Emerging wireless network Essay


This research undertaking will be on the differences between emerging radio web engineerings HSPA and WIMAX. Or the procedure of cell handover in nomadic informations webs and the different jobs that needed to be addressed compared to that of nomadic phone cell handover.


The impact of the Internet has been dramatic to our private life and professional calling. And its importance is continued to turn. In order to to the full bask the benefits of the Internet users need a broadband connexion. In the coming old ages, 1000000s of people are turning to wireless engineering for this experience.

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As the radio market evolves in the way of broadband, it ‘s unifying with the universe of fixed wireless solutions under the umbrella of nomadic broadband. Along the waies wireless convergence, bearers would hold a assortment of different options that the entree engineering to vie or run in concurrence with each appraisal. The cardinal engineerings that support long-distance communications, both from bing or new, or at the phase of development, include Wi-Fi, WiMAX, and HSPA. It can be seen that each engineering has its ain advantages and disadvantages and hence suited for different demands.

It is expected that cellular endorsers will increase. This leads to massive of graduated table for the nomadic industry and removed them laterality of the wireless broadband market. Yet there is a topographic point for other broadband engineerings to complement 3G solutions in countries that have higher public presentation and lower cost solutions. As such, although one can see WiMAX as a direct rival to HSPA, some people really believe that these engineerings would complement and reenforce each other in many respects. They can run side to make full in applications and services for nomadic ternary drama ( voice, picture, and informations ) instead than overlap with adjacent engineerings. With careful planning, disparate engineerings can be deployed to work in an progressively of import function. [ 1 ]

By far the most successful of these is high-speed Packet Access ( HSPA ) , which is commercially deployed with more than 250 operators in over 110 states. HSPA is a state-of-the-art engineering that enables mobile and broadband radio services with odd public presentation and graduated table of the huge bulk of the market. By 2010, when it is expected that the figure of wireless broadband connexions are more than 600 million HSPA will supply more than 70 per centum of all nomadic broadband connexions.

HSPA and Mobile WiMAX engineerings have been designed for high-velocity packet-data services. They feature similar engineering enablers, including dynamic programming, nexus version, HARQ with soft combine, multiple-level QoS, and advanced antenna systems. Notwithstanding, their public presentation differs due to differences in the physical bed signal format, duplex strategy, handover mechanism, and runing frequence sets. This study provides a high-ranking description of the similarities and differences between HSPA and Mobile WiMAX.


HSPA is a aggregation of two nomadic telephone protocols, High Speed Downlink Packet Access ( HSDPA ) and High Speed Uplink Packet Access ( HSUPA ) , which extends and improves the public presentation of bing WCDMA protocols.

High Speed Download Packet Access ( HSDPA ) allows nomadic phones to offer their users a much higher bandwidth velocities and do general betterments to the nomadic Web surfboarding. The term ‘mobile broadband ‘ or ‘3.5 G ‘is frequently used to HSDPA services and equipment to place. HSDPA supports download speeds up to 14.4Mbps. This compares really favourably with solid base of ADSL connexions in the UK.

However, in world, the mean HSDPA connexions are much lower than advertised. Presently Vodafone have the fastest HSDPA web, theoretically 7.2 Mbps, but in world on mean 1.2Mbps, harmonizing to a recent survey on the 3G nomadic broadband in the UK. One of the drawbacks of HSDPA is that the maximal upload velocity is 384Kbps thin. This can be thwarting when seeking to big email fond regards or posting pictures or podcasts to direct. HSUPA is suited for upload velocities of 5.76Mbps, which consequences in the existent universe speeds up to 2 Mbps ; this is still a huge betterment. [ 2 ]

HSPA increases maximal informations rates and capacity in several ways:

  • Shared-channel transmittal, ensuing in efficient usage of available codification and power resources in WCDMA.
  • A shorter Transmission Time Interval ( TTI ) , which reduces round-trip clip and improves the trailing of fast channel fluctuations.
  • Link version, which maximizes channel utilizing the base station to run near to maximum current cell.
  • Fast programming that precedence user with the most favourable channel.
  • Fast transportation and soft-combine, more capacity.
  • 16QAM ( Quadrature Amplitude Modulation ) , which yields higher spot rates. [ 3 ]


WiMAX is a wireless digital communications system, besides known as IEEE 802.16, which is intended for radio “ metropolitan country webs ” . WiMAX can supply broadband radio entree ( BWA ) up to 30 stat mis ( 50 kilometer ) for fixed Stationss, and 3-10 stat mis ( 5-15 kilometer ) for nomadic Stationss. In contrast, the WiFi/802.11 radio local country web criterion is limited in most instances to merely 100-300 pess ( 30 – 100m ) .

