Olive Mill Waste Application To Soil Biology Essay

The organic affair is a dirt fraction modulating the biological activity of dirts, so a satisfactory content in organic stuff, dominates the dirt birthrate, Economou et Al. ( 1 ) , Chouliaras et Al. ( 2 ) , Gougoulias et Al. ( 3 ) .

The really of import sums of olive factory waste produced in olive cultivation countries, runing between 1,75×106 and 2, 25 x106 tons/year of water-waste for Greece, Kyriazopoulos ( 4 ) so the profitable usage of these organic stuffs as dirt amendments are good both to dirty betterment and environmental protection.

Numerous methods are used for the interventions of olive factory waste, so the several merchandises added to the dirt, act assorted effects on dirt belongingss and works growing, Ouzounidou Georgia et Al. ( 5 ) . The waste could be applicable as composted stuff while the natural waste could hold good effects refering clip and cost, Lopez-Pineiro et Al. ( 6 ) .

The good effects of these amendments are related to dirty organic affair addition, Carbonnell et Al. ( 7 ) so, accordingly, to dirty chemical and physical belongings betterment, Ntoulas et Al. ( 8 ) . In harmonizing to Lopez-Pineiro et Al. ( 9 ) , consecutive applications of the de-oiled two-phase olive factory waste on dirt as amendment, may be an effectual direction pattern for commanding their ability to increase P-availability. The two-phase olive factory waste application to olive grove dirt, increased organic C, entire N, available P & A ; K, aggregated stableness and, in general, increased olive production, Lopez-Pineiro et Al. ( 10 ) .

The consequence of this waste stuff on dirt microbic activity was besides assessed, Kotsou et Al. ( 11 ) , Hameed et Al. ( 12 ) , Saadi et Al. ( 13 ) . Furthermore, the antimicrobic consequence, likely due to polyphenolic compounds, happening in olive factory waste H2O against Fungi, was demonstrated by Vagelas et Al. ( 14 ) and Vagelas et Al. ( 15 ) . Further, more harmonizing to Abid et Al. ( 16 ) , H2O thermophilic bacteriums every bit good as actinomycetes dominated over Eumycetess, during composting of the olive factory waste.

The purpose of this work was to analyze the effects of biological and chemical belongingss on dirt, caused by the rate and the nature of the solid-waste or H2O soluble-waste of olive factory, in vitro.

EXPERIMENTAL

The experiment lasted for two periods of incubation. During the 1st period, an sum Doctor of Optometry wast tested either in liquid or solid signifier was added to the dirt. During the second period different mixtures of both form stuffs were tested.

1st experiment – separate application of each signifier waste to dirty

In this survey, 13.51, 27.03 and 40.54 g of air dried solid waste stuff incorporating 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g of organic affair, were added to 50 g of air dried, light textured dirt severally, which was hapless in organic affair. All these stuffs aa‚¬ ” dirt and waste aa‚¬ ” were obtained from the part of Larissa ( Greece, Table 1 ) . Into 50 g of the same dirt 41.7, 83.3 an 125.0 g of liquid waste was besides added, incorporating 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g of organic affair, severally. In the center of the incubation period, all interventions of the 1st experiment, were leached with distilled H2O ( 1soil: 5H2O ) and all H2O infusions were collected to be analysed, in order to near the ecological consequence of rainfall in natural leaching conditions.

2nd experiment – application of both from waste to dirt, in mixture

This experiment was established based on the information of the 1st experiment, so an equal mixture of the two signifier waste was chosen, in order to be tested.

In this survey, 24.39 g of solid waste +8.13 g of liquid waste, ( 3S:1L ) , 20.4 g of solid waste+ 20.4 g of liquid waste, ( 1S:1L ) , and 13.7 g of solid waste+41.1 g of liquid waste, ( 1S:3L ) , were added to 50 g of the same dirt, severally. Each mixture contained 5.0 g of organic affair.

