Physio Ecological And Socio Economic Impacts Environmental Sciences Essay

4.1. Introduction

In order to understand the range of the survey it is imperative to reexamine the related literature in item. The present survey is an effort to happen out the post-construction onsite and local Physio-ecological and socio-economic impacts of GBHPP on Ghazi Tehsil. The literature on the H2O resource power undertakings is really rich and a batch of work has been done in different parts of the universe including Pakistan.

In order to cover the literature reexamine a part of this study, record of Ghazi Barotha Project, library books, articles and literature hunt was made on the Internet. The reappraisal of the old was done to acquire counsel and learn from the available literature.

Environment is a hoarded wealth of all types of natural resources ( i.e. air, H2O, land, minerals, vegetations and zoologies ) essential to prolong life on Earth. Human life depends on the environment both straight and indirectly for nutrient, shelter vesture, fuel and other stuffs indispensable for present twenty-four hours life. Environmental resources, which are elements of nature, serve as primary beginning of being of worlds.

As the industrials and agribusiness development is taking topographic point, the emphasis on the natural resources is besides increasing twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours. Today, in twenty-first century there is a sense of urgency that the Earth and all its sustains is endangered. The indiscriminate usage of natural resources has altered the face of Earth. We face the depletion and even the disappearing of resources for societal and economic development and worlds sorts ageless thrust for physical and technological enlargements, dirt is weakened, H2O and air are polluted, works and animate beings become nonextant, possibly it is the human himself who suffer more, whose societal and economic life is confronting unpleasant state of affairss due to has own workss and actions. The state of affairs has been aggravated by the rapid population addition. Every twenty-four hours 100s of developmental undertakings are being works and based on use of natural resources. The building of multi intent dike and modesty undertaking is one of them. There are more than 45 1000s big dikes around the universe, which have a great function in the economic development. ( Raven et Al, 1998 ) .

As in the modern age electric power has polar place in the national economic system, advancement in the industrial and agribusiness sectors depends on in assured supply of power. So most of theses are hydro-power undertakings works to run into the electric power demands. Hydropower undertakings generate 19 % of the universe electricity and history for over 50 % of electricity generated in 63 states, ( universe committee on dike, 2000 ) .

Figure: 4.1. Universe: Percentage of Hydro-Electricity in the Power Generation

4.2. Dam

A Dam is a barrier constructed across a river or a natural watercourse to make a reservoir for impound H2O, or to ease recreation of H2O from the river, or to retain debris flowing in the river along with H2O, or to increase the deepness of H2O in a river so as to better pilotage. ( Britannica, The New Encyclopedia, 1993 ) .

4.3 History

4.3.1. Ancient Dams

The Near East — The earliest recorded dike is believed to hold been on the Nile River where a 15m high ( 49 pess ) masonry construction was built about 2900 BC to provide H2O to “ King-Menes ” capital at Memphis. Evidence exists of a masonry-faced Earth dike built about 2700 BC at approximately 90 prevarications South of Cairo. The oldest dike in usage is a rock-filled construction in Syria built about 00 BC. The Assyrians, Babylonians and Persians built dike between 700 and 250 BC R H2O supply and irrigation. Other dikes were built in this period in Ceylon ( modern.-Lanka ) , India and China.

The Romans — The Romans function in development of dikes is non singular for entity or for progresss in tallness. Their skill ballad in the comprehensive aggregation and agreement of H2O and in its conveyance and distribution by aqueducts. Unusually at least Roman dikes in South Western Spain, Proserpine and Cornalbo, are still in usage, hough a 3rd, the Alcantarilla dike, has overturned, and the reservoir of some others ye filled with silt.

4.3.2. Early Dam in the East

Quite independently, dam building evolved in the East. In 240BC a rock cot was built across the Gukow River China. Many earth dikes of moderate tallness were built in Ceylon after the fifth century BC to organize reservoirs or armored combat vehicles for extended irrigation plants. Many of these armored combat vehicles in Ceylon are still in usage today.

In Japan, the Diamonike Dam reached a tallness of 105 pess in AD l128. Numerous damns were besides constructed in India and Pakistan. In Iran a innovator arch dike was built early in fourteenth century.

4.3.3. Precursor of the Modern Dam

From Fifteenth-Eighteenth century dike building resumed in Italy and on a big graduated table in Spain. In Europe where rainfall is ample and well-distributed through the twelvemonth, darn building before the industrial revolution was on merely a modest graduated table and was restricted to organizing H2O reservoir for towns, driving water-mills, and doing up H2O losingss in navigation canal.

