Although forest can be defined as a big country covered extremely with trees and underbrush, there are different legal definition based on states. Many states had used the otherwise definition to explicate the significance of wood. India ‘s Forest Conservation Act of 1980 provinces that any land recorded as wood in any land record is lawfully forest land whether or non there is any flora on the land. The Philippines has a definition based on the incline of the land – any ignoble land holding a incline greater than 18 % is considered to be forestland.
When we talk about sustainable environment, we can non reject the facts that forest in the one of of import constituent that contributes to it. Forest have making its maps for more that 1000s old ages in keeping the environment. Forests are indispensable to life on Earth. Without them, the energy of the Sun would non be harnessed through the procedure of photosynthesis, nor would oxygen be released through the same procedure. Aside from these two vital ingredients to life, they are besides of import in that they are home to countless species of workss and animate beings, many of which are endangered.
Though tropical woods cover merely 7 % of the Earth ‘s land mass, they are home to more than 50 % of the universe ‘s 10-50 million works and carnal species. Often, the workss in the woods besides provide us with medical specialties. On a more basic degree, they have provided the human race with wood for centuries, without which people would non be populating at the degree of comfort they have today.
The Earth ‘s clime is mostly controlled by how much of the Sun ‘s visible radiation and heat is absorbed and reflected. By absorbing the Sun ‘s heat, trees cool the air. The interaction of this relationship with an country ‘s topography, latitude, and height, can make microclimates, merely as trees create microclimates about anyplace they are by supplying a shelterbelt and shadiness. Think about it: on a hot, cheery twenty-four hours, it ‘s ever cooler beneath a shadiness tree. A metropolis with a robust tree canopy is cooler in the summer than a similar metropolis with fewer trees, which translates into less energy usage and lower chilling costs. Besides, in utilizing less energy, less air pollution is created.
The most of import function that rural trees and woods play is taking C dioxide out of the ambiance. The populating tissue of a tree is a storage vault for C, which would otherwise contribute to the nursery consequence and to planetary clime alteration. Simply put, more trees can diminish the rate of clime alteration and assist us defy its effects, potentially ensuing in less intense storms, fewer infective diseases, a more stable H2O supply, and fewer wildfires.
Trees, nevertheless, are n’t immune to the effects of clime heating. Areas one time excessively cold to back up trees now can, and as woods migrate north, harmful insects that were one time held at bay by winter freezings can bring mayhem on native species. Tropical vines called lianas are now turning faster than the trees they climb, doing trees in the Amazon and other rain forests to decease at an dismaying rate.
Trees and woods can either be the key to decelerating clime alteration and extenuating its effects. Forests influence clime alteration mostly by impacting the sum of C dioxide in the ambiance. When woods grow, C is removed from the ambiance and absorbed in wood, leaves and dirt. Because woods ( and oceans ) can absorb and hive away C over an drawn-out period of clip, they are considered “ C sinks ” . This C remains stored in the wood ecosystem, but can be released into the ambiance when woods are burned. Quantifying the significant functions of woods in absorbing, hive awaying, and let go ofing C is the key to understanding the planetary C rhythm and hence clime alteration.
1.2 Problem statement
Forests play an of import function in environmental and economic sustainability. They provide legion goods and services, and maintain life support systems indispensable for life on Earth. Some of these life support systems of major economic and environmental importance are:
supply of lumber, fuel wood, fresh fish, and a broad scope of non-wood merchandises ;
natural home ground for bio-diversity and depository of familial wealth ;
proviso of diversion and chance for ecotourism ;
playing an built-in portion of the watershed to modulate the H2O government, preserve dirt, and command inundations ; and
Carbon segregation and C sink.
As C segregation and C sink as portion of function of forest, the sustainability of wood is of import to keep the C rhythm in Earth as they absorbing the consequence of nursery gases and cut down the consequence of planetary heating. Forest can be affected by planetary heating and clime alteration but still can be the defender to Earth by it map. That ‘s why forest must be protected.
Although Malaysia is confronting the mission to accomplish mark of become the developed state in 2020, Malaysia is still committed to guarantee the sustainability of wood in Malaysia. With the many sort of wood in Malaysia, it contributes to the economic grosss due to the incoming tourers from inside or outside the state to see the beauty of the natural biodiversity in Malaysia and besides from the logging activity that support the woody industry in Malaysia.
Harmonizing to Malaysia World Wildlife Fund ( WWF ) , Malaysia ‘s land surface was one time about wholly covered with wood. Today, woods still cover about 59.5 % of the entire land country. However, deforestation is a major concern as the state is still quickly developing. Based on the informations collected by statistical Department, In the 20 old ages from 1991 to 2010, there was a decrease of about 1.3 million hectare of forest screen in Malaysia ( refer to postpone 1 ) . This is approximately 2 times the size of Singapore – an norm of 68,000 hectare of forest being lost yearly.
Table 1: Forest country in Malaysia from 1991-2010
Forest Area ( ‘000 hectares )
( Beginning: Statistical section of Malaysia, 2010 )
Apart from deforestation, the staying woods face menaces from unsustainable logging, illegal remotion of wood merchandises and invasion. This job can be considered as the major job, non merely to sustainable environment, but besides to climate as the procedure of C rhythm had been disturbed and may do to increasing of C in ambiance.
1.3 Research inquiries
The job statement stated above suggests that there are several inquiries to be explored. These inquiries are:
How does aboveground biomass and C stock be measured in wood?
What is the sum of aboveground biomass in reserved wood?
What is the sum of C stock in reserved wood?
What affect the aboveground and C stocks in wood?
The general aim of this survey is to gauge aboveground biomass and C in selected wood in Selangor. The specific aims are:
To gauge the above land forest biomass in 1 hectare country in lasting forest modesty in Selangor.
To gauge the C stock in 1 hectare country in lasting forest modesty in Selangor.
