An Overview of E-Services ( An E-Government docket )
The usage of Information engineering by Government in supplying services to her people has been the major treatment of the World and is term as “Electronics Services” ( e-services ) . This service bringing has been the chief focal point of an Electronics Government docket through the cyberspace in signifier of web site which can be accessed mundane with accurate and up-to-date information ( CITU 2000 ) . Fang ( 2002:1 ) defined e-government as:
“A manner for authoritiess by utilizing the most advanced information and communicating engineerings, peculiarly web-based cyberspace applications, to supply citizens and concerns with a more convenient entree to authorities information and services, to better the quality of services and to supply greater chances for citizens participate in democratic establishment and processes” .
Schedler et Al. ( 2004 ) see e-government comparatively closer to electronic concern and electronic commercialism constructs which are thoughts borrowed from private sectors while Fang ( 2002 ) sees e-business as a broader promotion of e-commerce adopted into an e-government service. Both e-business and e-commerce are subset of an e-government with an incorporate tool consisting of three sets of new engineering: substructure, solutions and public portals geographic expedition ( ibid ) . The docket of e-government in a holistic position goes beyond set uping interaction on the cyberspace with both internal and external constituents ( citizens, private concerns, non net income sector, public establishments, authorities functionaries and political relations ) but with the purposes of achieving efficiency and effectivity in authorities services when comparison with the traditional manner of service ( Affisco and Soliman 2006 ; Lee et Al. 2005 ; Fang 2002 ) . An electronic service bringing scheme produce tonss of alterations in the system processs by extinguishing administrative interface through the usage of cyberspace.
E- Government Service Delivery Relationship
As portion of authorities docket in supplying services to both the internal and external constituents through the usage of substructure and public portal as a agency of organizing relationship. This internal and external are constituents of authorities which are in relationship with services bringing docket are: government-to-customers ( G2C ) , government-to-business ( G2B ) , government-to-government ( G2G ) , government-to-nonprofits ( G2N ) and government-to-employee ( G2E ) as shown figure 1 below as the chief constituents of an e-government ( Affisco and Soliman 2006 ; Heeks 2006 ; Fang 2002 ) . Heeks and Santos ( 2009 ) see the interaction proposed by authorities with its constituents as a manner of invention and willingness to accepting reform in accomplishing public service cyberspace docket. Fang ( 2000 ) described authorities service bringing relationship as follows:
Government-to-Customer ( G2C ) : This is an docket where authorities provides information and synergistic medium as public service online as service bringing between them and their citizens.
Government-to-Business ( G2B ) : Is a thrust for e-transaction enterprise as a agency of bettering interaction between authoritiess with concern.
Government-to-Government ( G2G ) : This is an sphere of communicating among authorities bureaus through on-line sharing of information.
Government-to-Nonprofits ( G2N ) : A platform of sharing information with non-profit organisation, political parties, benchs etc.
Government-to-Employee ( G2E ) : An avenue in originating civil service internal communicating with authorities an e-office.
Beginning: Heeks ( 2006 )
Demands and Vision of E-Service
As portion of enterprises of linking authorities and its constituents into one Umbrella through the usage of ICT in supplying electronic services as portion of its docket. This docket of reshaping the relationship of authorities with its constituents requires the mechanism of people ‘s panel and other audiences in finding the demands towards proviso of electronic services ( CITU 2000 ) . The demands of citizens and concerns are legion but the basic demands are better services, transparence, more incorporate information system and better client ‘s relationship direction ( CRM ) system ( Beynon-Davies and Martin 2004 ; Schedler et Al. 2004 ; CITU 2000 ) .
Government needs a vision to win which is one of the impacts of the private sector incorporated into public sector through what is term as mission statement and vision ( Blundell and Murdock 1997 ) . Bryson ( 1995 cited in Blundell and Murdock 1997 ) stated that a vision of success includes: mission statement, nucleus value, ends, basic schemes, public presentation standards, determination regulations, ethical criterion outlooks and motive. Bellamy ( 1998 ) claim that the proposal for e-service as an e-government vision as a accelerator for alteration in following ICT as new engineering through internet medium of sharing information and communicating with its constituents which are aim at:
– Rebuilding relationship between authorities and its constituents by reconnection them together.
