Can Criminological Theories Help Security Managers Criminology Essay

These offenses occur in concurrence with other offenses in the workplace while in some occasions, they are committed without complementary offenses. There are assorted criminological theories which some bookmans are of the sentiment that their applications would non battle or could non be used in isolation to pull off offense but instead, in concurrence with a few others, optimum offense direction consequences could be achieved. Strengths and failings of these theories shall be looked into, their applications to the direction of larceny in a workplace, and their relevancy to theft in the retail concern environment. The classs of the wrongdoers responsible for this offense, motivational factors and how they are committed shall besides be explained utilizing the available theories and an attack to managing and cut downing larceny.

For the intent of this essay, legal definition of larceny as contained in the UK Statute Law Database shall use ;

“ . . . . . . . . .A individual who by any misrepresentation venally obtains services from another shall be guilty of an offense ”

“ .. . . . . . . . It is an obtaining of services where the other is induced to confabulate a benefit by making some act, or doing or allowing some act to be done, on the apprehension that the benefit has been or will be paid for ” .

“ . . . . . . . . . . Without bias to the generalization of subdivision ( 2 ) above, it is an obtaining of services where the other is induced to do a loan, or to do or allow a loan to be made, on the apprehension that any payment ( whether by manner of involvement or otherwise ) will be or has been made in regard of the loan ” ( Theft Act 1978 ) .

In this essay, larceny in retail gross revenues environment shall be considered which will includes shrinkage, employee being involved in taken place letter papers without their directors ‘ blessing, bank card larceny, individuality larceny which could be through drivers license and bank statements. Understanding these condemnable Acts of the Apostless is of import to the Security Manager to enable him use efficaciously, the criminological theories into planing a managerial attack and schemes to restricting and commanding the offense.

Larceny, as a condemnable offense has great impact on the profitableness and public presentation of any administration as a whole. Larceny can be defined as an unauthorized acquisition, control or transportation of points and belongingss belonging to other people or administration without due consent of its ‘ keeper. Thefts, as a workplace offense besides interrelate with individuality larceny and card fraud amongst others which is widespread in the retail concern environment.

“ . . . . . . . . . .Card fraud in the BCS ( British Crime Survey ) is defined as utilizing fictile payment cards, such as bank, debit, recognition or shop cards, to take money without permission or anterior cognition from a bank, constructing society or recognition card history ( or to bear down money to credit/debit cards ) .The 2008/09 BCS shows there was an addition in the proportion of fictile card proprietors who had fallen victim to fraud, with 6.4 per cent of fictile card proprietors being cognizant that their card ( s ) had been fraudulently used in the old 12 months, compared with 4.7 per cent in 2007/08. This is the 2nd back-to-back one-year addition since 2006/07 ” ( Home Office Statistical Bulletin 08/10 ) .

This essay will besides demo why people commit offense, the motivational factors, and assorted groups of people who commit the offense and how combinations of criminological theories instead than single theories are more utile in pull offing this offense in workplace.

In this essay, Rational Choice and Routine Activities theories shall be discussed in line with their application to pull offing offense in the workplace. Rational Choice theory has its footing and a modern extension to the Classical School theory. Rational Choice theoreticians analyzed offense as offender-specific and offense-specific. Offense-specific dressed ore more on the situational facets of the rational pick and offender-specific has personal facets of the determination as its Centre point ( Cornish and Clark, 1987 ) . It besides emphasised the fact that offense occurs when the benefits outweigh the costs every bit good as when people pursue self-interest without being subjected to proportionate or inordinate penalties. Whether to perpetrate offense or non is a pick. Rational pick theoreticians believe that offense is a pick that is influenced by its costs and benefits-that is, by its “ reason. ”

Information about the costs and benefits of offense can be acquired by direct acquaintances with penalties and penalties turning away, and indirectly by detecting whether those who offend are punished or have avoided penalties. Crime will be more likely to be deterred if its costs are higher than the benefits. ( e.g. , more attempts being required to perpetrate offense coupled with more penalties when wrongdoers are caught ) . If costs are certain and the associated penalties are ineluctable, motivated wrongdoers would ever weigh their options before shiping on any condemnable act ( Cullen & A ; Agnew 2002 ) .

