Fundamentals of Research Methodology Essay

This paper will explore the fundamentals of research methodology in the Psychology field and discuss the importance of psychology. The answers to these questions are the basis for the theories that led to research. Research is the groundwork performed by Psychologists in order to answer questions about behavior and the mind. The outcome of the research will offer a clear picture of why an individual act the way he or she does. In the Psychology field, data is gathered to conduct the research and produce an outcome. This is a time-consuming process but without it there would be many of unanswered questions.

Psychology and research is explored in further detail, explanation of the scientific method, and the differences between qualitative and quantitative data, and conclude with the process of scientific theory construction and testing. Science of Psychology Psychology is the study of the behavior and its mental functions. The internal and external variables play a part in the behavior and mental functions also. A psychologist job is to gain knowledge of the field by forming theories and conducting the necessary research.

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The research conducted by psychologists is important for helping professionals assist employees in the workplace. For example, an Industrial Organizational psychologist works with employers to design assessments and recruitment policies for potential employees. The assessments work as a tool for promotions or raises and the recruitment policies make hiring new employees easier. Psychology is a complicated field that explores different concepts of the brain and behavior. Psychologists explore how the brain works, how ideas are perceived, how, and why emotions are displayed and why relationships are formed.

Psychologists conduct their studies individually or in a group. Biological, clinical, social, developmental and cognitive are several fields of Psychology that have been explored. The fields of Psychology is forever changing and improving with time. Scientific Method The scientific method is a testing procedure that is being used by Psychologists for over 100 years. The scientific method refers to the ways in which scientists ask questions and the logic and methods used to gain answers (Shaughnessy, Zechmeister & Zechmeister, 2009).

The process of collecting data for scientific method is time consuming. The scientific method gathers data by going above beyond the basic way of thinking and seeking the clear facts. The goals of the scientific method are description, prediction, explanation, and application (Shaughnessy, Zechmeister & Zechmeister, 2009). Description is the first step, which the problems is defined. Prediction is the second step, which the Psychologist formulates the hypothesis before the experiment is performed. Explanation is the third step, which gives a clear understanding on the procedure being performed.

Depending on the outcome of the experiment, the hypothesis may need to be re-evaluated. Application is the fifth step, which the research is applied to the subjects to see an outcome. The scientific method is an input and output process. Qualitative and Quantitative Data Qualitative and quantitative data are two useful tools for gathering information or data. “In this article, we define qualitative (quality) data as information that has been collected not in numeric form but in texts, narratives, or observations (including pictures and video) (Yoshikawa, Weisner, Kalil & Way, 2008, 344)”.

When the researcher conducts research for Qualitative data, the data is put into categories to be recorded. Gender is an example of a nominal category. Big and small are examples of an ordinal category. “We define quantitative data (quantity) as information that has been collected in numeric form (e. g. , counts, levels, or Likert-format responses)” (Yoshikawa, Weisner, Kalil & Way, 2008, 344)”. In conducting a research project, the number of subjects being tested is the quantity or numerical value in determining Quantitative data.

The Quantitative data collected can be used to graph or construct a table of the results. The Qualitative data is the more complicated of the two data’s because it is descriptive but both are equally important. Scientific Theory Construction and Testing Testing is conducted and hypothesis is formed in order to reach an outcome. Clearly to understand scientific theory, the word “has” to first be defined. Scientific theory is based on scientific observations are hypothesized and retested until it is proven to be valid, and there is not evidence to disprove it.

The variables are taken into consideration when creating a theory. Intervening variables is important when developing theories because the ideas allow the researchers to explain the relationship between independent and dependent variables. If the test is inaccurate and the hypothesis proves to be false, the testing process will be repeated and once accurate a theory is formed. Research is a trial and error process. The Scientific Theory Construction and Testing is an important research process. The first step is to introduce the theory.

The second step is to develop a hypothesis used to explain the theory. The third step to conduct an experiment used to approve or disprove the hypothesis. Once the process is confirmed and hypothesis is proved to be valid, a theory is formed. Researchers evaluate theories by judging the theory’s internal consistency, observing if hypothesized outcomes occur when the theory is tested, and noting if the theory makes precise predictions based on parsimonious explanations (Shaughnessy, Zechmeister & Zechmeister, 2009).

Conclusion. Psychology is a science that is forever changing and improving. The field of Psychology will continue to be studied as long the mind and body peaks one’s curiosity. Research and science have paved the way for the discovery of cures, developing medications used to treat illness to find ways to resolve noise pollution. Research is time-consuming yet important and in order for it to be valid and helpful ethical practices have to be in place. Ethical practices help researchers avoid possible dilemmas and lawsuits during the process of conducting research.

Ethics in research help guide the researchers when making decisions that can be unwise for their career or the test subject. As my paper details, researcher must use different methods to prove their theories, format the data, formulate a hypothesis to advance in society. Data is both collected in quantity and quality and can be used to form graphs or tables. These graphs or tables can be used for further research. Quantitative and qualitative data are equally important and necessary for collecting statistical data.