– Relieve load on the citizens and concerns by extinguishing the in-between adult male mediate service.
– Improve quality and secured service.
– Effectiveness and efficiency of the system a world ( provide faster and at cut down cost of public services )
– Transparent in services which can be monitored ( openness in minutess ) .
Stamoulis et Al. ( 2001 ) view the vision of authorities toward G2B and G2C as follows: providing anytime, anyplace aid and modulate environmental economic for healthy electronic market and aid the citizen for better interaction with all authorities agents. Heeks and Davies ( 1999 ) views authoritiess ‘ vision into four theoretical accounts of Information System which depends on IT roles execute in public sector reform initiatives as shown in figure 2 below:
– Ignore attack sees public retainers as ignorant of IT and Information Systems ( there is no vision for e-service ) due to deficiency of IT knowledge and their thrust for paper work is more.
– In Isolate attack instance, public retainers are nescient of IT and Information Systems function ( there is no vision for e-service ) but they are cognizant of its potencies and so invested in it with no reform docket.
– Idolise attack instance has an attack to IT with public retainer who are semi-illiterate, but believe in reform docket of authorities. There vision towards authorities services is low due to miss of cognition for information but have passion for IT usage and small part for alteration enterprise.
– Integrate attack instance sees all populace retainer has been enlightening educated with a passion for alteration enterprises and full integrated IT usage in the new reform docket. Their vision for e-government puts information as primary while IT is a follow-up.
Ignore Approach — — — — — – — — — — —
Integrate Approach SOURCE: Heeks ( 2009 )
Forces and Impact of e-service
Strong leading with articulated vision is of import for successful e-government services which can be motivated if all stakeholders portion in this vision such as in the instance of Singapore ‘s authorities with great committednesss and continuity bend vision into world ( Ke and Wei 2004 ) . Schedler et Al. ( 2004 ) sum up the drive forces toward an e-government service into two groups which are called drivers for alteration such as:
Reactive motivation: reaction towards internal or external alteration such as concern, engineering, societal, political economic and client ‘s demand ( Institutional environments ) .
Strategic motivations: municipality towards e-government for specific intent and accomplishing other strategic ends such people are the stakeholders ( Leaders and funding bureaus ) , civilization and employees. An Example of that is the UK authorities driving toward 100 % e-commerce docket in 2005 through e-Envoy enterprise and is title-holder in all departmental degree.
The impacts of e-service as an e-government docket depends on the degree of achieved ends which can be term as positive or negative impact. Once a authorities thrust towards its aims, citizens are move to holding assurance and trust in them ( West 2004 ) . As portion of the induction of IT, effectivity, efficiency, cost decrease and increased in productiveness as an impact in alteration function and increased demands on staff public presentation, concern procedures are more efficient at a decreased clip, reduced administrative cost and decrease in figure of staff ( Norris and Moon 2005 ) . Bhatnagar ( 2004 ) stated other impact of an e-service as increased in transparence of service bringing, cut down administrative corruptness, empowers the citizen on authorities information and better authorities ‘s fiscal control.
Challenges in e-service undertaking
BOX 1. Case survey of Gujarat Computerized Interstate Check Post ( Bhatnagar 2004 )
Challenge can be seen as an obstruction that tends to move against accomplishing the integrative attack of an e-government in supplying public services as in the instance of Gujarat Computerized Interstate Check Post shown in Box 1. Information system consist of engineering, information, people and the procedures undertaken which are represented in the theoretical account of an e-government system ( Onion pealing ) as a checklist usage in ITPOSMO ( Information, Technology, Processes, Objectives, Staff, Management and others resources ) ( Heeks 1999 ) as shown in figure 3 below.