Rational pick theory is really broad in range with simple basic elements which are strong but at the same clip flexible. Peoples make determinations between picks at every point in clip. However, some determinations are made without being good informed while others are non. Some determinations are frequently taken due to the immediate fortunes and state of affairss while some are accustomed. However, the facts still remains that benefits associated with the sensed hazards are weighed before geting at any determination which makes it possible to stop the determination procedure if the offenses have been pre-empted.

Some people have taking delinquency as a manner of life style. In some fortunes, determinations to perpetrate offense are arrived at due to inadequate information available at the clip of determination devising and all these set together still reflect the of import function chance plays in condemnable act. In add-on to chance, importance of the environment on delinquencies can non be undermined. However, in certain fortunes, wrongdoers seldom have a elaborate thought of all the assorted costs and benefits of the offense because determinations are taken within a really short clip. ( Felson & A ; Clarke, 1998 ) .

In theory, there are three wide classs of wrongdoers or workplace force culprits which are the employee, aliens and the intending or possible clients or clients ( Chappell and Di Martino, 2000 ) . These employees in most instances take advantage of imperfect system to increase their administration ‘s stock list shrinking degree. In an ideal concern environment, administration should hold records of their stock list through regular stock counts and should be able to explicate whatever disagreements that are being observed on a regular footing. In the US, 17.5 % of stock shrinking is as a consequence of system failure. This is as a consequence of inaccurate or failure to roll up and pass on information accurately about the stock degree in a timely mode within the organisations that are found of this enlistment.

In a command to command and pull off offense, Opportunity-reducing techniques are a critical attack which could be achieved by increasing the sensed attempt of offense by mark hardening, security control entree to aim and debaring wrongdoers from mark. However, in instances of card larceny, offense facilitators could be controlled by holding the proprietors ‘ exposures on recognition cards, utilizing fictile beer spectacless in pubs etc. Another technique involves increasing the sensed hazards of offense by security showing, formal surveillance by employees, manned guarding, CCTV and effectual lightning which could take the topographic point of a Natural surveillance and aid in obtaining footage through the usage of engineering. Anticipated wagess of offense should besides be reduced so as to deter condemnable act. Targets could be removed ; there could be belongings marker, and cut downing enticements by guaranting that every motivational factor is put under control. Educating everyone on codifications of behaviors, and acceptable norms would extinguish the alibis of being nescient ( Clarke, 1997 ) .

It is of import to understand the chances that facilitate workplace offense in order to battle or cut down the condemnable act. In America, debut of Caller designation devices have removed obscene and endangering phone calls which normally depends upon telephone entree and the ability of the company to conceal his ain individuality. However, rates of other offenses such as auto larceny and burglary would besides be higher when, in fact, they are lower in Britain and some other states in Europe. Rather, the much higher homicide rates of the United States consequence from the widespread handiness of pistols, which means that the chance to transport out a speedy but deathly onslaught is much greater, even when the victim is stronger than the aggressor ( Felson 1998 ) . This implies that one time a peculiar type of offense is put under control, there is inclination that the motivated wrongdoers would ever acquire deflected and discovers other offense types or marks.

It has been gathered through a research that bulk of those who committed robberies found themselves in the act with the ground that they needed money ; which implies that they did it to gain their life. It does non needfully intend that these people are unemployed but it is a manner of doing terminals meets ( Gill 2005 ) . Due to the fact that every person has inclinations to steal, environment and the sensed hazards besides influence people to steal. We can non govern out the fact that some people have taken larceny as a calling as they have ne’er worked or had proper instruction on the threat of larceny. These people take advantage of every chance as explained by the rational theoreticians.

However, contrary to rational pick theory which believes that chance is the chief factor responsible for offense happening, everyday activity theory as described by Cohen & A ; Felson explained in one of their published articles in 1979 suggests that Crime occurs when there is an intersection in clip and infinite of a motivated wrongdoer, an attractive mark and deficiency of capable care. Changes in everyday activities in society ( e.g. where both twosomes are working, building of new roads ) can act upon offense rates. People ‘s day-to-day everyday activities affect the likeliness of offense being committed ( Cullen & A ; Agnew 2002 ) .

“ . . . . .The everyday activity attack still offers the best account for the rise in burglary in the United States and Western Europe during the sixtiess and 1970s. Included in this account is the determination that the best forecaster of one-year burglary rates is the weight of the smallest telecasting set sold each twelvemonth. Another of import constituent of the account is that far more places in this period were left unguarded in the twenty-four hours as more adult females entered Full-time paid work. In fact, the most general account of offense rate tendencies is an index of the scattering of activities off from household and family scenes. As people spend more clip among aliens and off from their ain places, their hazard of personal and belongings victimization rises ” ( Felson and Clarke, 1998 ) .

