Medicinal Plant Cardiospermum Halicacabum Linn Biology Essay

The petroleum extracts from foliage and root of cardiospermum halicacabum in different dissolver, were subjected to pharmacognostic and fluorescence analysis, phytochemical and antimicrobic showing against selected Gram positive and Gram negative bacteriums. Acetone, intoxicant, benzine, trichloromethane and aqueous infusions of foliage and root were used for phytochemical showing and antimicrobic activity. Phytochemical surveies indicated that the foliage and root contain a wide spectrum of secondary metabolites. Phenol, tannic acids and saponins were preponderantly found in all the five tested dissolver infusions of foliage followed by steroids, sugars, flavonoids and terpenoids ( Benzene and propanone ) . Like wise, phenol, tannic acid, aminic acids were preponderantly found in all the tested solvent infusions of the root. Triperpenoids were non found in any of the solvent infusions of root. All the infusions showed changing grade of repressive potency against all the tested bacterium. Acetone and chloroform infusions of foliage had higher repressive action against Salmonella typhi and Streptococcus subtilis severally. Acetone extracts of root showed maximal repressive action against S. typhi and benzene infusions of root had moderate repressive action against Escherichia coli.

Keywords: Cardiospermum halicacabum, fluorescence features, pharmacognostic surveies, phytochemical showing, antibacterial activity.

1. Introduction

The usage of workss by adult male to handle common complaints is clip immemorial and many of the traditional medical specialties are still included as portion of the accustomed intervention of assorted maladies [ 1 ] . About 60 % of the entire planetary population remains dependent on traditional medical specialties for their health care system [ 2 ] . In India 1000s of species are known to hold medicative values and the usage of different parts of several medicative workss to bring around specific complaints has been in trend since antediluvian times [ 3 ] . Medicative workss are valuable natural resources and regarded as potentially safe drugs and have been tested for biological, antimicrobic and hypoglycaemic activity besides play an of import function in the modern medical specialty [ 4,5 ] . It is good known that even the most man-made drugs have their beginning from works merchandises [ 6 ] . Recently scientific involvement in medicative workss has burgeoned due to the increased efficiency of works derived drugs and raising concern about the side effects of modern medical specialty. The efficaciousness of current antimicrobic agents has been reduced due to the go oning outgrowth of drug immune beings and the versions by microbic pathogens to normally used disinfectants. There fore the hunt for new drugs from workss continue to be a major beginning of commercial drugs. Plant based disinfectants represent a huge untapped beginning of medical specialties even after their tremendous curative potency and effectivity in the intervention of infective disease hence, farther geographic expedition of works disinfectants need to happen [ 7 ] . The showing of works infusions and their merchandises for antimicrobic activity has shown that higher workss represent a possible beginning of fresh antibiotic paradigms [ 8 ] . The choice of petroleum works infusions for testing plans is potentially more successful in initial stairss than the pure compounds [ 9 ] . Such showing of assorted works infusions has been antecedently studied by many workers [ 10,11 ] . Eventhough 100s of works species have been tested for antimicrobic belongingss, the huge bulk of them have non yet been evaluated [ 12 ] .

C. halicacabum is a climber belongs to the household Sapindaceae. The works is a twinner, pubescent or about glabrous one-year or perennial with slender subdivisions, liming by agencies of tendrillar maulerss. Leaves ternately compound, leaflets membranous, down, pyriform capsule wrangled at the angles. Seeds black with a big white shaped aril. It has been widely used in traditional medical specialties for bring arounding assorted human complaints. This works exhibit a broad scope of biological and pharmacological belongingss. It is good known that active components lending infusions and pulverizations from the foliages, roots and seeds of this works are used in the readying of bushs and extracts in traditional medical specialty against diabetics and arthritis. The roots are diuretic, sudorific, emetic, gluey, laxative and emmenagogue. They are utile in strangury febrility, arthritis, amenorrhoea, lumbar pain and neuropathy and rheumatism, stiffness of limbs and snake bite, nervous upsets and hemorrhoids. The foliages are rubefacient and are good for arthritis and hemorrhoids. The works has ataractic action on cardinal nervous system. Phytochemical scrutiny of the infusions of this works showed the presence of glycosides, steroids, flavones and cut downing sugars. Sing this an effort has been made to look into the phytochemical, antimicrobic and fluorescence characters of benzine, trichloromethane, propanone, ethyl alcohol and aqueous infusions from foliage and root of C. halicacabum. This survey will besides hopefully exposes new frontiers by bettering the current applications of this works and provides a scientific footing for the traditional claims of this cultural medicinal works.