Up to the center of 19th century dike design was wholly empirical. Many civil applied scientists contributed in supplying a better apprehension of the rules of dike design and public presentation of construction. This led in bend to better building techniques and larger concrete dikes. Up to the terminal of 2nd World War experiences in design and building of dike advanced in many waies, theoretical accounts were built in Plasticine, gum elastic, plaster and eventually graded concrete.

In first decennary of twentieth century many larger dikes were built in U.S and Western

Europe. Among earth dikes, Fort Peik Dam, completed in 1940 contained the largest volume of silt. This volume was non exceeded until the completion in 1975 of Tarbela, ” Dam in Pakistan.

4.4. Categorization of Dams

Dams may be classified in different ways on the footing of their map, hydraulic design, and stuff of building and structural design.

4.4.1. Categorization Based on Function

On the footing of map, dikes may be classified in the undermentioned classs.

4.4.1.1. Storage Dam or Impounding Dam

A storage dike is constructed to make a reservoir to hive away H2O during the period when the flow in the river is in surplus of the demand, for use subsequently on during the period when the demand exceeds the flow in the river. The H2O stored in the reservoir so created may be used for assorted intents such as irrigation, hydroelectric power coevals, H2O supply etc.

4.4.1.2. Detention Dam

A detainment dike is chiefly constructed to temporarily confine all or portion of the inundation Waterss of a river and to bit by bit let go of the stored H2O at controlled rates so that the full part on the downstream side of the dike may be safeguarded against the possible harm due to inundations. Detention dike may besides be used as a storage dike. Similarly by suited operation of the reservoir a storage dike may besides be used as a detainment dike.

4.4.1.3. Diversion Dam

A recreation dike is constructed for the intent of deviating portion or all of the H2O from a river into conductivity or a channel. Largely for the intent of recreation of H2O from a river into an irrigation canal a weir is constructed across a river which is known as recreation weir.

4.4.1.4. Cofferdam

A caisson is a pique, seek dam constructed to except H2O from a specific country. Such a dike is constantly constructed on the upstream side of the site where existent dike is to be constructed so that the site for constructional work is rendered dry. The caisson constructed in this instance besides behaves as a recreation dike.

4.4.1.5. Debris dike

A dust dike is constructed to catch and retain dusts such as sand, crushed rock, silt and float wood fluxing along with H2O in the river.

4.4.2. Categorization Based on Hydraulic Design

4.4.2.1. Overflow dikes

An overflow dike is constructed with a crest to allow the flood of excess H2O, which can non be retained in the reservoir. Normally dikes are non designed as overflow dikes for their full length. Merely some dikes few metres in tallness have their full length designed for flood, which are chiefly used for recreation of H2O and are known as recreation weirs.

4.4.2.2. Non-overflow dike

A non-overflow dike is that for which H2O is non allowed to flux over its crest. In most of the instances a portion of the length of dike is designed as an overflow dike, while the remainder is designed as non-overflow dike. In such instances the over-flow subdivision of a dike is called spillway. However, in some instances a non-overflow dike is non combined with an overflow dike, but it is provided with a different type of wasteweir.

4.4.3. Categorization Based on Material of Construction

Based on the stuff used for building, the dikes may be classified in the undermentioned classs.

4.4.3.1. Rigid dike

A stiff dike is that which is constructed with stiff stuff such as masonry, concrete, steel or lumber. Earlier rock masonry was normally used for the building of dikes, but now a twenty-four hours it is about wholly replaced by concrete. Steel dike is made of steel home bases supported on inclined prances and a lumber dike is made of wooden home bases supported on a wooden model. The steel and lumber dikes are constructed merely for really little highs and these are seldom constructed.

4.4.3.2. Non-rigid dike

A non-rigid dike is that which is constructed with non-rigid stuff such as Earth, shadowings, stones fill etc. There are four types of non-rigid dike viz. , Earth dike, shadowings dike, and stone fill composite dike. An Earth dike ( or earthen dike ) is constructed with crushed rock, sand, silt and clay. Shadowings dike is built from the waste or garbages obtained from mines ( mines shadowings ) . A stone fill composite dike consists of a stone fill on the downstream side and an Earth fill on the upstream side. All these four types of non-rigid dikes are classified under the class of embankment dikes.