To gauge alteration in C stock in reserved wood Selangor.
1.5 Significant of survey
From this survey, the information on aboveground biomass and C will be determined. Appraisal about how much the forest alteration has affected the C stock besides will come out. These consequences can supply the information to associate bureaus that involve in supervising C or concern about things related to climate alteration. The related bureaus besides can utilize this information to do policies or actions together with our premier curate to accomplish the 40 % decrease of nursery gases by 2020. This survey besides can be as mention and cognition to others that interesting to make the similar survey.
1.6 Restrictions of the survey
There are some restrictions sing to this survey. The first one information collected is merely the related to aboveground biomass such as the figure of tree and tree diameter. The sampling and laboratory experiment is non used in this survey because of deficiency of cognition and to continue the forest from any injury. That is why we select the most non destructive theoretical account from Kato et Al. 1978 to gauge aboveground which merely required DBH and figure of tree. This non destructive attack besides becomes the precedence why this survey used the bing theoretical account.
This survey besides used the lone 1 hectare trying secret plan to gauge the aboveground in entire lasting forest modesty. It means that this outcomes or happening can non presume as it can be apply to other similar survey.
1.7 Summarization of Each Chapter
Chapter 1: Introduction
This chapter explains the debut and the background of the survey. It besides covers the important of the survey, aim of the survey and besides the restriction in carry oning this survey.
Chapter 2: Literature Reappraisal
This chapter is reviewed diaries and other information beginnings which are related to this survey.
Chapter 3: Methodology
This chapter introduces the survey country and the methodological analysis utilised. It besides includes the survey country map, the stairss in carry oning the survey and informations that have been used in carry oning this survey.
Chapter 4: Consequences and Discussions
This chapter explains the consequences for this survey which is about the aboveground biomass and C stock anticipation in Permanent forest modesty Sg. Lalang.
Chapter 5: Decisions
This chapter explains the decision from the survey.
This chapter discuss about constructs and past surveies of C and biomass. This will include the description of biomass and C, function of wood on biomass and C stock, the methodological analysiss used in past surveies, the consequences of these survey and treatment about the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing each methodological analysis. This chapter besides will discourse about policies applied and to choose the best methodological analysis that will be apply in this survey as it will be the best manner to accomplish the aims of the survey.
2.2 Carbon dioxide
Harmonizing to Dave Reay et.al ( 2010 ) , Carbon or specifically carbon dioxide ( CO2 ) is a chemical molecule dwelling of one C atom covalently bonded to two O atoms. At atmospheric force per unit area and temperature, C dioxide is a colorless, odorless gas that exists of course as a hint gas in the Earth ‘s ambiance. It is a cardinal constituent of the Earth ‘s C rhythm, with a considerable figure of beginnings, both natural and man-made ; furthermore, there are a important figure of natural C sinks including oceans, peat lands, woods and other biology. All life is based on C. Carbon is the major chemical component of most organic affair. Yet by weight, C is one of the least abundant elements within the Earth ‘s crust.
By and large, Carbon is stored on our planet in the undermentioned major beginnings and sinks: ( 1 ) as organic stuff in life and dead beings ; ( 2 ) as the gas C dioxide in the ambiance ; ( 3 ) as organic affair in dirts ; ( 4 ) in the geosphere as fossil fuels and sedimentary stone sedimentations such as limestone, dolomite, and chalk ; and ( 5 ) in the oceans as dissolved atmospheric C dioxide and as Ca carbonate shells in marine beings.
Carbon from the ambiance is converted into biological affair by photosynthesis. During decay or burning, C goes back into the ambiance. This happens over a comparatively short period and works affair used as a fuel can be invariably replaced by seting new growing. Therefore a moderately stable degree of atmospheric C consequences from its usage as a fuel.
Carbon is released from ecosystems as C dioxide gas by the procedure of respiration. Respiration takes topographic point in both workss and animate beings and involves the dislocation of C based organic molecules into C dioxide gas and some other compound by-products. All the procedure can be shown in figure 2.
Figure 1: A sub-cycle within the planetary C rhythm. Carbon continuously moves between the ambiance, workss and dirts through photosynthesis, works respiration, harvest home, fire and decomposition.
Photosynthesis is a procedure of change overing beaming energy from the Sun and CO2 from the air into the chemical energy of works tissue ( Hall, 1999 ) . Through photosynthesis, C in atmospheric CO2 becomes C in works tissue, besides called biomass. When biomass is burned, decays or is otherwise oxidized, the chemical energy is released and the CO2 is placed back into the ambiance, finishing a natural C rhythm. Equally long as this rhythm is in balance, it has a net nothing impact on the C in the ambiance, which is why biomass C is frequently called “ C impersonal. ”
Biomass can be used repeated in eternal figure of times, on basic C circulation in photosynthesis procedure comparison to fossil resource that limited to a transitory usage in rule and can act upon the planetary clime by its irreversible CO2 emanation caused by fossil burning ( refer to figure ) .
( a )
( B )
Figure 1: Comparison of biomass ( a ) and dodo ( B ) system on Carbon cycling
( Beginning: modified from Asiatic Biomass Handbook, 2008 )
The biomass C rhythm and C neutrality differentiate the C in biomass from the C in fossil fuels. Fossil fuels contain C that has been out of the ambiance for 1000000s of old ages. When fossil fuels are burned, hence, they put C in the ambiance that is in add-on to what has been cycling between the ambiance and the Earth, doing the sums of CO2 in the ambiance to increase. Indeed, the primary beginning of increased CO2 in the ambiance since preaˆ?industrial times is fossil fuel burning ( Denman, 2007 ) .
Standard accounting protocols measure emanations from fossil fuel at the point of burning while biogenic C emanations and segregation are accounted for in the context of their impact on the biomass C rhythm ( e.g. IPCC, 2006 ) .
