Information Flows Between Different Functional Departments Commerce Essay

This paper provides a high degree overview of the different types of information flows between different functional sections within an Organization. Exhibit A in the Appendix refers. Whilst non exhaustive the diagram does convey the huge web of information that flows between different maps of the concern. Certain big corporate houses like IBM and HP have become planetary service solutions suppliers offering customised solutions around unfastened architecture and their ain hardware and communications systems. Similarly Enterprise Solutions like Oracle, J.D.Edwards and SAP offer big scale systems integrating advice for the arrangement of international concern information systems.

Information Technology has become the life-blood of virtually every organisation. Most big concern operations contain Data Centre ‘s of expensive computing machine and communicating systems ( hardware ) and of import client information and plans ( package ) . Together they provide the cardinal back-bone of the organisation and as such any menace to these systems can be highly riotous and dearly-won to the concern. These systems have changed the manner in which we portion information and collaborate at work.

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Data sharing and direction

There are a figure of different properties that combine the construct of informations sharing and direction of informations within an organisation. Data reading means that you are required to read informations from different beginnings i.e. Tables, Charts, Graphs etc. This is chiefly used in Management for determination devising and the digest of studies. It can every bit use to Human Resources and used for rating intents in psychometric testing.

Peoples besides need to pull strings informations in order to construe it and portion consequences. This refers to the rearranging of informations without altering the base information i.e. sorting, re-arranging, analysis, traveling the information about. This is frequently used for intents of comparative analysis and to obtain different positions or positions on the information. One facet is to alter the relationship between two variables in order to find the consequence of that alteration.

One illustration of sharing information relates to that of cardinal public presentation indexs ( KPI ‘s ) . Cardinal Performance Indicators ( KPI ‘s ) in the broadest sense aid organisations to understand how competent they are executing to their strategic ends and aims. KPI ‘s or of import to exemplify to stockholders and other stakeholders that the house is on path with its strategic planning ends. The chart to the right illustrates the three pronged attack to the aggregation and assimilation of informations for Cardinal Performance Indicators. The so termed ‘ICE ‘ attack of Identify, Collect and End has been criticised as frequently being misunderstood and confused with users stoping up with excessively much informations and so non certain how to construe and cover with the terminal consequences.

The usage of KPI ‘s goes beyond the conventional wisdom of merely numbering and quantifying informations. The construct is aimed at supplying a clear and concise image of world. It may besides include words, images or pictures in order to convey of import messages. It can be used in a assortment of different applications and scenes but is widely used in Medical Fieldss, sociological scenes and fabrication procedures.

Chief Information Resources

Business Function Business Application

Marketing Business publicity, establishing new merchandises etc.

Production Manufacture of merchandises, stock list control, etc.

Gross saless Client Management, coevals of gross revenues gross

Purchases Procurement of stuffs & A ; Office supplies

Finance Financial control over the concern

Human Resources ( HR ) Employee and HR policy scene, external affair

Executive Board Decision Making, Policy execution, Strategic way

Research & A ; Development Innovation and creativeness, links to gross revenues and selling

Health & A ; Safety Policy attachment to Health & A ; Safety with HR map

Quality Assurance QA over merchandises, links to gross revenues and production

Internal Audit Control checks with Financial Controller

Analysis of Information flows

Information flow can be viewed as either a inactive or dynamic representation, dependent upon how the organisation is structured. This subdivision explores some of the inactive relationships within the overall theoretical account depicted within Exhibit A in the appendix.

Gross saless Marketing Finance

i?Y i?Y Financial Budgets

Gross saless Prognosiss Marketing Prognosiss i?

Gross saless Reports Marketing Reports i?

Statisticss Statisticss i?

i?Y i?Y Financial Reports

Merchandise Pricing i? i?

i?Y Promotions

In the theoretical account above we see that Gross saless is chiefly concerned with Gross saless Prognosiss, Gross saless Reports, Compilation of statistics and Product Pricing. This information shared with Marketing and Finance. Finance chiefly focus on Budgets and Financial studies which they portion with Marketing and Gross saless. Selling besides deals with publicities in concurrence with Gross saless.