In most of the instances an Earth dike is provided with concrete or rock masonry overflow or spillway subdivision. Such dike is known as composite dike. Further in some instances a portion of the length of a dike is constructed as Earth dike and remainder is constructed as rock masonry dike ( length of wasteweir being excluded ) . Such a dike is known as masonry-cum-earth dike.

4.4.4. Categorization Based on Structural Behavior

On the footing of structural behaviour, dikes may be classified in the undermentioned classs.

4.4.4.1Gravity dike

A gravitation dike is a masonry or concrete dike which resists the force exerted upon it by its ain weight. Its cross subdivision is about triangular in form. If a gravitation dike is straight in program it is known as consecutive gravitation dike. While if it is curved in program it is known as curving gravitation dike. A curving gravitation dike ( or arch- gravitation dike ) nevertheless, resists the forces exerted upon it both by gravitation action and condescending action. Further a gravitation dike is besides classified as solid gravitation dike and hollow gravitation dike. A solid gravitation dike has its full organic structure consisting of a solid mass of masonry or concrete. On the other manus a hollow gravitation dike has hollow infinite left within the organic structure of dam-

4.4.4.2. Arch dike

An arch dike is a masonry or concrete dike, convex upstream, which resists the forces exerted upon it, chiefly by condescending action.

4.4.4.3. Buttress dike

A buttress dike consists of a H2O retaining inclining membrane or deck on the upstream which is supported by a series of buttresses which are by and large in the from of every bit spaced triangular reinforced concrete or masonry walls or counter garrisons. The inclining membrane is normally strengthened concrete slab. In some instances the upstream slab is replaced by multiple arches supported on buttresses or by flame uping the upstream border of the buttresses to cross the distance between the buttresses. The former is known as multiple arch buttress dike and the later is known as bulkhead buttress dike or monolithic caput buttress dike. In general the structural behaviour of a buttress is similar to that of a gravitation dike.

4.4.4.4. Embankment dike

An embankment dike is a non-rigid dike, which resists the forces exerted upon it chiefly by its shear strength. To some extent an embankment dike besides resists the forces exerted upon it by gravitation but its structural behaviour is different in many respects from that of a gravitation dike and hence it can non be included in the class of a gravitation dike ( Modi, 1990 ) .

4.5. Impacts

During the 1970 ‘s when the universe environmental motion was developing what is now called ‘Environmental Science ‘ the interactions of the undertaking and the encompassing resources were called “ impacts ” . Since most early environmental surveies focused entirely on inauspicious effects the term ‘Impact ‘ came to hold the negative intension. The Environmental impact survey was a review of the undertaking, instead than the direction tool it would finally go. As the scientific discipline of environmental direction matured and became integrated into the planning procedure, applied scientists and other contrivers came to acknowledge that a undertaking might hold hidden good and inauspicious impacts. Therefore, it is really indispensable that there should be some effectual planning and comprehensive analysis. Since the late 1960 ‘s procedural and methodological facets of environmental appraisal have received an increasing sum of attending in the planning field. Initially this involvement arose in response to the issue raised by peculiar type of development. More late, the execution of ECC directive required compulsory environmental appraisal of specified type of private and public sector development undertakings is the major stimulation for it. Impact can better the by supplying way in systemic, interdisciplinary analysis, particularly in unfamiliar capable country. It identifies which possible consequence should be examined and how those are linked together with other effects in sufficient thoroughness to guarantee that no of import consequence is overlooked. It can assist to the inclination to concentrate merely on the direct effects. Finally through its literature references it can give counsel for mensurating and measuring possible impacts.

The consequence of a undertaking on homo or natural resources frequently consist of a ironss or web of interactions of changing importance. A nexus in the system may of itself be of comparatively unimportant, but may be a key to an of import consequence elsewhere in the system.

( Rabih Azhar, 2001 )

4.6. Environmental Impacts of Dams/Reservoirs

The effects of H2O resource development strategies on the environment manifest themselves in a figure of ways. They are felt upstream, in the storage reservoir, downstream, and frequently over the whole part. They may be good or damaging. The possible impacts, which may originate due to any dike or reservoir, are as under.

4.6.1. Beneficial Impacts

The good or positive impacts on the ecological and socio-economic environment, originating from the building and operation of dams/reservoirs may be manifested in the undermentioned ways.