In the brooder, the interventions were prepared in triplicates and kept at 28 oC for a period of 15 hebdomads. During the first three hebdomads of the incubation period, the wet was maintained at two-thirds of field capacity, but for the following three hebdomads the dirts were left to dry. This procedure was repeated until the terminal of the incubation period. Harmonizing to Wu and Brookes ( 17 ) , the alternation of drying and rewetting dirt samples enhances mineralization of both dirt biomass organic affair and non-biomass organic affair.

At the terminal of the incubation period, dirt samples were analysed utilizing the following methods which are referred by Page et Al. ( 18 ) .

Organic C was analysed by chemical oxidization with 1 mol L-1 K2Cr2O7 and titration of the staying reagent with 0.5 mol L-1 FeSO4.

Both ammonium and nitrate N were extracted with 0,5 mol L-1 CaCl2, and estimated by distillment in presence of MgO and Dewarda metal, severally.

Organic P was measured after mineralization by burning of the dirt sample and minus of the mineral P sums, which had antecedently been estimated in the research lab. The mineral sums were extracted with 1 mol L-1 H2SO4 and all signifiers were measured by spectrometry.

Available P signifiers ( P-Olsen ) were extracted with 0.5 mol L-1 NaHCO3 and measured by spectrometry.

Exchangeable signifiers of K were extracted with 1 mol L-1 CH3COONH4 and measured by fire photometer.

Available signifiers of Mn, Zn and Cu were extracted with DTPA ( Diethylene Triamine Penta Acetic Acid 0.005 mol L-1 + CaCl2 0.01 mol L-1 + Triethanolamine 0.1 mol L-1 ) and measured by atomic soaking up.

Entire humus compounds ( Humic+Fulvic acids ) were extracted at pH:12 with NaOH, and Humic acids were precipitated at pH: 2 with HCl, harmonizing to fractional process of dirt organic affair protocol, proposed by Chouliaras et Al. ( 19 ) .

The dirt organic C contents were transformed in organic affair contents by multiplying by 1.724, which is an experimental factor, reported by Hesse ( 20 ) .

For look intoing the consequence of added stuff on the dirt microflora ( bacterial and fungous communities ) , a little sum of dirt was spread onto Potato Dextrose Agar ( PDA ) home bases and incubated for two yearss at 25 oC in darkness. After the incubation period the figure of bacterial settlements formed were counted. The same home bases were farther incubated as above for another six yearss. After the incubation period the emerged Fungis per home base and per intervention were recognised under the microscope.

Statistical analyses

The experiment was repeated and the wholly randomised design with four reproductions was used. Tukeyaa‚¬a„?s processs were used to observe and divide the average intervention differences at P = 0.05. Statistical analyses were performed by the statistical plan MINITAB ( 21 ) .

Consequence

1st experiment – separate application of each signifier waste to dirty

The H2O infusions, taken by leaching the dirt interventions during the incubation period, showed a important addition of dirt salt and alkalinity in all the samples amended with H2O soluble waste ; in these H2O infusion interventions, a important lift in P and K H2O soluble signifiers was besides attested in comparing with control, ( Fig-1 ) .

The organic contents of the interventions at the terminal of the incubation period showed a high rate of organic affair biodegradation, about & gt ; 30 % for all the samples amended with soluble waste. On the contrary, a strong opposition to biodegradation has been shown by solid waste ; a important addition of salt and alkalinity was besides reveled for the two upper rates of liquid applications, and available signifiers of P and K were besides found significantly increased in these interventions with H2O soluble waste, ( Fig-2 ) .

The NO3- content of all interventions at the terminal of the incubation period is higher in comparing with NH4+ , but that ( N-NO3-/ N-NH4+ ) ratio is lower in the instance of H2O leaching infusions taken during the incubation clip, which could be explained by a necessary nitrification procedure, achieved for all over the incubation period. A important addition for P-organic synthesis was besides reveled for all interventions.

Despite the lift in available signifiers for Cu, Mn, Zn in comparing to the control for all interventions, an undistinguished lift of entire contents for these metals was attested, and the addition of exchangeable Na did non do any sodicity hazard for dirt, ( Fig-3 ) .

The humic acid contents are ever ruling in comparing with fulvic acid contents for interventions with solid waste, ( Fig-2 ) .

