Cognitive Psychology is considered to be a new discipline and is about 50 years old and it studies mental processes and how human beings process information . think and learn Cognitive Psychology came into use in the early 1967’s by Ulric Neisser a American Psychologist he was responsible for coining the name in his publication. .The main focus of Cognitive psychology is how people gain , process and store information. Applications that can be improved and research is done on how to improve memory and how we can increase decision making accuracy.
In this paper we are going to discuss and define cognitive psychology ,and identify the 4 key mile stone that helped to create the discipline of Cognitive Psychology ,and the last one why is observation of behavior considered important in cognitive psychology. According to (Cherry N. D)till 1950, “Behaviorism was the main school of thought in psychology ,but then a shift started taking place in the early 1970’s against Behavioral psychology and the focus intensified toward topics like attention ,memory and problem solving”.
Many of the ideas in cognitive psychology grew out of old ideas and cognitive psychology is more concerned with internal mental processes not like behaviorism where the focus was more on observable behaviors. ,the other important topic is how we work with the information that comes into a person and how this information turns into responses . According to (Cherry n. )Major topics that are covered under Cognitive psychology are perception, Language , Attention , Memory ,problem solving and Decision-Making & judgment and the important people who played a important role in the history of this discipline are Wilhelm Wundt, William James, and Jean Piaget.
Cognitive psychology is said to be a pure science and uses laboratory experiments and the arrival of computers gave the terminology of Cognitive psychology and the metaphor to investigate the human mind. Willingham (2007) stated” many researchers in the 19th century hought and linked the brain to a telephone switchboard , like the criss cross connection like the neurons and it reminded you of the switching station. ”(p,26). The 4 key mile stones in cognitive psychology have been very important and were designed to work with the treatment of many different neuroses,1. Dr . Alfred Adler ‘s research, he created the individual psychology concept and was further studied by renowned Dr. Sigmund Freud . 2. Second Milestone occurred a decade later ,here Freud stated the impulses controlling sexuality were the factors that decided that the state of mind was normal or neurotic.