Directors Finance Human Resources

i?Y Financial Reports and Statistics i?

Policies & A ; Decisions i? i?

Strategic Direction Setting i? i?

i?Y i?Y Policies

Budgets & A ; Prognosiss i?

Payroll Info i?

Legal Instructions i? i?

Recommendation for betterment

Use of Relational Database ( RDBMS ) Technology

There are a figure of different ways in which informations can be stored and shared electronically. This is via the construct of database systems. These tend to be either of a hierarchal, relational or web design intent. In the hierarchal construct this is basically a concept based upon a Parent Child relationship theoretical account. For illustration in a retail shop scene. There may be a Furnishings Department. This may be split into three low-level countries i.e. Home Furnishing, Office Furnishings and Domestic Appliances. These in bend may hold extra lines of duty ; hence you have a hierarchy of informations being performed. ( Terry A. Halpin, 2008 )

A web database is one where information elements are connected to one another through a series of links and best illustrated through an Entity Relationship ( E-R ) diagram. It describes whether the information has a 1: Many ; 1:1 ; or Many to Many informations relationships. You are able to see through the theoretical account a complete representation of the networked informations.

Systems like that of Oracle provide a relational database construct ( RDBMS ) . A relational theoretical account has chiefly three constituents: ( 1 ) A aggregation of objects or dealingss ( 2 ) Operators that act on the objects or dealingss. ( 3 ) Data unity methods. A relational database direction system ( RDBMS ) may be defined as where information is stored as row and column tabular arraies. Each of these are comprised of records ( tuples ) and as such provided with an designation property termed a field. Within the table each field has a different relationship being 1:1, 1: Many or Many: Many. ( Business Dictionary, 2011 )

Use of database systems engineering

One of import usage in the deployment of RDBMS engineering is that of Key Performance Indicators ( KPI ‘s ) . Cardinal Performance Indicators ( KPI ‘s ) in the broadest sense aid organisations to understand how competent they are executing to their strategic ends and aims. KPI ‘s or of import to exemplify to stockholders and other stakeholders that the house is on path with its strategic planning ends. The chart to the right illustrates the three pronged attack to the aggregation and assimilation of informations for Cardinal Performance Indicators. The so termed ‘ICE ‘ attack of Identify, Collect and End has been criticised as frequently being misunderstood and confused with users stoping up with excessively much informations and so non certain how to construe and cover with the terminal consequences. ( Parmenter, 2011 )

The usage of KPI ‘s goes beyond the conventional wisdom of merely numbering and quantifying informations. The construct is aimed at supplying a clear and concise image of world. It may besides include words, images or pictures in order to convey of import messages. It can be used in a assortment of different applications and scenes but is widely used in Medical Fieldss, sociological scenes and fabrication procedures.

Data Modelling and rationalization of informations and information

Datas Modeling: The informations theoretical account is a in writing representation of the information that will be contained within the database storage. It is basically a definition of the entities, properties and relationships between informations. It forms an built-in portion of the demands specification in the information demands definition.

Standardization: In informations base design concepts standardization means the procedure of expeditiously forming informations in a database. This means the riddance of excess informations i.e. hive awaying informations twice in different tabular arraies, guaranting that the information dependences make sense ( they relate to one another ) , acquiring the right terminologies i.e. apples, oranges and pears = fruit. In It circles the database community has put frontward a figure of distinguishable guidelines for guaranting how databases are normalized. These being termed as normal signifiers and are numbered from one ( the lowest signifier of standardization, referred to as first normal signifier. ) ( Chapple, 2010 )

Drumhead

Every concern requires an effectual information direction scheme in order to win. It is of import non to roll up duplicated information and cache huge volumes of meaningless informations. The information should ease dependable and expedient determination devising. This construct has now been expanded to that of cognition accretion presenting constructs of Artificial Intelligence ( AI ) and Expert systems. We are now looking at associating datasets by series of heuristics ( regulations ) and as such happening extra ways to analyze information.