Harmonizing to our consequences, soil bacterial Numberss increased significantly by L3 ( mill effluent ) intervention where as L1 intervention inhibited dirt bacterial growing ( Table 2 ) . Changes in entire dirt bacteriums figure treated with S1 and S3 are supported by the fact that a higher concentration of available Zn was found at S3 intervention compared with S1 ( Figure 3 ) .

2nd experiment – application of both from waste to dirt, in mixture

The mixture of these two kinds of waste added to dirty, produced a well-decomposed stuff during incubation, refering organic affair for both solid or H2O soluble waste ; the organic affair of these mixture is decomposed about & gt ; 40 % , so organic affair of solid waste is better decomposed under the consequence of the H2O soluble waste, in comparing to the consequences of the 1st experiment where solid waste is individually added to dirty. The salt was further increased in the instance of the mixture 1S:3L, but dirt pH was somewhat affected in all interventions. At the terminal of the incubation period, comparative high sums of N-NH4+ signifiers yet existed, while P-organic content increased significantly in all interventions. Available signifiers of P, K, and Mn were increased particularly at the mixture 1S:3L, besides the available signifiers of Cu and Zn increased for all interventions. The addition of exchangeable Na did non do any sodicity hazard for dirt by these mixtures either, ( Fig-4 ) .

Furthermore, figure 4 showed that, when the available Zn increased, entire dirt bacterial Numberss decreased ( Table 3, intervention 1S: 3L ) , proposing that 1S: 3L intervention contains high available Zn accretion with negative impacts on dirt bacterial community. Furthermore, it seems that olive factory effluent has a important impact on dirt borne Fungi belonging to genera Rhizopus ( Table 2 and 3 ) and it might hold allowed the growing of some fungi species of Aspergillus and Fusarium ( Table 2 and 3 ) .

Discussion

The organic content of the interventions at the terminal of the incubation period showed a high rate of organic affair biodegradation for samples amended with H2O soluble waste. However, a strong opposition to biodegradation has been proved by solid waste, when the two sorts of waste are added individually ; the organic affair of solid waste is better decomposed under the consequence of the H2O soluble waste, when the two waste kinds are added together ; a likely account for that consequence could be the higher content in fulvic acids of H2O soluble waste, and these more labile compounds are estimated as more biodegradable by dirt micro vegetation, Jacquin & A ; Chouliaras ( 22 ) . The salt lift is more affected by liquid waste application, but it is of import to note the increased presence of available signifiers of P, K, Zn, Mn and Cu in the dirts amended with the mixture of solid +water soluble waste, in the ratio ( 1S:3L ) .

Harmonizing to our findings the dirt amended individually and uniting with the solid ( S ) or liquid ( L ) signifier of olive factory waste, reduced bacterial growing significantly duo to the addition of heavy metals, such as Zn and Cu. Toxicity of these heavy metals ( Zn, Cu ) to the being ( soil bacterial community ) is good known, Frostegard et Al. ( 23 ) , Giller et Al. ( 24 ) , Novac et Al. ( 25 ) . Harmonizing to our consequences, dirt amended uniting with solid ( S ) and liquid ( L ) signifier of olive factory waste in 1S:3L showed significantly fewer entire dirt bacterium Numberss and a much bigger sum of Zn and Cu compared to all other interventions which suggested that dirt treated with this mixture conducted toxic. Furthermore, this survey showed that the dirt amended with 1S:3L mixture increased the growing of Fungis belonging to the subdivision Deuteromicotina, category Deuteromycetes ( peculiarly Aspergillus and Fusarium ) and the fungus belonging to genus Mucor ( category Zygomycetes ) concluded that a ) these dirt Fungis are immune to toxic metals, such as Zn and Cu and B ) it is seems that in the present survey these fungi species increased the exchangeable K in dirt. Harmonizing to literature micro-organisms like fungi species Aspergillus and Fusarium are known for their opposition to heavy metals, Kapoor et Al. ( 26 ) , Ahmad et Al. ( 27 ) , Bishnoi and Garima ( 28 ) . Based on this, we can reason that dirt amended with 1S:3L olive factory waste mixture could be an alternate manner to chemical control.