4.6.1.1. Impacts on Ecological Resources

Beneficial impacts on the ecological resources are chiefly limited one and may be of the undermentioned type.

Fire bar

New organic structures of H2O created by dikes ‘ Acts of the Apostless as barrier to cut down the wood and shrub fires. This is peculiarly of import consequence in parts with drawn-out hot dry summers.

Fisheries

Large reservoirs by and large have a favourable consequence on the development of piscary in the reservoir pool. New piscary form arises due to the undertaking, both in the reservoir and in the riverine government below the dike. The country becomes conformable to angle hatchery and unreal extension operations and agriculture.

Aquatic birds

The creative activity of new organic structure of H2O can set up conditions conducive to a big addition in the assortment and figure of birds, peculiarly water bird, waders and their marauders. The loss of chiefly bing aquatic life is compensated by the big addition in H2O riparian home ground and the Restoration and protection of endangered species of water bird.

4.6.1.2. Impacts on Socio-Economic Environment

The con-5truction of dikes and reservoirs is frequently for the addition of societal and economic benefits. The good impacts on the socio-economic environment may be manifested in the signifier of impacts on the resources as under.

Water supply

The dike and reservoirs open up avenues for downstream communities and may supply better H2O supply system for them.

Power supply

The dike and reservoirs besides supply the energy. Hydroelectric dikes are built for the electricity intent. The proviso of new energy services by dams benefits the urban population and others connected to the power distribution system. Typically, in states with low degrees of energy services, even little energy inputs bring important public assistance betterment.

Agribusiness

These undertakings result in good impacts on agriculh1re in footings of increased H2O handiness by irrigation ( if irrigation is portion of the development program ) . Further it improves possible for downstream aquaculture ensuing from low flow augmentation.

Navigation

The H2O resource undertakings frequently result in good effects in pilotage due to the reservoir in the upstream watershed and in the downstream due to low flow augmentation.

Flood control

The undertakings, due to the important storage in the reservoir, provide good effects in footings of inundation control in the downstream subdivision and potency for renewal of land for agricultural usage.

Mineral Development

The increased and improved entree that consequences due to the secondary development taking in the country after the completion of the undertaking opens up avenues for excavation and mineral processing which is besides aided by the ready handiness of power due to the hydroelectric power generated. But this frequently may take to depletion, over a clip span, of the mineral resources of the part and planning is necessary so that this may be done in a proper mode.

Industrial development

The building of dikes enhances the potency for industrial development, particularly agro based industries, due to the increased handiness of low cost H2O supplies and power.

Road betterment

Road resettlement is frequently an chance for well bettering the bing route system, while dikes provide possibilities for inexpensive route crossing. Roads may besides supply entree to otherwise distant countries.

Land utilizations

The possibility of new land uses is rich, particularly building of main road and railroad. The un-cultivable land may be altered to cultivable land due to the handiness of irrigation system.

Employment

During the building period, dam undertakings require a big figure of unskilled workers and smaller but important sums of skilled labour. New occupations are hence created both for skilled and unskilled workers during the building.

The increased potency for employment to the part, both during the building of dike and later accessory benefits like industrial development are evident. These undertakings, could besides, if planned, function to halt the tide of migration from these countries into urban centres due to the handiness of H2O and power, which may be used to develop the locality e.g. rural electrification strategy.

Consequence on countryside, touristry and leisure

The beauty of the new countryside created by storage lakes is a favourable consequence on the environment. The same applies where the country is developed for agreeableness intents, and Parkss. The dike itself is frequently a great tourer attractive force. Storage reservoir near populated countries are progressively used for H2O athleticss and swimming when they can be kept about full in the summer season.

4.7. Damaging Effectss

Dams and reservoirs are among the most delicate of all developmental undertakings. While supplying great benefits they may besides do important environmental jobs unless handled with attention at the proper phase. They usually result in great change in the ecological scenes of the countries lying near the undertaking site. Effectss like decrease in piscaries are caused downstream of the dike. Further, such undertakings increase the entree to upstream countries and this could speed up the invasion into such countries, with wide-ranging impacts on woods, wildlife, mineral and industrial development, and agricultural and fishing patterns. They are besides linked with societal and economic alterations. The major inauspicious impacts on ecological and socio-economic scenes originating from dikes and reservoirs are described below.

4.7.1. Impacts on Ecological Resources

The dike building has inauspicious impacts on ecological resources and sometime has led to the irreversible loss of species and ecosystems. Some of the impacts are here.