2. Materials and methods

Preparation of works infusions

Fresh Plant of Cardiospermum halicacabum L. was collected from Saraswathi Narayanan College campus ; they were identified with the aid of Gamble & A ; acirc ; ˆ™s vegetation. The works stuff was washed with H2O to take shadiness dried at room temperature. Infusions were prepared from the method of [ 13 ] . The dried works stuffs were land into all right pulverization in an electric liquidizer and later sieved for obtaining all right pulverization. The besotted works pulverization was filtered and used as such for qualitative, phytochemical analysis and antimicrobic checks.

Analysis of fluorescence pharmacognostic characters

Fluorescence analysis was carried out with pulverizations prepared from shade dried workss every bit good as in propanone, intoxicant, trichloromethane, benzine and H2O infusions as described by Thomas et Al. [ 14 ] . The pulverizations were treated individually with 1N aqueous NaOH, 1N ethonolic NaOH, 1 N H2SO4 and 1N HNO3. The supernatants were examined under UV visible radiation and ordinary twenty-four hours visible radiation. Pharmacognostic characters of Cardiospermum halicacabum were analyzed by using standard method as described in Pharmacopeia of India.

Phytochemical showing

Phytochemical showing was carried out to measure the qualitative chemical composing of petroleum infusions utilizing normally employed precipitation and colour to place the major natural chemical groups such as steroids, cut downing sugars, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, saponins, tannic acids, flavonoids, aminic acids and anthracene glycosides. General reactions in these analysis revealed the presence or absence of these compounds in the petroleum infusions tested [ 15 ] . Crude infusions of the workss antecedently prepared and stored in a icebox were used for the phytochemical trials.

Collection of micro-organisms and readying of media

Stock civilizations such as Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundi, Streptococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi were obtained. The growing media employed in the present survey included alimentary agar and alimentary stock. The medium was adjusted to pH 7.4 and sterilized by autoclaving at 120 & A ; Acirc ; & A ; deg ; C for 15 min.

Screening for antibacterial potency

Antibacterial activity was determined by disc diffusion method as described by Langfeild [ 16 ] . The standard inoculant suspensions were swabbed over the surface of media. The oven dried phonograph record impregnated with 20 & A ; Acirc ; µl of the foliage and root infusions ( 1mg/ml ) were placed on the surface of the medium. After the incubation period the diameter of suppression zone around the works infusion saturated phonograph record were measured as the difference in diameter between the phonograph record ( 6 millimeter ) and growing free zone.

3. Consequences

Fluorescence analysis and quantitative finding of pharmacognostic characters

The consequences of Fluorescence analysis of the pulverization and infusions in seeable and UV scope has been shown in Table1. The consequences of quantitative finding of pharmacognostic characters of C. halicacabum were presented in Table 2 and were helpful in measuring the pharmacognostic value of the medicative works. The wet, entire ash, acid indissoluble ash, H2O soluble ash contents were found to be 73.6 % and 75.1 % ; 88.9 % and 92 % ; 17.33 % and 15.33 % ; 10 % and 9.33 % for foliage and root infusions severally. Higher sum of H2O soluble ash was recorded in foliage ( 10 % ) than root ( 9.33 % ) . Higher extractive value was found in ethanol infusion of foliage, root when compared to other dissolvers.

Sl. No.

Treatment class

Under Ordinary Day Light

Under UV Light

Leaf

Root

Leaf

Root

1.

Powder as such

Green

Green

Green

Green

2.

Powder + 1N NaOH

Light green

Pale green

Dark green

Dark green

3.

Powder + 1N NaOH ( ethanolic )

Brown yellow

Red brown

Blackish red

Brown yellow

4.

Powder + 1N HCl

Pale green

Light yellow

Yellow

Yellow in coloring material

5.

Powder + H2SO41:1

Yellow viridity

Yellow

Blackish viridity

Green yellow

6.

