Ion And Electron Beam Nanostructuring Techniques Biology Essay

vlevel. Nanotechnology intends to copy nature by taking advantage of the alone belongingss of Nanoscale affair to come up with more efficient ways of commanding and pull stringsing molecules. [ 1 ] Nanotechnology is the designing, manufacturing and usage of nanostructured systems.

A decrease in the spacial dimension or parturiency of atoms or quasi atoms in a peculiar crystallographic way leads to alter in physical belongingss in the way. [ 2 ] The categorization of the nanostructure stuffs can be done in 3 ways: systems confined in 3D ( Nano atoms, Nano pores ) , system confined in 2D ( Nano wires, tubings ) & A ; system confine in 1D ( quantum good, clay thrombocytes ) . Nanotechnology is the turning, determining or piecing of systems either automatically, chemically or biologically to organize Nanoscale architectures, systems and devices. [ 2 ] The assorted techniques for developing nanostructure are shown in the figure below.

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Figure1: Different Nano Structuring Techniques

Direct write engineerings with focussed negatron beam ( FEBs ) , focussed ion beam ( FIB ) or photons ( optical masers ) and scanning burrowing microscope ( STM ) probes offer alone advantages over classical resist based procedure. [ 3 ] A optical masers beam does n’t hold a declaration of nm sized deposition which is needed for ultrahigh denseness informations storage and fast. The restriction of other fiction engineerings made STEM and FIB most popular in Si and semiconducting material industry. Developing a nanostructure utilizing electron beam is done by SEM ( Scaning electron microscope ) , TEM ( Transmission Electron Microscope ) or FEG-TEM { STEM ( Scaning Transmission Electron Microscope ) } . Here STEM is besides known as FEG-TEM ( Field emanation gun transmittal electron microscope ) , since it uses a field emanation gun like LMIS ( light metal ion beginning ) . The ways of developing the nanostructures can be seen in the flow chat given below for the instance of ion and negatron beam:

Figure 2: Wayss of bring forthing Nanostructure.

Ion and electron beam Nano structuring techniques have been used by most of the semiconducting material industry. There have been many developments done in order to develop the ion and negatron beam techniques. There are two ways of bring forthing nanostructure utilizing ion and negatron beam techniques: coevals of positive construction ( material deposition ) & amp ; negative construction ( stuffs remotion ) . FEBs and FIB can lodge sophisticated 2D and 3D characteristics. In both the instances of FIB and STEM they use a precursor gas for the deposition procedure ; these can be seen in table below

FIGURE 3: Table 1- Common deposition gases and beginning temperature.

Table 2- Composition and electric resistance of deposited metals


In recent old ages the best known development done in microscope is STEM ( Scaning Transmission Electron Microscope ) . STEM is a type of Scanning & A ; Transmission microscope, which combines the advantageous of both TEM ( Transmission Electron Microscope ) & A ; SEM ( Scaning Electron Microscope ) . STEM is ideally suited for the multi-signal attack. The first STEM was built in 1938 by the Baron Manfred von Ardenne while working in Berlin for Siemens. [ 4 ] [ 5 ] At first the consequence shown by STEM was inferior to TEM but until 1970 ‘s, Albert & A ; his crew at the University of Chicago developed the FEG ( Field Emission Gun ) & A ; adding a high quality objective Len ‘s to make the modern STEM. The crew & A ; colleague of Albert worked on the cold Field Emission Electron gun & A ; built a STEM able to visualise individual heavy atom. [ 6 ]

FIGURE 4: STEM ( Scaning transmittal electron microscope )

The field emanation negatron gun is beginning to bring forth negatron beam which is used as for scanning intent and besides for the nanolithography procedure. The nanolithography procedure is an linear application of the STEM, which can be used to lithograph nanostructure, etch cover and can besides be used in atomic force microscope ( AFM ) investigation tips. [ 7 ]


