about others.
( B )
A fabrication company doing automotive parts finds that workers working on the assembly line have hapless attending, leave for place early and are by and large unproductive. They are to the full nonionized and resist any efforts by direction to train them. If you are the HR Manager of such a company, what would you make? Discourse with mention to theories of motive, leading, participative direction and quality circles.
The procedure that history for an person ‘s strength, way and continuity of attempts towards achieving a end.
Needs + Droves + Incentives
Types of motivations:
Some motivations are un learned physiologically based such motivations are termed as physiological, biological, un learned or primary motivations.
Ex-husband: Hunger, Thirst, Sleep, Sex, Avoidance of Pain, Maternal Concern
Number of motivations, which can neither, be classified as primary, or secondary that can be referred to as general motivations. Motive must be unlearned but non physiologically oriented.
Ex-husband: Curiosity, Manipulations, Activity Motives, Affection motives, Love, Concern, Feelings.
Quite a few of import human motivations fall in this class. The of import motivations of Power, accomplishment, and association are all secondary motivations.
Leadership can be defined as the ability to act upon a group towards, the attainment of pre-determined ends.
Traditional Theories of Leadership:
Differentiate leaders from non-leaders by concentrating on personal qualities and features
Extraversion has strongest relation to leading
Conscientiousness and Openness to Experience besides strongly related to leading
Agreeableness and Emotional Stability are non correlated with leading.
Behaviors can be taught – traits can non
Leaderships are trained – non born
Maslow ‘s Need Hierarchy
Social Needs or Belonging and love and fondness demands
Physiological Need or Basic Needs
Harmonizing to Maslow, certain constructs are relevant for understanding the demands. They are pre-potency,
Want, domination, satisfaction and activation. Pre-potency is the strength associated with the demands.
Physiological demands have greater pre-potency. Want is the perceptual experience of an obstruction for satisfaction of a demand. Thus, deprived demand has high pre-potency. Domination is attaching importance to a demand. A disadvantaged demand dominates the person. In order to cut down disagreement associated with the want, persons try to satisfy by set abouting some action. Therefore, satisfaction is the satisfaction of the demand. Gratified demand does non rule. At the terminal, activation of demand determine motive. Need satisfaction activates the demands from one degree to next higher degrees. Maslow believes that these repetition as a rhythm until the highest degree demand is satisfied. Based on the construct Maslow identified five classs of demands and their function in actuating persons. They are described below:
1 ) Physiological Needs:
Basic and primary demands required for human being are physiological demands. They relate to biological and are required for saving of basic human life. These demands are Identified to the human organ in the organic structure. They are finite demands. They must be satisfied repeatedly until human existences die. They are non associated with money entirely. They are hunger, thirst, slumber, shelter, sex, and other bodily needs. The proposition associating to the basic demands is that they are primary incentives to any single and one time they are satisfied, they no longer actuate. The following degree demand becomes of import for satisfaction until the basic demand is hibernating. Provision of equal pecuniary wagess to fulfill these demands motivate employees in administrations.
2 ) Safety Needs:
Persons seek protection from natural environment, biological danger, economic want and emotional menace from other existences and animate beings. For this intent, he wishes security for himself. The protection may be in the signifier of seeking a shelter and organizing into primary groups to battle menace from the natural existences. The motivational proposition are that the safety needs dominate every bit shortly as physiological demands are satisfied, and after single seeks to fulfill reasonably the security needs they do non actuate him. In order to actuate employees, administrations provide periphery benefits, wellness and accident insurance, lodging loans, etc.
3 ) Social Needs:
Basically single is a societal being. He can non populate in isolation and silence. Therefore, he intends to set up relationship with other human existences and some times wish to rise up animate beings. Social needs emerge from the basic impulse of persons to tie in, belong with others, do friendly relationship, make company, desire to be accepted by others and seek fondness. These demands are secondary in nature. The propositions associating to societal demands are that these demands are satisfied by symbolic behavior and through physic and psychic contact with others in the society. They are well infinite and exist until the terminal of human life. Administrations should supply range for formation of informal groups, promote working in squads, and supply range for interpersonal communicating, interpersonal relationships and interpersonal apprehension to actuate employees.
4 ) Esteem Needs:
Maslow believes that people seek growing. They have natural desire to be identified and respected by others. This inherent aptitude is called as regard. Esteem demands are associated with self-esteem and esteem from others. The demand for power, self respect, liberty, self assurance, accomplishment, acknowledgment of competency, cognition, desire to hold freedom, position and unafraid attending of others, grasp are some of the regard needs single wants to fulfill. Maslow identified them, as higher order demands. The nature of regard demands is that they are hibernating until basic, security and societal demands are reasonably satisfied. Satisfaction of regard demands produce a feeling of assurance, strength, capableness and adequateness in the persons.
5 ) Self-actualization Needs:
Self-actualization is transmutation of perceptual experience and dream into world. Persons have inner possible to make something different from others. Gaining the full inner potency, one wishes to go what he is capable of going. Achieving to the degree of fulfillment of selfactualization demands is a hard undertaking as persons are non clear about their interior potencies until an chance is perceived. Furthermore these demands change with a alteration in human life. The strength of self-actualization alterations over life rhythm, vary from individual to individual and environment.
The undermentioned propositions are made about the motive of persons based on the Maslow hierarchy of demands.
I ) Five demands are classified into lower order demands and higher order demands. While physiological, safety and security demands are lower order demands, regard and self realization demands are higher order demands.
two ) Lower order demands are satisfied externally and higher demands are satisfied internally.
three ) Individuals start fulfilling lower order demands first and continue to fulfill higher order demands later.
four ) No demand is to the full satisfied during the life period of persons. A demand well satisfied no longer motivates.
V ) A demand when well satisfied green goodss satisfaction and it becomes hibernating. Immediately the following degree demand becomes active. So Individual is continuously motivated to fulfill unsated demands. So, motive is a uninterrupted procedure.
six ) Satisfaction of lower order demands does non bring forth contentment. In fact, they produce discontentment to fulfill other demands.
seven ) Not all persons have the same precedence to fulfill the demands. Precedences differ from state to state and from state of affairs to state of affairs.
eight ) Persons are aggressive in the satisfaction of basic demands and unconsciousness demands the satisfaction. However, they use societal consciousness in the satisfaction of other demands.
Maslow ‘s demand hierarchy theory of motive was considered logical and simple to understand human motive. The theory has received attending of practising directors as they feel that designation of demands of employees provides an penetration to actuate them. This theory suggested that giving same reward more than persons ‘ desire will hold decreasing fringy public-service corporation. This has specific significance to the practicing director.
Maslow Hierarchy of Needs
Leadership & A ; Human Behavior
As a leader, you need to interact with your followings, equals, seniors, and others ; whose support you need in order to carry through your ends. To derive their support, you must be able to understand and actuate them. To understand and actuate people, you must cognize human nature. Human nature is the common qualities of all human existences. Peoples behave harmonizing to certain rules of human nature.
Human demands are an of import portion of human nature. Valuess, beliefs, and imposts differ from state to state and even within group to group, but in general, wholly people have a few basic demands. As a leader you must understand these demands because they can be powerful incentives.
Features of self-actualizing people:
Have better perceptual experiences of world and are comfy with it.
Accept themselves and their ain natures.
Lack of artificiality.
They focus on jobs outside themselves and are concerned with basic issues and ageless inquiries.
They like privateness and be given to be detached.
Rely on their ain development and continued growing.