Powder + HNO31:1

Yellow

Yellow

Yellow viridity

Green yellow

7.

Acetone

Yellow viridity

Light green

Brown viridity

Dark green

8.

Alcohol

Dark green

Dark green

Blackish viridity

Dark green

9.

Benzene

Pale green

Pale green

Dark green

Dark green

10.

Chloroform

Brown yellow

Brown yellow

Dark green

Brown yellow

11.

Water

Light yellow

Light green

Dark yellow

Yellow

Table 1. Analysis of fluorescence characters of foliage and root pulverizations and infusions of Cardiospermum halicacabum L. in different dissolvers

Table 2. Pharmacognostic characters of foliage and root of Cardiospermum halicacabum L.

Parameters tested

Percentage Output ( % )

Leaf

Root

Loss of weight on drying

73.6

75.1

Entire ash

88.9

92

Acid soluble ash

17.33

15.33

Water soluble ash

10

9.33

Percentage of extractive output values

Acetone

60

56

Ethyl alcohol

96

73

Benzene

73

75

Chloroform

83

86

Water

90

92

Phytochemical showing

Phytochemical rating of the assorted infusions of the foliage and root of C. halicacabum were done for the presence of steroids, triterpenoids, sugars, alkaloids, phenols, saponins, aminic acids, tannic acids, flavonoids and anthracene glycosides and consequences were presented in Table 3.

Table 3: Consequences of phytochemical showing of foliage and root infusions of Cardiospermum halicacabum L.

Solvent infusion used

Presence ( + ) or Absence ( – ) of Bioactive Compounds

Stero

Idahos

Triter-peno

Idahos

Sugars

Alkaloids

Phenols

Saponins

Amino acids

Tann

Immigration and Naturalization Services

Flavon

oids

Anthracene glyco

sides

Benz

east northeast

Liter

Second

Liter

Second

Liter

Second

Liter

Second

Liter

Second

Liter

Second

Liter

Second

Liter

Second

Liter

Second

Liter

Second

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Chloroform

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Etha

nol

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Acet

one

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Water

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Antimicrobial activity

The foliage and root infusions of C. halicacabum were tested for their antimicrobic activity against S. aureus, B. Subtilis, C. freundii, E. coli, P. aeroginosa, S. typhi, K. pneumoniae and the consequences are presented in Table 4.

Solvent infusion used

Steptococcus aureus

Bacillus

Subtilis

Citrobacter freundii

Escherichia coli

Pseudomonas aeroginosa

Salmonella typhi

Klebsilla pneumoniae

Benzene

Liter

Second

Liter

Second

Liter

Second

Liter

Second

Liter

Second

Liter

Second

Liter

Second

2

2

1.5

1

1.5

1

1

2.5

2

2

2

1.5

1.5

1

Chloroform

0

1

2

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.5

0

0

1

Ethyl alcohol

3

3

3

1

2

1.5

1

2

1

0

2

2

1

1

Acetone

1

2

1.5

2

1.5

2

1

1

2

1

3

3.5

1

2

Water

0.5

0

1

2

0.5

0.5

1

0

0.5

2.5

0.5

0

1

0

Table 4. Antibacterial activity of assorted infusions of foliage and root of Cardiospermum halicacabum L.

Valuess presented indicate the zone of suppression formed around the phonograph record ( millimeter ) .