In analysing e-service undertaking being an Information system utilizing design-reality spread theoretical account on ITPOSMO checklist: information ( information stored or flow ) ; engineering ( web, hardware and package ) ; procedures ( users activities and interaction processs ) ; nonsubjective and values ( civilization and political relations ) ; staffing and accomplishments ( both proficient and non proficient competences ) ; direction systems ( authorities construction and motivations ) and other resources ( clip and money ) can be used in measuring the four vision attack theoretical account as a starting point for every authorities ‘s undertaking whether it will be a success or failure ( Heeks 2002 ) . Based on Heeks construct, most of an e-government docket for e-services are confronting tonss of challenges ( success/failure ) due to the spread between design and world ( integrated and disregard attack vision ) of a system ( Heeks 1999 ) .
We need to measure the current service system ( world ) with the meaning future system ( design ) , in other to determine the spread differences within the four vision attack. The construct agrees that the wider the spread between world and design, the similitude of failure ( more challenges ) while the lesser the spread, the more the success ( the lesser the challenges ) it will accomplish. The inquiries arise in other to entree the degree of e-readiness for this undertaking ; are their drive forces behind this undertaking ; are their informations flow ; are their policies or legal backup for issue of security and privateness in ICT in topographic point ; are their adequate resources in footings of finance to back up this undertaking ; are the people knowing in utilizing this system and ready for alteration ; are the engineering available etc ( Heeks 2002 ) ? The followers are the challenges sited in an e-service undertaking as shown below ( Bhatnagar 2004 ; Ndou 2004 ; Heeks 1999 ; Jaeger and Thompson 2003 ) :
– ICT Infrastructure: This is seen as the chief foundation of an e-service undertaking which allows networking, sharing of informations and bringing of services. Many states could non afford this substructure due to immense sum of money behind it and this creates digital divide among states and within states. ICT does non restrict to computing machine and telecommunications equipments but besides the cognition on how to utilize and profit from it. It has been seen as one of the chief challenges behind e-service undertaking success because of the cost involved.
– Policies: This is another challenge confronting the success of e-service undertaking because of the legislative and policies issue turn toing electronic activities in information protection, security, computing machine offense, freedom of information etc in covering with e-government, the citizens and concerns alike which are non in topographic point. This policy is an understanding with authorities in protection of privateness, security of informations and tonss more when transacting concern which is seen as a mark of trust.
– Human factor: This is another disputing factor due to miss of accomplishments staff in ICT in public sector and the non handiness of fund to develop such forces.
– Change direction: This is a challenge in most public sectors in accepting inventions particularly in the country of ICT application which they believe will do loss of occupations, duty and entree control and so prefer the traditional manner of working to the new engineering. Such mentality creates a barrier in set uping e-government undertakings.
– Leadership function: A leader is seen as the bow smuggler of a undertaking and because of the immense money involved, many oppositions arise towards this undertaking executing. A taking participant who sees the benefits of the undertaking non minding the cost, needs the motive of other institute who will move like drivers before and after the undertaking is completed. Most leader lack the political will for e-government.
– Coordinating local, regional and national authorities enterprise: Lack of coordination among the three ties of authorities can hinder the success of e-government attempt. Most e-government docket are complicated by conflicting ends due to miss of coordination among them and for there to be successful undertaking, there must be coordination.
– Clear Scheme: Scheme is another chief challenge in an e-government undertaking. Every scheme needs to be clear and concentrate in vision. Most undertakings do non take into history the transformative consequence or benefits before printing their information and service online. A clear vision is needed to understand the present state of affairs and entree the world and its benefits which require uninterrupted monitoring. Most e-government undertakings lack clear ends.
– Service Channel: Interaction is another challenge in e-government. The degree of interaction with the citizen and concern should be made parallel and simple for easy connectivity. Most service channel seen to be hard for people to utilize because of the design and clip frame which might do many to be discouragement in utilizing those services.