With WiMAX, Wi-Fi-like information rates are easy supported, but the job of the failure is corrected. WiMAX operates on both licensed and non frequences available ; supply a regulative environment and feasible economic theoretical account for wireless bearers. WiMAX can be used for radio networking in much the same manner as the more common Wi-Fi protocol. WiMAX is a second-generation protocol that allows for more efficient bandwidth usage, intervention turning away, and is designed for higher information rates over long distances possible.

WiMAX uses OFDMA in the downlink, together with MIMO to increase the peak information rates.

The theoretical maximal informations rate is 75 Mbps WiMAX in the downlink and 25 Mbps uplink in 10 MHz channel bandwidth utilizing clip division semidetached house ( TDD ) . The WiMAX operators will supply service with an mean downlink throughput of 2 Mbps to 4 Mbps uplink and the mean throughput of 1 Mbps to 2Mbps. Some operators offer, such as Clearwire 4 Mbps to 6 Mbps in the downlink and 1 Mbps in the uplink.

The most common frequences of 2.3 GHz WiMAX, 2.5 GHz and 3.5 GHz. WiMAX are seen as a engineering for new participants, such as Internet service suppliers ( ISPs ) . It will besides be used for widening DSL or DSL-like services for fixed and operators in emerging markets with limited wire line entree. Mobile WiMAX is being deployed in 100s of webs worldwide. Most of the current executions are by the fixed operators, followed by Mobile operators, or new operators.

The following major loop of the WiMAX criterions is 802.16m or Release 2.0 of the WiMAX Forum criterions. There will besides be a version 1.5 ; some of the characteristics of version 2.0 is included. Mobile WiMAX Release 2.0 volitions both TDD and FDD profiles. This version of the criterion is expected to be completed in 1H 2010, and it will be a campaigner for IMT-Advanced, as defined by the ITU is.

Mobile WiMAX Release 2.0 characteristics will besides include:

  • 100 MHz bearer: & A ; gt ; 1.5 Gbps extremum bandwidth
  • Femtocell support
  • Multi-base station collaborative MIMO
  • Fractional frequence reuse
  • Multi-carrier operation
  • Self-optimizing web characteristics
  • Relay
  • Enhanced Multimedia Broadcast Service ( E-MBS )

Differences between HSPA and WIMAX

Physical format

The chief difference between WiMAX and HSPA-Mobile in the physical bed is the signal format. Mobile WiMAX is based on extraneous frequence sphere multiplexing ( OFDM ) , while HSPA is a direct-sequence spread-spectrum system. One of the chief characteristics of OFDM is its hardiness to multipath extension. The chief driver of this characteristic is the usage of narrowband tones in with a cyclic prefix. The cyclic prefix serves two intents: it provides a waiting clip by inter-symbol intervention, and ensures that the multipath channel is merely a scalar perturbation requires each tone, so simple and effectual smoothing. If they are good synchronized and protected by cyclic prefix, demoing an OFDM signal is reciprocally extraneous even after traveling through multipath channels. The disadvantage of utilizing cyclic prefix is increased operating expense, which efficaciously reduces bandwidth efficiency.

HSPA codification uses CDM collection ( extraneous Walsh codification ) to offer a high-velocity downlink channel, and direct-sequence code-division multiple entrees ( CDMA ) for uplink. Although this method is less sensitive to Doppler spread, the loss of perpendicularity in clip scattered channels creates intra-cell intervention that the usage of high-order transition bounds. Generalized RAKE receiving systems can extenuate intervention by advanced signal processing on the receiving system to the low cost of extra receiving system complexness. Compared with OFDM signals, the uplink HSPA signals have a low-PAPR which implies a less complex power amplifier. As an option to a certain complexness, a higher mean power is used, leting a greater scope.

Duplex strategy

Another difference between HSPA and Mobile WiMAX is the duplex system. HSPA is an FDD, with uplink and downlink transmittal takes topographic point in separate frequence channels. The profile of the Mobile WiMAX system, every bit presently in the defined as WiMAX Forum, is a TDD engineering with merely one frequence channel ( 10MHz for illustration ) that is shared in clip sphere between the uplink and downlink. The ratio between the uplink and downlink frequence determines how the channel is shared. A 2:1 ratio means the channel is two-thirds of the clip used for the downlink and one tierce of the clip for the uplink.