The basic rule involve in the procedure of negatron beam deposition procedure in STEM depends on the negatron high energy to interrupt the molecular bonds. In this procedure the decomposition of the stuff like substrate or the stuffs which are already deposited near the deposition musca volitanss absorb the primary negatron from the beam. The substrate reemits the secondary negatron by absorbing the primary negatron and these secondary negatrons are responsible for the decomposed of the precursor molecules. [ 8 ]

FIGURE 5: Basic rule of EBID

The focussed negatron beam of high energy ( 10-300KeV ) is used in STEM as a beginning. The precursor stuff is in the gaseous signifier ( liquid and solid stuff are converted into gaseous signifier utilizing vaporisation or sublimation ) . The gas is introduced into the high vacuumed chamber of STEM at a controlled rate. The beam is introduced through a little opening since the little opening maintains differential force per unit area in the microscope and deposition chamber. In the instance of high temperature deposition or caustic gas deposition a particular intentional chamber is used & A ; the rate of deposition depends on the partial force per unit area. The negatron beam induced deposition is caused by the dissociation of the molecules adsorbed to a surface by high energy negatron. The negatron beam deposition taking topographic point in the STEM is low and higher cost as comparison to FIB for the 3D nanostructures.

‘The declaration obtained so far for the positive construction coevals is 0.2 to 2nm ‘ . [ 2 ]

In order to bring forth the negative nanostructure by remotion of the stuff can be done utilizing the STEM. In STEM the negatron beam machining ( EBM ) releases high energy negatrons which are focused electromagnetically onto the mark in vacuity and hence these beam consequences in nanostructure by stuff remotion. Nanometre modeling truth can be achieved by STEM. Metal halides are more sensitive negatron beam that are used for this procedure. Writing form used in the STEM is either stand entirely or in the instance of fluoride thin movie on a substrate for negative construction. The movie can be lifted away and later can be used a lithography mask.

‘The declaration obtained so far for negative construction coevals is far better than 10nm ‘ . [ 9 ]

FIGURE 6: – Coevals of negative construction utilizing STEM


FIB is known as Focused Ion Beam usually used for stuff scientific discipline where we cover with nanostructures. FIB is usage for the semiconducting material analysis, deposition & A ; cutting out / extirpation of stuffs. FIB plays an of import function for the development of big semiconducting material makers. Nowadays FIB technique has been produced commercially by the semiconducting material industries. The first FIB was developed by Levi-Setti & A ; Orloff in 1975 based on field Emission engineering. [ 10 ] [ 11 ] [ 12 ] Within a few old ages the first LMIS ( liquid Metal Ion Source ) based FIB was developed by Seliger. [ 13 ]


The FIB uses a Focused beam of ion to image the sample in the chamber. FIB uses a finely Ga+ for the imagination of sample at low beam current and a high beam of current for sputtering or milling procedure. The utilizations of ion for imaging and sputtering utilizing individual equipment made the research worker & A ; semiconducting material maker to rethink over it. The ion ( Ga+ ) beam green goods by the ion beginning hits the sample and doing the sample to chuck out secondary ions ( i+ or i- ) or impersonal ion ( N0 ) . The primary ion beam produced from the ion beginning besides ejects some secondary negatron ( e- ) . These secondary negatron, ion and impersonal ion are collected in the signifier of image. Here the primary ion beam plays an of import function in FIB device depending on the sample. If the sample turns to be a non- conductive, a low energy negatron gun can be used to supply charge neutralisation and therefore the positive ion beam can be used for the imagination extremely insulating sample. These positive ions can besides be used as the milling procedure for the sample without utilizing a conductive surface coating.

FIGURE 7: Basic FIB rule

There are two ways of developing nanostructures: positive manner ( deposition ) or the negative manner ( sputtering or milling ) . Coevals of positive nanostructures are done by deposition manner, where a partial vapor force per unit area of organic gas molecules ( incorporating the metal of involvement ) is inserted near the substrate surface with a hollow acerate leaf ( 0.5mm ) .These gas molecules are absorbed by the surface which forms a bed over it. In order to trip the chemical reaction we use an external energy beginning like ion beam kinetic energy, secondary negatrons that emerges from the surface. While supplying the external trigger one should maintain in head that reaction merchandise should be non-volatile and should hold a lower sputter-rate than the pure substrate.