Streptococcus aureus was found to be more susceptible towards the ethanolic infusions of foliage and root with a maximal inhibitory zone ( 3 mm each ) followed by benzine ( 2 mm each ) , propanone ( 1 millimeter, 2 millimeter ) , Chloroform ( 0 millimeter, 1 millimeter ) and aqueous ( 0.5 millimeter, 0 millimeter ) . Bacillus subtilis was found to be more sensitive to the ethanolic infusions of foliage and root with a maximal inhibitory zone ( 3 millimeter, 1 millimeter ) followed by trichloromethane ( 2 mm each ) , propanone ( 1.5 millimeter, 2 millimeter ) , benzine ( 1.5 millimeter, 1 millimeter ) and aqueous infusion ( 1 millimeter, 2 millimeter ) . Citrobacter freundii was found to be more susceptible towards the ethanolic infusions of foliage and root with a maximal inhibitory zone ( 2 millimeter, 1.5 millimeter ) , propanone ( 1.5 millimeter, 2 millimeter ) , benzine ( 1.5 millimeter, 1 millimeter ) , aqueous ( 0.5 millimeter, 0.5 millimeter ) and the trichloromethane extracts did non demo any suppression against C. freundii. E. coli was found to be sensitive to benzene with a maximal inhibitory zone ( 1 millimeter, 2.5 millimeter ) , followed by ethyl alcohol ( 1 millimeter, 2 millimeter ) , propanone ( 1mm, 1 millimeter ) , aqueous ( 1 millimeter, 0 millimeter ) and the trichloromethane extracts did non demo any suppression against E. coli. Psuedomonas aeroginosa was found to be more susceptible to benzene ( 2 millimeter, 2 millimeter ) followed by propanone ( 2 millimeter, 1mm ) , ethanol ( 1 millimeter, 0 millimeter ) , aqueous ( 0.5, 0.5 ) and the trichloromethane extracts did non demo any suppression against P. aeroginosa. Salmonella typhi was more susceptible to acetone infusions ( 3 millimeter, 3.5 millimeter ) followed by ethyl alcohol ( 2 millimeter, 2 millimeter ) , benzine ( 2 millimeter, 1.5 millimeter ) , trichloromethane ( 0.5, 0 millimeter ) and aqueous infusions ( 0.5 millimeter, 0 millimeter ) . Klebsiella pneumoniae was sensitive towards propanone extracts with a maximal repressive zone of 1 millimeters, 2 millimeter followed by benzine ( 1.5 millimeter, 1 millimeter ) , ethanol ( 1 millimeter, 1 millimeter ) , trichloromethane ( 0 millimeter, 1 millimeter ) and aqueous ( 1 mm,0 millimeter ) . The consequences obtained are promoting as the benzine, ethanolic and chloroform infusions have shown considerable antibacterial activity against the tried beings.

4. Discussion

The antimicrobic activity have been screened because of their great medicative relevancy with the recent old ages, infections have increased to a great extent and resistant against antibiotics, becomes an of all time increasing curative job [ 17,18 ] . The presence of fungicidal and antimicrobic substances in the higher workss is good established as they have provided a beginning of inspiration for fresh drug compounds as workss derived medical specialties have made important part towards human wellness. Phytomedicine have been used for the intervention of diseases as in done in instances of Unani and Ayervedic system of medical specialties, a natural design for the development of new drugs. Much of the geographic expedition and use of natural merchandise as antimicrobic arise from microbic beginnings. Present survey was conducted to analysis the pharmacognostic, phytochemical, fluorescence features and antibacterial potency of foliage and root infusions of C. halicacabum.

Florescence analysis of pulverizations and rough infusions of different parts of medicative workss ( foliage, root, root, bark and fruit ) gives a hint if pulverization and infusions are in debasement, therefore can be used as a diagnostic tool for proving the debasement. Such surveies were done antecedently in Morinda tinctoria [ 19 ] , and Abutilon indicum [ 3 ] .

Knowledge of the phytochemical components of workss is desirable, non merely for the find of curative agents, but besides because such information may be of value in unwraping new beginnings of such economic stuffs as tannic acids, oils, gums, flavonoids, saponins, indispensable oils precursors for the synthesis of complex chemical substances [ 20 ] . The consequences of phytochemical showing of infusions of foliage and root indicate the strength of active rule depends on the usage of a suited dissolver besides the type of the works species to accomplish positive consequences. Hence foliage and root infusions of C. helecacabum is extremely recommended for the herbal readyings to the traditional medicative practioners and for the pharmaceutical industries for the mass graduated table extractions of the curative agents. Similar surveies by old workers showed the presence of steroids and anthocyanin in the seeds of Boerrhhavea orellana and alkaloids and steroids in Cardiospermum officinalis [ 21 ] ; Terpenoids, tannic acids and guaabins from Psidium guajava and polygalactorunases in Mangifera indica [ 22 ] ; alkaloids, tannic acids, steroids, flovonoids from the ethanolic and aqueous infusions of root and bark of Picralima nitida [ 23 ] ; lenolinic acid in Ocimum sanctum [ 24 ] ; phenolic compounds, flavonoids, cyclobutane in Combretum alpopunctatum [ 25 ] ; diterpenes, flavonoids, andrographolates and polyphenols from Andrographis paniculata [ 26,27 ] and the presence of tannic acids, alkaloids, phenols and saponins in 12 Indian medicative workss [ 28 ] .