Fisheries

Losingss can be expected due to dam and reservoir undertaking in riverine piscaries due to the creative activity of the reservoir, the decrease in downstream flood, the alterations in the hydrologic government of the riverine part below the dike, the caparison of foods in the reservoir and the intervention posed by the dike to migratory species of fishes. The recreation and drying up of Mountain Rivers is damaging to fishing and is an eyesore. The inquiry is peculiarly acute when natural waterfalls are bypassed.

Aquatic biological science

The dams/reservoirs are expected to bring forth alterations in the ecology of the reservoir and in downstream riverine zones. Storage dikes are intended to change the distribution and timing of watercourse flow. The decrease in deposit and alimentary conveyance in river downstream of dike has impact on channel, flood plain and coastal delta morphology and causes the loss of aquatic home ground for piscary and other species.

Forest

Frequently good storage sites for damming occur in hilly highlands, which are thickly forested. Before a reservoir is filled up, the full country to be submerged has to be cleared and forest frequently becomes a casualty.

Despite the increased consciousness about the demand to protect forest screen, small attending is by and large paid to this factor when a site is selected for a dike, fundamentally because all woods are province belongings and no 1 has to be compensated for them. The wood is besides cleared for attack roads, offices, and residential quarters and for storage of building stuff. With the decrease in wood screen and the entry of people, the force per unit area on the staying wood additions. The demand for firewood leads to farther stripping which can take to the land eroding jobs ensuing in rapid siltation of the reservoir every bit good as loss of good agriculture dirt.

Tellurian zoology

Conveyances of equipment, trucking of mucking, blaring and increased jeopardy endanger farm animal during building stage of the undertaking. A new reservoir straight affects the upstream zoology in a figure of ways. Many animate beings die and some migrate to new countries. The dam/reservoir development undertaking affects the wildlife resources in the watershed above the dike due to flood. Due to the development the entree to the part greatly increases taking to losingss in wildlife resources due to the attendant invasion and loss of forest screen.

Submerging of Arable Land

Reservoir basins are frequently rich in cultivable land and grazing land, sometimes organizing the lone agricultural potency in the part. The building of the big H2O development undertakings drowns the agribusiness land and adversely affects the agricultural potency of the country.

Socio-economic Impacts

Damaging impacts on socio-economic set up of the country are chiefly linked with building of the undertaking, but still some jobs may originate during the operation of undertakings. Main impacts are as under.

Water Supply

The dike and reservoir undertakings can adversely impact bing downstream canal system, particularly in dry season conditions. The recreation of river during the building and operation of these undertakings may upset the land H2O government and intern affect the handiness of H2O to the local.

Resettlement Particularly large-scale substructure undertakings involve supplanting of people from their supports and places. This is one of the most of import issues in a dike and reservoir undertaking. The magnitude is rather big for most such undertakings. For illustration, when the World Bank looked at undertakings that it had helped fund, and that involved nonvoluntary relocation, it found that out of 192 undertakings examined, the figure of undertakings in which all of those resettled benefited from the undertaking was precisely zero.

The jobs in resettling and relocating the local population are of paramount importance. Merely giving compensation money to the affected households would entirely non suffice. Consideration should be made to supply alternate employment, lodging, and comfortss to the resettled households.

Health effects for riparian inhabitants

The dikes are expected to impact public wellness in every bit much as it makes the part susceptible to H2O borne diseases. Dams create first-class home ground for water-borne disease parasites responsible for these diseases. New storage reservoir and their related H2O systems have reverberations on the chief endemic parasites. In hot, moist parts certain of the more chronic and widespread endemic diseases are transmitted through pathogens whose vectors live in fresh H2O. Such diseases are endemic even before building of the dike but the reservoir increases the size of the hosts, home ground, therefore advancing their enlargement. The chief diseases spread in this manner are malaria which is transmitted through the Anopheles mosquitoes, schistosomiasis caused by blood good lucks of the genus Bilharzia, schistosomisas is transmitted through a snail, and river blindness, transmitted by the bite of a little fly of the Simuliidae household.