Good Practice of an e-service
Box 2. Case of Gyandoot: Community-Owned Rural Internet booths ( Bhatnagar 2004 ) :
The procedure of transmutation in public sector has brought tonss of demand which needs to be step in order to find the system public presentation ( Blundell and Murdock 1997 ) . One needs an index which can be use as measuring for public presentation such as: efficiency, effectivity, efficaciousness, moralss and elegance ( Heeks 1999 ) . With this public presentation index, one can entree the way of authorities ‘s purpose in other to find the manner frontward towards accomplishing the best pattern. Every authorities wants to take part in e-service as agencies of presenting services and information to the citizens through the cyberspace because of the benefits it delivers as in been convenience, economical and can be accessed at anytime. This is an unfastened channel of interaction from authorities with its constituents and acquiring response in other to better in service bringing ( West 2004 ) . The cyberspace has being seen as that forum for that mean through a web base application where the populace can entree authorities services and transact concern while authorities ascents their information.
Recently, most States, province and local authorities public presentation are accessed to determine the degree of e-government preparedness attain with other states in other to assist them better. One of such ways is by looking at the good patterns and their benefits environing those successful undertakings. Fang ( 2002 ) characterise those successful undertakings as holding these characteristics: Comprehensive ; omnipresent ; transparent, accessible ; privacy/secured ; can be re-engineer and interoperable. IAB ( 1999 ) , UN ( 2005 ) and CUTI ( 2000 ) study on e-service bringing, they found that Singapore ( e-citizen site ) , Australia ( Business entry point, maxi site, land channel ) and Canada ( authorities entry point ) are among the universe taking portal been developed which make other states adopt them based on their best pattern rule. IAB ( 1999 ) sees these sites as been epitomise services to the populace which contains application for licenses, wage mulcts and others confided into one point in other to avoid bureaucratic procedures while this favours Singapore because of its little size which makes her run into her set mark.
On the other manus, Bhatnagar ( 2004 ) sees e-government undertaking based on scheme will and implementation program such as one which requires willingness to accept reform, ability to absorb and pull off alteration, as the lone manner to accomplishing successful e-government undertaking. Bhatnagar drew instances of successful e-services undertaking which are seen as innovators in development based on United Nations study such as the instance of Gyandoot which subsequently falter as shown in box 2. Other instances such as the Bhoomi ( land enrollment in Karnataka, Indian ) is seen as successful e-services undertakings that have met the public presentation index by been transparent in authorities, cut down corruptness, improved service bringing and civil service public presentation, empowers the citizens and enable authorities better their finance ( cut downing cost of minutess in authorities procedures ) and have attain societal and economic demands of Karnataka people. The cost of the undertaking was about Rs 185 million at benefit/person at Rs 3.09, with net-saving of over Rs 134.37 million yearly. Another e-service bringing instance is FRIENDS ( Fast, Reliable, Instant, Efficient, Network for Disbursement of Service ) undertaking in Kerala, Indian whose average aims are to supply service bringing, do citizen more valuable client by moving as one store Centre. Servicess offers are on-line payment of electrical measures, University scrutiny fees, vehicle revenue enhancement, trade revenue enhancement, land and belongings revenue enhancement etc which they say client can make every bit much undertaking in one visit at a fast and at a more convenient location. The cost of the project/capital investing was about US $ 80,000 at gross net incomes of US $ 42,000 yearly.
From UN ( 2005 ) study, the Philippines integrated portal won the good pattern award for on-line offering all integrated all services national site which is category as the best in the universe. The web portal has dedicated e-service subdivision which offers integrated information across all sections with a individual topographic point for public usage and besides a forum where users can notice approximately and acquire feedback. Furthermore, it provides wireless entree and besides allows an invitation for users to partake in policy-making procedure with feedback as a signifier of insurance for remarks.
Affisco and Soliman, ( 2006 ) sees e-service bringing undertaking as one that reduces authorities disbursals, enhances relationship among citizens, non net income, employees, authorities bureaus and concerns satisfaction if schemes and designs are good focus on. This besides helps authorities towards development and set them in the front line of the universe.
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