2.4 Role of forest on biomass and C stock
Harmonizing to FAO ( 2012 ) , Forests have four major functions in clime alteration: they presently contribute about one-sixth of planetary C emanations when cleared, overused or degraded ; they react sensitively to a altering clime ; when managed sustainably, they produce wood fuels as a benign option to fossil fuels ; and eventually, they have the possible to absorb about one-tenth of planetary C emanations projected for the first half of this century into their biomass, dirts and merchandises and hive away them – in rule in sempiternity.
Harmonizing to W. A. Kurz and S.G. Conard ( 2005 ) , Carbon is continuously cycled between woods and the ambiance. As trees grow, they remove C ( as C dioxide, CO2 ) from the ambiance and shop it in leaf, subdivisions, and other woody biomass. As trees die and decompose, this C is bit by bit released back into the ambiance as CO2. Natural or human-induced perturbations contribute to this C rhythm. Carbon in biomass and dead organic affair pools is oxidized during fires and released back into the ambiance. Deforestation or other causes of failed forest regeneration interrupt the rhythm of C consumption and release.
2.5 Issues related to forest and biomass
Forests have traditionally been used for many merchandises, including lumber, fuel, and fresh fish. Determining the biomass of woods is a utile manner of supplying estimations of the measure of these constituents. Typically, the measure of proverb lumber has been assessed by doing volume appraisals, but this ignores the other utile constituents such as smaller size wood for fuel usage.
Furthermore, really few to no appraisals have been made of the measure of wood nowadays in woods that appear to hold no potency for saw lumber production. Measuring the entire aboveground biomass of woods, defined as the life and dead affair in standing trees and bushs and can be classified in leaf, subdivisions, and boles. Bark, hardwood and deal are timber biomass constituents, is a utile manner of quantifying the sum of resource available for all traditional utilizations. It either gives the measure of entire biomass straight or the measure by each constituent ( e.g. , leaves, subdivisions, and bole ) because their biomass tends to change consistently with the entire biomass.
However, the manner the biomass of each forest constituent varies with entire biomass varies by forest type, such as natural or deep-rooted woods and closed or unfastened woods. For illustration, leaves for fresh fish are about 3-5 % and marketable bole is about 60 % of the entire aboveground biomass of closed woods.
The measure of biomass in a wood is a consequence of the difference between production through photosynthesis and ingestion by respiration and crop procedures. Thus it is a utile step for measuring alterations in wood construction. Changes in forest biomass denseness are brought about by natural sequence ; human activities such as silviculture, harvest home, and debasement ; and natural impacts by wildfire and clime alteration. Biomass denseness is besides a utile variable for comparing structural and functional properties of forest ecosystems across a broad scope of environmental conditions.
Biomass of woods is besides really relevant for issues related to planetary alteration. For illustration, the function of tropical woods in planetary biogeochemical rhythms, particularly the C rhythm and its relation to the nursery consequence, has heightened involvement in gauging the biomass denseness of tropical woods. The biomass of woods provides estimations of the C pools in forest flora because about 50 % of it is C. Consequently, biomass represents the possible sum of C that can be added to the ambiance as C dioxide when the wood is cleared and/or burned. Attempts to gauge the biomass denseness of tropical woods have been made by the scientific community for usage in theoretical accounts that assess the part of tropical deforestation and biomass combustion to the addition in atmospheric C dioxide and other hint gases ( Brown et al. 1989, Crutzen et Al. 1991, Hall and Uhlig 1991, Houghton et al. 1983 ) .
Global involvement in clime alteration led to the constitution of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change ( UNFCCC ) at the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development ( UNCED ) . Over 130 states have ratified this convention which means that these states need to do national nursery gas emanation stock lists. Changes in the screen, usage, and direction of woods produce beginnings and sinks of C dioxide to and from the biosphere. To gauge the magnitude of these beginnings and sinks requires dependable estimations of the biomass denseness of the woods undergoing alteration.
Biomass denseness estimations besides provide the agencies for ciphering the sum of C dioxide that can be removed from the ambiance by regrowing woods or by plantations because they set up the rates of biomass production and the upper bounds for C sequestering. This issue is having more attending of late as states look to woods as a agency of extenuating nursery gas emanations, peculiarly C dioxide, a major nursery gas and the one fixed during photosynthesis. Practices such as sustainable forest direction, decelerating deforestation, and low-impact-logging lessening emanations or conserve C dioxide. Other patterns such as plantation constitution or other tree seting plans on antecedently non-forested land sequester C dioxide ( Brown et al. 1996 ) . Furthermore, biomass denseness estimations of woods are highly relevant for analyzing other planetary biogeochemical rhythms, such as N, because the sum of other alimentary elements in woods is besides related to the measure of biomass nowadays.
Another issue related to forest biomass has emerged since the 1980s. In add-on to loss of forest country, forest debasement, ensuing in biomass denseness loss, is known to be happening ( Brown et al. 1994, FAO 1993, 1995 ) . Much of this biomass debasement appears to be live, therefore it is in add-on to that accounted for by canonic harvest home. An illustration is the illegal logging patterns happening in many woods of tropical Asia ( Callister 1992 ) . Clearly, this procedure of biomass denseness decrease has deductions for the planetary C rhythm, other biogeochemical rhythms, and biodiversity. Biomass debasement is due to many factors largely related to societal, economic, and political factors.
2.6 Previous surveies on aboveground biomass
Appraisal of the accrued biomass in the wood ecosystem is of import for measuring the productiveness and sustainability of the forest. It besides gives us an thought of the possible sum of C that can be emitted in the signifier of C dioxide when woods are being cleared or burned. Biomass appraisal of the forest ecosystem enables us to gauge the sum of C dioxide that can be sequestered from the ambiance by the wood.