Perturbation of Social Setup

The building of any undertaking consequence in alteration in the societal set-up of the local community due to the inflow of the people from the other countries both during the building stage and every bit good as operation stage. Social jobs may besides originate due to set down acquisition and compensatory steps made. Although this impact is felt by all parts of community but adult females have to endure more. For a assortment of grounds, the impacts of dikes are frequently felt disproportionately by adult females. Compensation payments to those displaced by undertakings are most frequently made to work forces, change overing the corporate assets of households into disposable hard currency held by the work forces. Womans are besides frequently most dependent on the common resources that are eliminated by dam undertakings. They may besides be peculiarly vulnerable to the societal and cultural dislocation that normally occurs within communities forced to relocate.

Diversion and aesthetic

During building, due to the big sums of burrowing and filling required, the natural landscape is disturbed and most frequently the aesthetic expression of the country is changed negatively.

Cultural heritage

These undertakings inundate countries and parts incorporating valuable historical and cultural archeological hoarded wealths. Although betterments have been noted in recent old ages, possible cultural heritage impacts are still mostly ignored in the planning procedure, particularly under development states. Dams have important inauspicious effects on this heritage through the loss of local cultural resources ( temples, shrines, and sacred elements of the landscape, artefacts and edifices ) and the submerging and debasement of archeological resources.

4.8. Summarized L1terature Review

No organic structure wants to rediscover the wheel, if the inquiry has already been answered. A reappraisal of what has been written on the subject can stir your thoughts, aid sharpen your inquiries, and usher you in carry throughing the following measure. Literature reappraisal is an exercising, which was done before analyzing the impacts of GBHPP on its surrounding. In this of context different libraries were consulted, and old research work was exhaustively gone through to acquire some thought about the subject. Summarized reappraisal of literature consulted is given here.

Khan ( 1967 ) carried out a survey on Mangla Dam Project. Mangla Dam is constructed on river Jehlum and its power coevals capacity is 1000 MW. The building of the dike posed a serious job of human disruption. About 82,000 individuals had to resettle, from over 70,000 estates of land, which has since, been submerged in Mangla reservoir, including 400 old ages old territory Town of Mirpur. The relocation of the affected people was large challenge, which was met successfully under a generous relocation strategy. With the building of Mangla Dam and the creative activity of immense lake, new industries bit by bit moved into the territory and new views of employment were opened up with the installation for athleticss and diversion now available over at that place. Mangla Lake set in beautiful natural environing destined to develop into a great vacation and tourer resort.

Mohammad and Iqbal ( 1992 ) carried out a survey of Kurram Tangi Dam ( multipurpose Project ) . In their survey they identified and evaluated the impacts originating from the proposed undertaking and divided them into three classs i.e. important impacts, moderate impacts and negligible impacts. They have besides suggested few recommendations for the extenuation of inauspicious impacts, which are largely related to the building stage of the undertaking.

Tariq ( 1993 ) worked on the Environmental Impacts of Tarbela Dam undertaking constructed on Indus River. Tarbela Dam is the largest stone and Earth filled dam completed in 1974 and has been in operation since so. The major environmental impacts identified during the survey are on relocation, power coevals, irrigation, inundation extenuation and land H2O. While the minor environmental impacts are on wildlife, pilotage, clime, forest, piscaries, deposit, seismicity, downstream channel H2O quality. The environmental impacts on socio-economic facet and geographical facet have besides been highlighted in the survey.

Samiuallah ( 1993-1994 ) conducted the Environmental Impact Assessment of Khan Kl1awar Hydropower Project which is located in the Northeast vale in the NWFP. In the study both the positive and negative environmental impacts are discussed. Positive impacts are on physical, ecological resources, human usage values ( mineral resource and industrial development ) , Quality of life values ( occupation creative activity, lodging electricity, halt out migrations, provide scenic topographic point etc ) .

Negatives impacts are

On physical resources ( surface H2O quality, air quality, Soil eroding, deposit etc )

On ecological resources ( Fish, wildlife, forest, farm animal, endangered vegetations )

On human usage values ( downstream irrigation, water- factory operation etc )

Impacts on quality of life value ( bing roads, public wellness, and scenic beauty ) .

Khalil ( 1996 ) worked on the subject of Environmental Impact Assessment of Golen Gol Hydropower Project at Chitral NWFP, Pakistan. He has identified the positive and negatives impacts originating during building and operation stage. The positive and negative impacts are discussed under four classs i.e. Physical resources, Ecological resources, Human usage values, and Quality of life values. In order to extinguish or cut down the badness of the negative impacts, extenuation steps were besides suggested.