The potency for developing disinfectants from higher workss appears honoring, as it will take to the development of a phytomedicine to move against bugs. Plant based antimicrobic represents the huge untapped beginning for medical specialty. Plant based disinfectants have tremendous curative potency as they can last the intent without any side effects that are frequently associated with man-made disinfectants, continued farther research and geographic expedition of works derived disinfectants is needed today. Medicative workss are of import beginning for the development of possible, new chemotherapeutic drugs and the in vitro antibacterial trial signifier the footing [ 29,30 ] . Many of the surveies were utile in placing the active rule responsible for such potencies and to develop clinically of import curative drugs for world. Hence an effort has been made to place the antibacterial activity of foliage and root infusions of C. halicacabum against seven clinically of import Gram positive and Gram negative bacterium. Few surveies have showed the antiviral, antibacterial, fungicidal, antihelminthic, antimolluscal, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrhoeal and insecticidal potency of this traditional medicinal works [ 31,32,33 ] . Previously such surveies have been done in several medicative workss [ 34 ] . Ethanolic infusions of Holarrhenea antidyssentaria seeds showed antibacterial activity against E. coli. Previous testing surveies by earlier workers proved the antibacterial and fungicidal potency of Holarrhenea antidyssentrica [ 25 ] ; Nerium oleander [ 35 ] ; Tapinthus senssilifolius [ 36 ] ; Rauelfia tetraphylla and Physalis minima [ 37 ] ; Achillea Santolina, Salvia Dominica and Salvia officinalis [ 4 ] ; Vitex doniana and Shigella dyssentriae [ 38 ] ; Psidium guajava and Mangifera indica [ 22 ] and Salicornia brachiata [ 39 ] against several bacterial strains including E.coli, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus aureus, Psuedomonas aerogenosa and Candida albicans.

Many workss have limitless ability to synthesise secondary metabolites of which at least 12000 have been isolated. These substances serve as works defence mechanism against predation by micro-organisms, insects and herbivores [ 40 ] . Many workss and their infusions used against microbic infections due to the presence of secondary metabolites such as phenols [ 41 ] ; indispensable oils [ 42,43 ] ; terpenoids [ 44,45 ] ; alkaloids [ 46 ] and flavanoids [ 47 ] .

Plants are used medicinally in different states and are a beginning of many potent and powerful drugs [ 30,48 ] . Natural merchandises either infusion or pure compounds provide limitless chances for the development of new drugs due to the handiness of chemical diverseness [ 49 ] . To get the better of the job of antibiotic opposition cultural medicinal workss have been extensively studied as an alternate intervention for diseases due to their ability to bring forth a assortment of compounds of known curative belongingss [ 50,51 ] and much attending has been paid to works infusions and their biologically active compounds [ 52 ] . The showing of natural merchandises has been the beginning of countless curative agents [ 53 ] . Higher workss as a beginning for new possible drugs is still mostly undiscovered and merely a little per centum of them has been subjected to phytochemical probe and the fractions submitted to pharmacological showing is really low. Such showing of assorted natural organic compounds and placing active agents is a demand of the hr as due to successful anticipation of lead molecule and drug like belongingss at the oncoming of drug find will pay of subsequently in drug development.

5. Decision

The works extractive studied could be an reply to the people seeking for better curative agents from natural beginnings which is believed to be more efficient with small or no side effects when compared to the normally used man-made chemotherapeutic agents. The preset survey verified the traditional usage of C. halicacabum for human complaints and partially explained its usage in herbal medical specialty as rich beginning of phytochemicals with the presence of tannic acids, phenols, saponins, steroids, flavinoids and terpenoids. Thus this works can be utilized as an alternate beginning of utile drugs. Further surveies are needed with this works to insulate, qualify and clarify the construction of the bioactive compounds of this works for industrial drug preparation.