The accurate appraisal of biomass estimations of a wood is of import for many applications like lumber extraction, tracking alterations in the C stocks of wood and planetary C rhythm. Forest biomass can be estimated through field measuring and remote detection and GIS methods ( Ravindranath NH, et.al ( 2008 ) , Lu D ( 2006 ) ) .
Two methods of field measuring are available. The first 1 is the destructive method of tree biomass appraisal. Among all the available biomass appraisal method, the destructive method, besides known as the crop method, is the most direct method for appraisal of above-ground biomass and the C stocks stored in the wood ecosystems ( Gibbs HK et.al 2007 ) .
This method involves reaping of all the trees in the known country and mensurating the weight of the different constituents of the harvested tree like the tree bole, foliages and subdivisions ( Ravindranath NH, et.al 2008, Hashimotio T, et.al 2000, Nelson BW et.al 1999 ) and mensurating the weight of these constituents after they are oven dried. This method of biomass appraisal is limited to a little country or little tree sample sizes.
Although this method determines the biomass accurately for a peculiar country, it is clip and resource consuming, strenuous, destructive and expensive, and it is non executable for a big graduated table analysis. This method is besides non applicable for debauched woods incorporating threatened species ( Montes N et.al 2000 ) . Normally, this method is used for developing biomass equation to be applied for measuring biomass on a larger-scale ( Navar J, 2009, Segura M, Kanninen M, 2005 ) .
The 2nd method of tree biomass appraisal is the non-destructive method. This method estimates the biomass of a tree without droping. The non-destructive method of biomass appraisal is applicable for those ecosystems with rare or protected tree species where reaping of such species is non really practical or executable.
Montes et Al. ( 2000 ) developed a non- destructive method for the above-ground biomass appraisal of thuriferous retem ( Juniperus thurifera L. ) woodlands in the High Central Atlas, South of Morocco. In this survey, the biomass of the single tree was estimated by taking into history the tree form ( by taking two exposure of the tree at extraneous angles ) , physical samples of different constituents of the trees like subdivisions and foliages and dendrometric measurings, volume and bulk denseness of the different constituents. Although it is a non-destructive method, to formalize the estimated biomass, the trees had to be harvested and weighted.
Another manner of gauging the above-ground wood biomass by non-destructive method is by mounting the tree to mensurate the assorted parts ( Aboal J.R. et.al 2005 ) or by merely mensurating the diameter at chest tallness, tallness of the tree, volume of the tree and wood denseness ( Ravindranath NH, Ostwald M, 2008 ) and cipher the biomass utilizing allometric equations ( Brown S, et.al 1989 ) . Since these methods do non affect felling of tree species, it is non easy to formalize the dependability of this method. These methods can besides affect a batch of labor and clip and mounting can be troublesome.
2.7 Allometric Equations for Biomass Estimation
The most widely used method for gauging biomass of wood is through allometric equations. The allometric equations are developed and applied to forest stock list informations to measure the biomass and C stocks of woods. Many research workers have developed generalised biomass anticipation equations for different types of wood and tree species ( Nelson et al. 1999, Chung-Wang et Al. 2004, Montes et Al. 2000, Javar J 2009, brown et.al 1989, Basuki et Al. 2009 ) .
The allometric equations for biomass appraisal are developed by set uping a relationship between the assorted physical parametric quantities of the trees such as the diameter at chest tallness, tallness of the tree bole, entire tallness of the tree, crown diameter, tree species, etc. Equations developed for individual species and for mixture of species give the estimation of biomass for specific sites and for large-scale planetary and regional comparings.
Brown et Al. ( 1989 ) developed allometric arrested development equations to gauge the above-ground biomass of single braid for tropical woods as a map of diameter at chest tallness, entire tallness and wood denseness and Holdridge life zone. This estimation of Brown ‘s biomass equation takes into history merely the unrecorded trees and non the fallen litter and the standing dead trees. Nelson et Al. ( 1999 ) conducted a survey to develop species-specific and mixed-species allometric relationships for gauging entire above-ground dry weight utilizing eight abundant secondary forest tree species in the Amazon.
Chave et Al. ( 2001 ) proposed an appraisal method for the appraisal of biomass in a neo-tropical wood of Gallic Guiana for which they have made usage of published informations sets supplying the biomass and the diameter at chest tallness of felled and leaden trees. In this survey, they have parameterized the arrested development theoretical accounts utilizing 32 measurings of big trees. Charles ketterings et Al. ( 2001 ) besides proposed an allometric equation for ciphering the biomass of trees in the assorted secondary wood of Sumatra, Indonesia. However, the proposed equation is most suited for trees holding a diameter at chest tallness of 8-48 centimeter. Xiao and Ceulemans ( 2004 ) conducted a survey on a 10-year-old Scots pine to deduce allometric relationships of subdivision and leaf biomass at subdivision and tree degree and confirm the earlier surveies conducted by Helmisaari et Al. ( 2002 ) on Scots pine in Finland.
Segura and Kanninen ( 2005 ) conducted a survey in the tropical humid wood of Costa Rica to develop allometric theoretical accounts for gauging the root volume, entire volume ( root and subdivisions ) and the entire aboveground biomass ( root, subdivisions and leaf ) for single trees of that forest. Unlike other allometric equations found in the literature, where merely the root is taken into history for entire volume, the theoretical account developed by Segura and Kanninen ( 2005 ) includes the subdivisions. The theoretical accounts, nevertheless, are recommended merely when the diameter at chest tallness is between 60 and 105 centimeter.
Aboal et Al. ( 2005 ) besides developed allometric equations for gauging tree biomass in the Gomera laurel wood, Canary Islands. The proposed biomass equation is based on the relationship between volume and weight as they relate the diameter at chest tallness to the above-ground biomass. Harmonizing to Aboal et Al. ( 2005 ) , the diameter at chest tallness gives an thought of the volume of the tree.