The IEEE 802.16 specification allows for FDD operation, but to day of the month, the Mobile WiMAX system profile entirely stipulates TDD. TDD has the flexibleness of altering the downlink to uplink ratio to a assortment of traffic dissymmetries satisfaction, although pattern, the ratio should be repaired fi system-wide ( except guard sets are used to cut down the disturbing effects ) . Furthermore, TDD systems with a big downlink-to-uplink ratio, a nexus budget punishment as the uplink mean power are reduced for a certain peak power.

The intervention between the different scenarios FDD and TDD systems is that FDD systems use a duplex frequence spread between the uplink and downlink to forestall intervention between transmittals. TDD systems use a guard clip between uplink and downlink. When constructing a TDD web, we handle a assortment of intervention scenarios:

  • Intervention within a web – intervention between base Stationss and between terminuss. All basal Stationss must be synchronized with each full-time others ( for illustration utilizing a GPS receiving system each base station ) .
  • Between a web and an next TDD Network – two or more TDD webs utilizing the same frequence set in the same geographical country. To avoid intervention, synchronism must be coordinated between neighbouring webs, or guard sets should be used. This scenario can happen at national boundary lines, peculiarly where merely local mandates.
  • Between a web and a spectrum adjacent TDD web a TDD web utilizes next frequences, giving rise to the base station to establish station intervention if the base Stationss of different webs in the immediate locality. The uplink to a basal station may endure intervention from outside the set escape of another base. This intervention can be reduced by synchronising the web, or by utilizing guard sets.
  • FDD and TDD spectrum bounds an FDD web uses frequences next to the TDD web, giving rise to the base station to establish station if the mistake base Stationss of different webs are in close propinquity. This failure can merely be resolved by appropriate guard sets.
  • Duty uplink / downlink in the TDD web scenes compared to adjacent webs in add-on to synchronism in clip, when finding the uplink /down nexus ratio in a TDD web, the ratio in the web and the webs with adjacent states should be coordinated, all the above instances intervention instead, arm sets are used.

Handover mechanism

HSPA supports smooth transportation in the uplink, a combination of macro-profits and grosss improve the nexus budget ( on norm 1.5 dubnium ) . It besides helps increase web capacity by cut downing intra-cell intervention. Hard handover is used for intra-frequency handover between and handover to GSM. The Mobile WiMAX system profile contains merely difficult handover.

Operating frequence sets

HSPA presently supports frequence sets runing from 800 MHz to 2600 MHz including the most current 2G-active sets in Europe, Africa, America and Asia Pacific. The most common are 2.1GHz sets for HSPA, deployed around the universe, and the 850MHz set used in America, Australia, New Zealand and parts of Asia. Different frequences under consideration for nomadic WiMAX, but the current enfranchisement return classes merely with the 2.3-GHz, 2.6 GHz and 3.3-3.8 GHz frequence sets. At present there are merely a few applications of Mobile WiMAX, particularly in the 2.3 GHz and 2.6 GHz set. Approximately 90 per centum of all worldwide are FDD spectrum allotments.


Coverage is a cardinal metric of public presentation because it determines the figure of sites needed to implement a complete web, and the information rate available at a certain distance in a peculiar stake. One common manner of mensurating the coverage is the usage of nexus budgets, which estimate the maximal loss way, the system can back up between the base and terminal services. Precise absolute nexus budgets depend on several factors and are best simulated for a specific instance. Relative comparings of the nexus budgets for different system constructs are enlightening and easy to do. HSPA and Mobile WiMAX features that affect the nexus budget, including end product, duplex method and frequence set, peculiarly on the uplink, which typically is the restricting nexus.

Spectrum efficiency

Spectral efficiency measures the maximal entire sum of informations that can be performed by a cell per unit clip, normalized to the occupied system bandwidth. For a given traffic lading per user, can be used for spectral efficiency, the figure of users a cell can supply support.