Gulzar ( 2000 ) monitored the Environmental Impacts of Ghazi Barotha Hydropower Project on Barotha Village. In her survey she concluded that the building of power composite has affected the small town from environmental, economic and societal point of position. The digging for power channel has severely influenced the agricultural land, land H2O degree, farm animal and communicating system in Barotha. BMV constructed for displaced people from Barotha small town has been provided with basic comfortss of life but some jobs like unemployment and hapless drainage system are being faced by the resettled individuals.

SHYDO carried a survey on Allai Khawar Hydel Development undertaking. Environmental and socio-economic impacts are assessed in the study. Impacts on Physical and biological environment, land, edifices and other fixed assets affected have been discussed, in this study. Impacts have been analyzed and options are given. Extenuation steps are given under the undermentioned headlines i.e. , Physical extenuation steps and Biological extenuation steps. Besides the socio-economic impacts like compensation, relocation and rehabilitation jobs have been explained.

Malakand Hydropower Project III. EIA study, Identification and Evaluation of Environmental Impacts is carried out. It discussed the socio-economic impacts of the undertaking by sorting them into four classs i.e.

Positive short teflll

Negative short teflll Positive long teflll

Negative long teflll

Impacts on land and H2O resources, grazing land, vegetation, piscaries, farm animal, noise, dust, air pollution and seismal jeopardy have been explained. Their options have been discussed and extenuation steps are besides given in the study.

Litigation Department ( 1995 ) studied the impacts of Gomal Zam Dam ( multipurpose undertaking ) , in order of diminishing importance i.e. H2O supply for judicial proceeding, inundation protection and power coevals. The constituents of undertaking could concern instruction, employment, agribusiness, farm animal, and direction of woods, agro- industries, handcrafts, workshops, H2O supply, wellness and all conditions roads. Changes in physical, biological and socio-economic environment are studied both positively and negatively.

SHYDO ( 1999 ) worked on Duber Khawar. All possible environmental impacts those happening during building have been assessed like supplanting of people and loss of wildlife, farm animal, piscary, forests etc. Socio-economic positive impacts include the proviso of employment, sweetening of the trade activities but it may impair local societal life, and different struggles may originate between locals and migrators. Different extenuation steps have been suggested to cut down the impacts on forestation, farm animal, waste disposal and diseases and for the disposal of excavated stuff.

Dr. Amir khan on GBHPP. In the underdeveloped states like Pakistan less thought is given to the environmental factors at the clip of be aftering phase of a development undertakings with the exclusion of foreign funded undertakings. The effects of such development is the impairment of environment and natural resources such as, air, H2O, land, dirt, vegetations and zoologies that finally affect the environment and the wellbeing of the people. Harmonizing to Pakistan Environmental Protection regulation, 1983 and Act, 1997 elaborate Environmental Impact Assessment ( EIA ) is imperative for all the new development undertakings in order to extinguish or cut down the negative impacts of the proposed development undertaking. The environmental jobs one time emerged and if stairss are non taken to extenuate these at the earlier phases can change the environment. Therefore, the preventative steps should be adopted at the planning and execution stage of a development undertaking in order to protect the environment.

In this survey an effort has been made to happen out the impacts of GBHPP on the local socio- cultural, economic and ecological conditions of the Ghazi Tehsil. Field study including treatments with local people and the staff of assorted line sections were made to roll up informations and information sing the undertaking and in depth apprehension of the emerging jobs. The Ghazi – Barotha Hydropower Project is located in the foothill of territories Haripur and Attock ( Fig.1 ) . It is designed to use the autumn of the River Indus between the tailrace of Tarbela Dam and the meeting of the Indus and Haro rivers. In this range the Indus River bead by about 76 m in a distance of 63 Km.

The undertaking has three chief constituents viz. a bombardment, a power channel and a power composite. The bombardment is located about 7 kilometers downstream of Tarbela Dam, merely upstream of the town of Ghazi. It will make a pool that will widen upstream to the tail Waterss of Tarbela Dam. Its normal surface lift will be 340 m at the bombardment, where locally it will make a maximal deepness of 14 m. The power channel will convey H2O from the bombardment pool to the power composite. It will be a concrete-lined channel with a capacity of 1600 cumecs, trapezoidal in cross subdivision, 94.4 m broad at the H2O surface and 9 m deep. The power channel will hold a bed incline of 1:9600. The H2O speed in the channel will be 2.33 m/s. The power composite is located near the Village of Barotha, on the left bank of the Indus River, merely upstream of the meeting with the Haro River. It will bring forth 1450 MW electricity.