Kenzo et Al. ( 2009 ) harvested 136 trees from 23 species to mensurate the above-ground biomass in assorted tropical secondary forest trees in Sarawak, Malaysia. They besides developed allometric relationships between the root diameter at chest tallness, root diameter at land and foliage, root and entire root biomass. Their survey besides showed a comparatively high correlativity of allometric relationships between the tree tallness and plant-biomass. Navar ( 2009 ) besides developed allometric equations to gauge the biomass and C stocks for temperate wood and tropical dry woods of Mexico. These allometric equations are utile to gauge biomass of woods with complex diverseness construction.
Ryan et Al. ( 2011 ) carried out a survey to quantify the forest C stock in Miombo forest in Mozambique. They developed a new site-specific allometric equation, between root diameter and tree root, based on destructive crop of 29 trees. Djomo et Al. ( 2011 ) besides conducted a survey to gauge the entire above-ground biomass of a damp tropical wood in South-western Cameroon utilizing a locally developed assorted species allometric equation. The pick of allometric equations has a important consequence on the biomass computations since the forest biomass estimations vary with age of the forest, site category and stand denseness.
Hence, the generalised allometric equations available for big landscape graduated tables should be used with cautiousness as the site greatly influences allometric relationships ( Muntagu et al. 2005 ) . Kim et Al. ( 2011 ) , in their survey, accent that the sites specific allomeric equations are more accurate in foretelling the forest biomass estimations on the local degree as it takes into history the site effects. Harmonizing to the surveies conducted by Vielledent et Al. ( 2012 ) , when biomass allometric theoretical accounts are non available for a given forest site, a simple height-diameter allometry is required to gauge the biomass and C stocks accurately from secret plan stock lists.
There have been really few allometric equations developed specifically for lowland dipterocarp wood. Basuki et Al. ( 2009 ) collected the information from the lowland dipterocarp wood in East Kalimantan, Indonesia and 122 trees were sampled holding a diameter at chest tallness ( 1.3m ) of 6-200 centimeter. They so developed corner allometric equations for lowland dipterocarp wood by set uping a relationship between tree parametric quantities such as the diameter at chest tallness, commercial bole tallness and wood denseness with above-ground biomass.
The forest C stocks are widely estimated from the allometric equations for forest biomass. By and large, the C concentration of the different parts of a tree is assumed to be 50 % of the biomass ( Brown S, 1986 ) or 45 % of the biomass ( Whittaker, 1973 ) . However, Losi et Al. ( 2003 ) in their survey estimated the C concentration of dry bole sample to be about 48 % of the dry bole biomass. Djomo et Al. ( 2011 ) analyses the C content in wood with a CNS analyzer and found a average value of 46.53 % .
2.8 Choice of methods
The biomass appraisal of the forest can be worked out utilizing any of the methods or in combination of the methods mentioned. At the same clip, while taking a method for biomass appraisal one should maintain in head the pertinence or the suitableness of that method for the country or forest type or tree species.
The allometric equations and arrested development theoretical accounts, for biomass appraisal, besides should non be used beyond their scope of cogency ( Nelson et al. 1999, Chave et Al. 2005 ) . Although, the field measurings give a more accurate estimation of the forest biomass, it is labour and resource intensive and clip consuming. Therefore, allometric relationship is frequently the preferable method for gauging forest biomass as this method provides a nondestructive and indirect measuring of biomass and relatively, it is less clip devouring and less expensive. The appraisal of biomass with the aid of allometric equation is considered to be a non-destructive method or an indirect method as these equations uses merely the index parametric quantity obtained from the wood stock lists to gauge the biomass. However, the allometric equations developed for biomass appraisal demand to be validated. And for the proof of the biomass equations, cutting and burdening of tree constituents are required ( Montes et al.2000, Ryan et Al. 2011, Djomo et.al 2011, Kim et Al. 2011, Araujo et Al. 1999 ) .
For this survey, the best method is utilizing nondestructive method by utilizing the bing allometric equations and applied in new survey environment based on the standards of forest surveies. This method besides will guarantee no injury to forest and apportion clip taken. This method besides consistent with the aim to mensurate the aboveground biomass in wood, non to make any new allometric equation based on the survey.
2.9 Laws and policies
2.9.1 Commissariats of the fundamental law
Malaysia constitutional commissariats in Article 74 ( 2 ) clarify that the wood is under the legal power of State Government. With this proviso, the State Government is empowered to transport out the jurisprudence in the forestry sector and can explicate its ain wood policy. However, federal governments can supply advice and proficient aid, care Stationss test and presentation, preparation and research.
Under the Constitution of Malaysia, the National Land Council ( MTN ) is authorized to explicate the National Policy for promote and modulate the usage of land, including the coordination and harmonisation of forestry personal businesss through the National Forestry Council ( NCC ) . Therefore, the MPN is a forum for the Federal Government and State Government together to discourse jobs and issues related to policy, disposal and direction of woods, and the duty of the State Government to implement the determinations made by MPN Certified by MTN.
2.9.2 Dasar Perhutanan Negara ( DPN )
DPN drafted and approved by the MPN and confirmed by MTN on 19 April, 1978, is focused on a comprehensive attack to turn toing the challenges faced by the forestry sector to pull off, preserve and develop forest resources.DPN was amended on 19 November, 1992 and was adopted by the State Government. This amendment was following sustainable direction of forest resources for the socio-economic development, forest preservation and environmental involvements.