‘The declaration obtained for FIB so far is 10-200nm. ‘ [ 2 ]

FIGURE 8: Coevals of positive construction utilizing FIB

In order to turn the deposition, the reaction must be at faster rate than the sputter output, which leads to formation of trench. Using the ion beam induced deposition we can develop 2D and 3D nanostructures like wires, lines, beds, point arrays, step instance construction, pillars, X-Z diagonal lines.

The other manner of bring forthing a nanostructure is by sputtering or milling known as negative constructions. One of the best ways to bring forth a negative nanostructure is ion nidation, which is widely used in the semiconducting material and electrical device industry. In the ion nidation procedure the ion beam is passed through the magnetic field where the unwanted ions are resisted and the selected ion beam is made to fall on the surface. This beam sputters the substrate in order to do a nanostructure.

FIGURE 9: Coevals of negative construction utilizing FIB

Comparing the procedures:

STEM and FIB are both used for fiction of nanostructure, the manner they differs is the beginning they use for the fiction procedure. STEM uses electron beam and FIB uses ion beam for the fiction procedure. In STEM Electron beam induced deposition ( EBID ) is caused by the dissociation of the molecules absorbed to the surface by high energy negatron. [ 7 ] In the FIB chemical vapor deposition technique widely used for the deposition intent. In STEM the rate of deposition is low and the cost is high as comparison to FIB. Some of the advantage of utilizing ion beam instead than negatron: ions are larger than negatron ( hence ions have low incursion deepness, since we deal with surface interaction and deposition ) , ions are heavier than negatron which helps so to derive impulse easy, ions are positive and negatrons are negative. [ 14 ] In order to turn the deposition rate we use a trigger like ion beam kinetic energy, secondary negatrons emerging from the surface in the instance of EBID. EBID at lower SEM electromotive force has higher deposition rate, but has a poorer declaration. Earlier it was assumed that STEM can develop merely 1nm size construction utilizing FEG-SEM, since the beam diameters was less than 1nm, but the new consequence shows that the beam diameter affairs even below 1nm. The declaration obtained in EBID is much better as comparison with the FIB ; hence EBID shows much better consequence as comparison with the FIB-ID.

Double beam FIB/SEM has more advantage for bring forthing positive and negative nano constructions. In order to bring forth negative construction a mask is developed over the substrate and the beam drill through the thin bed of the stuff on the remotion substrate. For the coevals of the positive nanostructure the mask is later used to selectively deposited stuff by spatially resolved blocking of beam for deposition. FIB is used for lithographic mask coevals in double beam FIB/SEM. The gas used for the coevals of negative construction & A ; positive construction in FIB/SEM is the same gas injection engineering used in FIB. The double beam procedure improves the declaration to 1-2 orders as comparison with the FIB and STEM, but there are no device found in the consumer market boulder clay now.


We have mentioned the assorted techniques for manufacturing the nanostructure. Direct write techniques with focussed ions beam, focused negatron beam & A ; optical maser technique offers alone advantages over classical resist based procedure. Laser technique does n’t supply declaration of nm size deposition. We have besides discussed about the fiction procedure for bring forthing of positive and negative nanostructures utilizing the ion and negatron beam. Material remotion technique refers to negative construction and material deposition technique refers to positive nanostructure. We have besides discussed about the basic working rule of the STEM and FIB. We have besides compared the sputtering technique between STEM and FIB fiction procedure for nanostructures. EBID ( electron beam induced deposition ) is much better than FIB-ID ( focussed ion beam induced deposition ) .Both methods EBID and FIB-ID are available in double beam FIB/SEM. EBID at lower SEM electromotive force has higher deposition rate, but poorer declaration. FIB can be used for imaging intent for low current beam and it can be used as spatter or milling procedure at high current beam. We have besides discussed about some of the recent work done for the development of the STEM and FIB.