EIA survey carried out by the advisers for GBHPP in early 90s was extremely superficial without any baseline study and follow up. Its focal point was onsite impacts while local and regional impacts were less emphasized. The onsite impacts which were identified were besides qualitative. No quantification, projections, and long-run plans were mentioned in the EIA studies.

At the national degree the undertaking is really good but this survey reveals that GBHPP has more negative local impacts as compared to positive 1s. EIA Checklists is used for the show of the consequences. Quantification of the undertaking impacts is done, by following EIA matrix technique. The analysis shows that in the survey country the long-run inauspicious impacts are more than the good impacts. These inauspicious impacts are more important on communicating across the power channel impacting human and wildlife, lessening in the supply of the belowground H2O tabular array, addition in land monetary values, and psychological impacts on people ‘s wellness, piscaries and biodiversity. Quantification of these impacts and application of EIA Matrix techniques show that the balance of the impacts was in negative figure, hiting a net balance of -144. This really clearly shows that adequate extenuation steps must be adopted instantly in order to avoid the environmental calamity. Besides these findings have made the instance clear for the readying of development program by affecting local communities and peoples for the upheaval of the whole country.

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12. Mian Mobeen Shaukat on Effectss of Ghazi Barotha Dam Project

Consequence on Peoples

Seen as a whole, the undertaking is doubtless a approval for the people of Pakistan, as it will be a major measure towards the solution of the prevalent energy crises. However, for the subdivision of people belonging to the locality of the affected countries, the undertaking is non less than a calamity. Twenty old ages ago they sacrificed their land and support for TARBELA DAM PROJECT. They are once more fore-seeing that they will hold to give up the staying land for the interest of their states prosperity. Well, it ‘s non excessively bad a trade! The study carried out by a squad, consisting of the pupils of GIK ( Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engg. & A ; Technology ) , revealed that most of the people were non satisfied by the compensations which have been made by the authorities. They make the undermentioned ailments:

The power channel will move as a barrier for a husbandman want to acquire over the other terminal of his piece of land, located on the other side of the channel. As a consequence, he will hold to bear the extra load of the bus-fare, evertime he goes from one portion of his belongings to the other.

Diversion of H2O from Ghazi to Barotha will consume the Indus from Ghazi to Qazipur. This will hold a drastic affect in the marine life and besides, the lives of 100s of tribesmen will be affected.

The attitude of the patwaries besides poses a batch of problem. They ask for brawny payoffs, endanger them that if they fail to present the required amount they will declare their agricultural land as being waste and as a consequence the monetary value of their land will drastically fall.

Preference is being given to the foreigners instead than the locals, sing the handiness of occupations, both proficient every bit good as non-technical 1s, at the building sites. The occupation licenses, which have been issued to them, have merely proved to be a formality and the building company has adopted a stiff and colored attitude towards the locals.

Consequence on the Environment

The undertaking is non expected to bring on a major influence on the environment. Such effects on the environment are predicted on the footing of experience with a similar undertaking in a comparable environment. Direct or primary effects can normally be fore-seen and from them the indirect effects can be concluded.

Consequence of the Barrage

The most important consequence will be on the aquatic enviornment and the transition of a stretch of braided river bed into a fluctuating pool, with a maximal country of 1,000 hectares. The present land used for the river bed is a beginning of setts and fuel wood with some land used for graze and for fishermans ‘ cantonments. As a consequence of the building of the Barrage, the monetary value of land will increase as it shifts from agricultural to commercial development.

Consequence of the Power Channel

About 1000 hectares of land will be taken by the power channel and its right-of-way including an allowance for the eventualities. After rehabilitation it will go a much improved country.

The major land acquisition near Barotha will be about 850 hectares. About 40 % of this land is cultivable, of which merely 6 % is irrigated. The remainder presently is forest, grazing land and barren.

Consequence on the River Indus

The land H2O inflow-outflow relationship along the river will be slightly altered. The presence of pool upstream of Ghazi will increase recharge from the river locally, now limited to the periods of high flow. From Ghazi to Qazipur, the period of recharge will be slightly sawed-off and the dry season escape to the river will be slightly increased. This will non impact the locals, as at the present, merely a little per centum of the consumptive demands of the 15 riverbank small towns is met from the river ; the remainder comes from the land H2O.