In short, the National Forest Policy 1978 ( Revised 1992 ) has highlighted facets of
as in the followers: –
Keep the Permanent Forest Reserve ( HSK ) plenty as Forest Protection ; Forest Production and Recreational Forest ;
Pull off the HSK with the rules of proper forest direction ;
Implement development attempts, rehabilitation and re-afforestation ;
Determine reaping forest resources outside HSK implemented consistent with the rate of land development so that the maximal benefits available ;
Bettering harvest home and usage of all types of wood merchandises and advance the growing of wood-based reclamation for a maximal resource use, employment chances and derive on foreign exchange ;
Implement forestry preparation plans at all degrees of public and private sector to bring forth trained work force ;
Improve plans to run into the demands of socio-economic development, environmental protection environment and preservation, forestry, every bit good as the sustainable usage of wood heritage through: –
( a ) Forest statute law that emphasizes the execution of the National Forestry Act 1984 ( amended 1993 ) for guarantee that forest resources are managed and maintained in a sustainable mode ;
( B ) Promote the constitution of plantation woods with tree plantations of high quality and engagement increased private sector is active ;
( degree Celsius ) Forest Farmers involve local communities in forest peripheries in seting fruit trees to protect the forest resources ;
( vitamin D ) Non-Wood Forest Products in peculiar to advance the production of bamboo and Calamus rotang every bit good as scientific and sustainable direction ;
( vitamin E ) Community Forestry meant to provide for diversion and touristry ;
( degree Fahrenheit ) Preservation of Biological Diversity to heighten the saving of vegetations and zoologies to keep forest biodiversity ;
( g ) The values aˆ‹aˆ‹that involve the constitution of Special Scientific forest countries dedicated to scientific research, and
( H ) International cooperation to hammer international cooperation to accomplish a common apprehension in the direction and development of forest resources.
2.10 Forest statute law
2.10.1 Enactment ( Application ) National Forestry Act 1985
National Forestry Act 1984 ( Act 313 ) , which was passed by Parliament has been adopted by the State Government in November, 1985 and gazetted as Enactment ( Application ) National Forestry Act 1985 on 4 April, 1985. It contains commissariats for the Administration, Maintenance, Security and Development in Maharashtra Forest Treasures. Enforcement of this Act is through the Forest Rules 1988.
Due to the development of a more ambitious clip in the forestry sector, the State Assembly has adopted the National Forest Act ( Amendment ) Bill 1993 on 12 May 1994. This amendment has been made among others provide for punishments and harsher punishments for forestalling the happening of wood discourtesies.
In 2005 amendments to segment 10 of the National Forestry Act 1984 have been made to increase the forest functional category of 12 State Parks to proclaim the Selangor State Park in 2007.
2.10.2 Enactment of the 1985 Wood-based Industries
Wood-based Industries Enactment 1985 ( Act 314 ) was passed by the State Assembly in 1987 to organize all the activities of the Wood-Based Industries in the province of Maharashtra and its enforcement is through the Rules of the State Wood-based Industries 1990.
This chapter will discourse about the methods that will applied in this survey. By and large, this survey will be use the allometric equations created by Kato et Al. ( 1978 ) to gauge the aboveground biomass in wood. Data will be collected in assorted beginnings such as secondary informations from forestry section, books, studies, diaries, articles, and besides from related web sites. Analysis will be made by utilizing the simple package, utilizing Microsoft Excel. The flow chart below shows the sequence of methodological analysis.
Datas from Foresry section
Books, Journals, articles
Equations by Kato et Al. ( 1978 ) Using Microsoft Excel to acquire aboveground biomass
Carbon stock equations
3.2 Study country
Sungai Lalang Permanent forest modesty is located in the territory of Selangor. It is 13km from Semenyih and 43km from kuala lumpur if by route. Sungai Lalang forest militias are under the disposal of Selangor forestry section. It was gazetted as a wood modesty since 1999. Forest militias are managed by the cardinal Selangor territory wood office. Forest modesty covers an country of aˆ‹aˆ‹17,027.77 hectares and is divided into 55 compartments.
Figure 3.1 Map of Permanent Forest Reserve Sungai lalang
Sungai Lalang forest modesty more focussed on recreational wood and go a tourer attractive force because has a waterfall and river clean and beautiful. The country is besides near to several interesting locations to see such Sungai Tekala waterfall, Sungai Gabai, and sungai Batangsi.
In add-on, its strategic location on the border of the route to Hulu Langat and sungai kelawang in nine provinces make this topographic point easy to make other basic installations and substructure for the usage of visitants. Approximately 3000 visitants will see this wood at one clip, particularly over the weekend.
This forest country is besides often became an country of aˆ‹aˆ‹educational activities for secondary and third degrees where there are surveies done by those related forest species found here. Forest militias have been used for forest direction presentation centre where there is herb secret plans and forest ecology made. These woods are classified as Lowland Dipterocarp forest with an height of about 300 metres above the sea degree. For this survey, the Compartment 24 is selected to make the survey on aboveground biomass and C stock.
Table Compartments in Sungai Lalang forest eserve
Area ( hectare )
( Beginning: Selangor Forestry Department, 2011 )
3.3 Datas assemblage
This survey used the non destructive method to roll up the information from wood. As the sampling site is the lasting modesty forest, any activities that can harm the wood is forbidden. All the informations assemblage activities merely including create sampling secret plan, incline rectification, and mensurate the tree diameter.
3.3.1 Create the sampling secret plan
The informations gathered from the primary informations by roll uping informations from trying site in compartment 24 in Sungai Lalang forest modesty. Sampling site is about 100m tens 100m ( 1 hour angle ) country. This sampling secret plan has been divided into subplot of 10m ten 10m each one. The ruddy rod was piled in each corner of trying secret plan and xanthous rod was piled in each corner of subplot.
Survey in trees has been done utilizing zigzag method from subplot 1 until subplot 100 and each trees sampled was numbered harmonizing to first and following tree until all trees had been surveyed. Figure 3.1 show the design of trying secret plan and how study was done. Datas gathered from them is really informations on the tree Dbh, species names, households, and others informations relevant. The informations collected by aid signifier Department of forestry Selangor.
Figure 3.1 Structure of trying secret plan and study method.