The spectrum efficiency achieved by HSPA Release 6 depends on the type of receiving system. Mobile WiMAX Wave 1 has better spectrum efficiency over Release 6 HSPA with basic RAKE receiving systems. However, with more advanced receiving systems, such as G-Rake diverseness receive, HSPA is significantly better spectrum efficiency – a comparing of HSPA Release 6 with advanced receiving systems shows that HSPA has a higher spectrum efficiency. HSPA Release 7 is modeled with two-stream MIMO in the downlink and uplink in 16QAM. Beckon 2 Mobile WiMAX public presentation is comparable with HSPA Release 7. HSPA Release 8 shows the spectrum efficiency than nomadic WiMAX Wave 2. These consequences are similar to those offered from 3G Americas. The WiMAX Forum is non present findings for HSPA Release 7 or 8. The consequences of HSPA Release 6 are similar to those presented here and assume simple receiving systems.


HSPA and Mobile WiMAX, many of the same techniques, their public presentation is comparable in many countries. However, important differences in countries such as duplex manner ( FDD versus TDD ) , frequence sets, multiple entree engineering, design and control channel give rise to differences in the uplink spot rates and coverage.

HSPA is a proven nomadic broadband engineering deployed in more than 250 commercial webs. It is built on the solid foundations of the 3GPP household, offering they want the user ‘s broadband velocities and carrier-grade voice services they expect. HSPA can be built utilizing bing GSM wireless web sites and is a package ascent of the installed WCDMA webs. When used in combination with dual-mode terminuss, these factors guarantee national coverage for voice ( GSM / WCDMA ) and informations ( HSPA / EDGE ) .

Operator picks of today ‘s engineering will impact concern for the coming old ages. The good intelligence here is that 3GSM engineerings are the future-proof in footings of initial investing, economic systems of graduated table, and the ability to spread out and continuously heighten the solution. Compared to other options, HSPA is the clear and unchallenged pick for nomadic broadband services.


  1. IEEE computing machine society doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/ICMB.2006.32
  2. hypertext transfer protocol: //mobilebroadbandblog.co.uk/2008/06/hsdpa-hsupa-hspa-explained/
  3. 3GPP hypertext transfer protocol: //www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/25814.htm
  4. 3G Americas. September 2006. Mobile Broadband: EDGE, HSPA and LTE.
  5. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.3gamericas.org/documents/2006_Rysavy_Data_Paper_FINAL_09.15.06.pdf
  6. WiMAX Forum, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.wimaxforum.org/
  7. hypertext transfer protocol: //standards.ieee.org/getieee802/download/802.16_Conformance03-2004.pdf
  8. hypertext transfer protocol: //standards.ieee.org/getieee802/download/802.16e-2005.pdf
  9. www.gsmworld.com/documents/ABI_Technology_Comparison.pdf


BS base station

CDMA codification division multiple entree

CSCF Call Session Control Function

DSL digital endorser line

EDGE Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution

FA/HA Foreign Agent/Home Agent

FDD frequence division duplexing

GGSN gateway GPRS support node

GPRS General Packet Radio Service

GSM Global System for Mobile communications

G-RAKE receiving system generalized RAKE receiving system

HSPA High Speed Packet Access – an extension of WCDMA to supply high bandwidth and enhanced support for synergistic, background, and streaming services

HSS Home Subscriber Server

IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

IMS IP Multimedia Subsystem

IPR rational belongings rights

ITU International Telecommunication Union

MAC Media Access Control

MIMO multiple input, multiple end product

MME mobility direction entity

OFDM extraneous frequence division multiplexing – a digital encryption and transition engineering used by 802.16-based systems ( including WiMAX ) as the air interface

PDG package informations gateway

RAKE receiver a wireless receiving system designed to counter the effects of multipath attenuation

RX having aerials

SAE-GW system architecture development gateway

SGSN functioning GPRS support node

TDD clip division duplexing

TTG tunnel expiration gateway

TX conveying aerials

WAG wireless entree gateway

WCDMA Wideband Code Division Multiple Access – a wideband spread-spectrum

3G nomadic telecommunication air interface

WiMAX Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access – a standards-based engineering that enables the bringing of last mile radio broadband entree as an option to overseas telegram and DSL

VoIP Voice over IP engineering enables users to convey voice calls via the cyberspace utilizing packet-linked paths ; besides known as IP telephone.

3G Third-generation wireless engineerings for nomadic webs, telephones and other devices. Narrowband digital wireless is the 2nd coevals of engineering

3GPP Third Generation Partnership Project, a coaction understanding that brings together a figure of telecommunications criterions organic structures

3G LTE/SAE 3G Long Term Evolution/System Architecture Evolution