3.3.2 Slope rectification and DBH measuring
Slope rectification besides measured to do certain the measuring of trying secret plan country is right. Clinometers had been used to mensurate incline. The reading of incline is in grade. The increasing incline read as positive and the diminishing incline read as negative. The incline rectification is based on trigonometry construct and this rectification normally done earlier make trying secret plan. All the measuring was recorded in tabular array. Figure 3.1 show how slope rectification been done and the arrested development equation that been used.
Formula: AB = AC Cos I‘
Figure 3.2 Slope Correction and expression
The trees with the DBH more than 10cm in 1.3m tallness were recorded. The methods to mensurate DBH is different because of the different nature of tree base and this measuring is based on Husch et Al. ( 1972 ) and Manokaran et Al. ( 1990 ) . Figure 3.3 show how to mensurate DBH on different nature of tree base.
Figure 3.3 BDH measuring on different nature of tree base.
3.4 Data analysis
3.4.1 Aboveground and belowground biomass
To gauge the aboveground biomass, Kato et Al. ( 1978 ) theoretical account will be use. It contain the appraisal on the root, subdivision and leaf biomass and these constituents will be the sum of aboveground biomass.
Before analysis had been made, the tree tallness will be measured by utilizing the undermentioned equation. The equation is:
Tree tallness ( H ) = ( 122 x D ) / 2D + 61 ) , unit in m
Where D = diameter on 1.3m of tree chest
After the tree tallness had been measured, the aboveground equations will be used to gauge the entire aboveground biomass. The equation can be divided to stem biomass, subdivision biomass and leaf biomass.
These 3 constituents will do the entire aboveground biomass. The equation will be estimate aboveground biomass in kg ( kilogram ) . So after estimation biomass, the informations will be converted to chant to acquire the existent information needed. The equations are:
Ws = Stem biomass
= 0.0313 ( D2H ) 0.9733
Wb = subdivision biomass
= 0.136 Ws1.070
Wl = foliage biomass
= ( 1.25 x 124 Ws0.794 ) / ( 0.124Ws 0.794 + 125 )
Aboveground biomass = Ws + Wb + Wl,
The same information will be used for estimation belowground biomass. For the belowground biomass, the equations from the Ogawa et Al. ( 1965 ) as follow:
Root ( WR ) = 0.0264 ( D2H ) 0.775
This belowground biomass consequences besides must be converted from kilogram to tonne. This aboveground and belowground biomass appraisal will be uniting to acquire the entire tree biomass.
3.4.2 Carbon stock
The C stock will be estimate based on C content in the biomass informations. The default value of the C content on biomass is 0.47. Because of no specific value of C in biomass made by this state, this default value will be used. So the C stock will be calculated as:
Cb = B x % C organic
Cb is the C content from biomass, expressed in kgs ( kilogram ) ;
B is the entire biomass, expressed in kgs ( kilogram ) ;
% C organic is the per centum value of C content, amounting to 0.47 or utilizing the value obtained from measurings in the research lab.
3.4.3 Forest value
Forest value will be calculated by utilizing the value of C. The C/tonne will be converted to pecuniary value that been utilizing in estimation C monetary value. Because of no local mention of C monetary value that have been used in Malaysia, the C monetary value will based on the international monetary values rate.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
This chapter shows all the consequence and discusses the consequence from analysis performed ; aboveground biomass allometric theoretical account and C transition on the informations collected in trying secret plan. The consequences of these will be used in the step full Permanent forest modesty to acquire the consequence of entire aboveground biomass and C stock. The end products from these two analyses are really of import as the consequence will be used in pull offing and betterment to forest direction in Permanent Forest Reserve Sungai Lalang, Selangor and go the illustration of direction to full Selangor wood.
4.2.1 Aboveground biomass
Descriptive analysis was used to discourse all the consequences collected from the allometric theoretical account created by Kato et Al. ( 1978 ) to better apprehension of consequences. The tabular arraies and graphs will be the presentation points to explicate the whole consequence.
By and large, the entire figure trees in trying secret plan that been measured are 418 trees from 50 different household and species. The entire aboveground biomass in this sampling secret plan is 410.64 dozenss. The entire aboveground biomass for the root is 332.46 tons/ha or 80.96 % of entire aboveground biomass in trying secret plan. The entire aboveground biomass for root is 78.12 tons/ha ( 19.02 % ) and the entire aboveground biomass for foliage is merely 0.0604 tons/ha ( 0.02 % ) . With this consequence this shows about 0.98 tons/tree norm.
Table 1. Entire Aboveground biomass for root, subdivision, and foliage in trying secret plan
figure of tree
entire ( dozenss )
AGB subdivision sum
( dozenss )
entire ( dozenss )
AGB Grand Total ( dozenss )
1 hectare ( 100m x 100m )
Compartment 24, Permanent
Forest Reserve Sungai Lalang
( 80.96 % )
( 19.02 % )
( 0.02 % )
( 100 % )
Harmonizing to Table 2, for all the households of trees in secret plan sampled, the highest part of AGB is come from the Dipterocarpaceae which about 103.14 dozenss AGB come from this household tree. This followed by Euphorbiaceae households, about 59.22 dozenss AGB. Lauraceae households besides show the high part to AGB, about 41.37 dozenss. The other households that contribute high to AGB are Guttiferae ( 17.45 dozenss ) , Olacaceae ( 16.95 dozenss ) , Leguminosae ( 12.86 dozenss ) , Sterculiaceae ( 12.71 dozenss ) , Moraceae ( 11.83 dozenss ) , Tiliaceae ( 10.50 dozenss ) , and Chrysobalanaceae ( 10.28 dozenss ) .
Table 2. 10 household that contribute highest aboveground biomass value
Based on the species measured in trying secret plan, the highest part of AGB is from Shorea leprosula species which contribute the entire AGB of 34.22 tons/ha. It contribute 27.21 tons/ha of root AGB, 7 tons/ha of subdivision AGB, and 0.0023 tons/ha for the foliage AGB. The 2nd highest species part of AGB shows by shorea curtisii ssp. Curtisii species. it contribute 28.46 tons/ha, which contain 22.64 tons/ha of root AGB, 5.81 tons/ha of subdivision AGB and 0.002 tons/ha of leaf AGB. Cryptocarya costata species contribute the 3rd highest of AGB, on 19.7 tons/ha of entire AGB. It contain about 15.66 tons/ha of root AGB, 4.04 tons/ha of subdivision AGB, and 0.0014 tons/ha of leaf AGB. The other high part species are Elateriopermum tapos ( 13.16 tons/ha ) , Shorea acuminate ( 12.41 tons/ha ) , Elateriospermum tapos ( 10.96 tons/ha ) , Ochanostachys amentacea ( 10.81 tons/ha ) , Maranthes corymbosa ( 8.93 tons/ha ) , Agrostistachys gaudichaudii ( 8.15 tons/ha ) and Garcinia parvifolia ( 7.82 tons/ha ) .
Table 3. 10 species that contribute highest aboveground biomass value
Shorea curtisii ssp. curtisii
To demo the consequence of AGB based on the DBH trees, the DBH have been divided to several category ; lower than 20cm, 20.1cm-40cm, 40.1cm-60cm, 60.1cm-80cm, 80.1cm-100cm, and higher than 100cm.
Figure 1. Stem Above land biomass based on DBH category
For AGB for root in trying secret plan, the highest AGB is measured from the DBH 40.1cm-60cm where 94.88 tons/ha AGB has been measured. This value was following by the DBH 60.1cm-80cm which about 77.64 tons/ha. DBH 20.1cm-40cm become 3rd highest AGB about 67.80 tons/ha followed by DBH 100cm and higher ( 24.22 tons/ha ) and DBH 10cm-20cm ( 25.68 tons/ha ) . The lowest AGB come from DBH 80.1cm-100cm ( 24.22 tons/ha ) . ( Refer to calculate 1 )
For AGB for subdivision in trying secret plan, the consequence is somewhat similar with the AGB root. The highest AGB is measured from the DBH 40.1cm-60cm. 22.09 tons/ha AGB has been measured in this DBH category. The DBH 60.1cm-80cm category go the 2nd highest category which show the consequence about 19.14 tons/ha. DBH 20.1cm-40cm become 3rd highest AGB about 14.59 tons/ha followed by DBH 100cm and higher ( 11.22 tons/ha ) and 80.1cm-100cm ( 6.19 tons/ha ) . The & lt ; 20cm category go the lowest AGB with merely 4.89 tons/ha part.
Figure 2. Branch Above land biomass based on DBH category
Figure 3. Leaf Above land biomass based on DBH category
Figure 3 show the consequence for AGB foliage in trying secret plan based on DBH category. 20.1cm-40cm category shows the highest part of AGB for foliage, approximately 0.0185 tons/ha. The 2nd highest part AGB for foliage is 40.1cm-60cm DBH category. It show the AGB about 0.0169 tons/ha. It followed by lower than 20cm DBH category ( 0.0114 tons/ha ) , 60.1cm-80cm DBH category ( 0.0091 tons/ha ) and higher than 100cm DBH category ( 0.0025 tons/ha ) . The lowest AGB show in 80.1cm-100cm DBH category, approximately 0.0021 tons/ha.
Figure 4. Entire Above land biomass based on DBH category
For the entire AGB in trying secret plan, 40.1cm-60cm DBH category show the highest part to AGB on 166.98 tons/ha. 60.1cm-80cm DBH category become the 2nd part to AGB of the entire 96.79 tons/ha. For the 20.1cm-40cm DBH category, the AGB measured was 82.41 tons/ha and it become the 3rd highest part of AGB. The other highest DBH categories are higher than 100cm DBH category, which approximately 53.47 tons/ha and lower than 20cm DBH category, which approximately 30.49 tons/ha. The lowest part for AGB is shows in 80.1cm-100cm. this DBH category is show the 30.41 tons/ hour angle AGB parts.
Table 4. Above land biomass in each compartment in Permanent Forest Reserve Sungai Lalang
country ( hour angle )
AGB root ( dozenss )
AGB subdivision ( dozenss )
AGB foliage ( dozenss )
AGB sum ( dozenss )
By utilizing the consequence of trying secret plan, the full Permanent forest modesty can be measured. For the compartment 24 which the sampling secret plan located, it stated that the entire AGB for root is about 69385.35 dozenss. The entire AGB for subdivision for compartment 24 is 16303.52 dozenss and the entire AGB for foliage is 12.61 dozenss. It makes the expansive sum of AGB in compartment 24 is 85701.48 dozenss.
For all the compartments in the Permanent forest modesty, compartment 38 show the highest part to AGB, with the entire AGB is 352189.13 dozenss. It contains 285138.23 dozenss of root AGB, 66999.10 dozenss of subdivision AGB, and 51.80 dozenss of foliage AGB. The lowest AGB part comes from compartment 5. Compartment 5 contains 12121.66 dozenss of the entire root AGB, 2848.23 dozenss of the entire subdivision AGB and 2.20 dozenss of the entire foliage AGB. The expansive sum of AGB in compartment 5 is 14972.09 dozenss.
For the full compartments in Permanent Forest modesty Sungai Lalang, the expansive sum of AGB is 6,992,357.68 dozenss. The entire AGB for root is about 5661130.13 dozenss. The entire AGB for subdivision is 1330199.07 dozenss and the entire AGB for foliage is 1028.47 dozenss.
4.2.2 C stock
This subdivision will demo the consequences on the C stock on trying secret plan and the full lasting wood modesty Sungai Lalang. The tabular arraies and graphs will be the presentation points to explicate the whole consequence.