There are some elements and conditions which must be fulfilled for a offense to take topographic point. These elements as analysed by everyday activity theoreticians include suited mark, possible wrongdoer, suited clip, topographic point and deficiency of capable care. A suited mark as described by criminologists could be perceived as a individual, a concern, consumer merchandise or premises. However, offense hazard is reduced if the mark is perceived non to be extremely suited or of low value to the wrongdoers. It is hence a offense bar attack to cut down the sensed suitableness of a mark if the Security Manager thinks that the cost of increasing security of a mark is high. A motivated wrongdoer is practically anyone who has desires to obtain a service or a substance which he has non acquired a legal ownership of. Wrongdoers customarily do picks between perpetrating offenses based on projected chances and wagess. Every person has some possibility of perpetrating offense depending on their fortunes and the available chances. If given a opportunity, or the right “ chance ” , any individual could perpetrate a offense ( Felson & A ; Clark, 1998 ) .

Every person has specific countries in which they carry out their day-to-day everyday activities and this is instead called the activity infinite, Domain or a possible way country. This country includes both the topographic points that are visited, route to such locations from their topographic points of residence and topographic points of day-to-day or everyday activities. In every bit much as people are non inactive, offense will hold a non-static nature. In world, some topographic points, belongingss or installations attract more offense than others. In some fortunes, these are the topographic points where people visit really frequently like the Accident and Emergency section of infirmaries, infirmary auto Parkss, isolated off-street parking etc. These are locations where people leave their autos while sing and be given to go forth valuables in the auto due to the nature or the concern at the clip of the visit.

It is of import to understand that in everyday activity theory, offense do occur when there is interaction between a possible wrongdoer and a suited mark in clip and infinite ; chance which is being created by the deficiency of capable care can non be undermined. It is really indispensable to place the available chances and put in topographic point steps to either do these chances non attractive or show that the cost outweighs the benefits. These could be achieved through the usage of Security devices and engineering, proper lighting of an country, orientation and educating staff and visitants through assorted audio ocular devices etc. Some concerns and administrations use combine processs as client service, preparation and offense bar engineerings e.g. , cameras, electronic ticket systems to command and pull off offense ( Hayes 1991 ) .

Criminological theories play of import functions in offense control and direction as guidelines to what a Manager should look out for and how these factors should be managed in order for him to efficaciously accomplish the administration ‘s set mark in a spot to cut down offense. In some occasions where the capable care is available, theft are being attacked by the investigators in the shop or those on patrol which finally broadcast warning marks to others who have the purpose to perpetrate offense that the country is non safe for their intending activities. ( Hayes, 1993 ; Jones, 1998 )

Research workers have shown that some wrongdoers are professional booster and have taken it as a calling. They shoplift to orders in which instance, there is a willing purchaser who have indicated involvement in buying a specific point. These calling based shoplifter expression for those specified points. In the class of their action, they might see some points which they perceive would be easy for them to sell and shoplift along with their order. However, they are non incognizant of the security systems in most of the stores they visit, but they work around the security system and they know when and where to commit the act ( Gill 2005 ) . Same applies to individuality and card larceny which leads to other individual ‘s inside informations and bank cards being used for purchases and to obtain points or services on termed/contract footing in the telecommunication industry.

There have ever been runs that tell recognition card users non to hold their cards ‘ pin figure written down but in most shopping Centres, these condemnable do show the card to the merchandiser, utilize a incorrect pin figure and in some instances inform them that they have forgotten the pin figure. The attenders use the swipe installation on the POS ( Point of Sale ) machine and inquire them to subscribe the payment faux pas that is generated. There is a defect on the portion of the merchandiser as in most instances, they compare the signature on the card signature strip with the 1 signed by the wrongdoer, who must hold practised hammering the signature. Alternatively of this, a exposure ID card like drivers licence or passport would be ideal to be used to verify the signature and individuality in such state of affairss.

In the current economic universe, Identity larceny is a serious offense which involves the usage of an person ‘s stolen personal information, recognition and fiscal inside informations. It has been disclosed by the Federal Trade Commission that 8.3 million U.S. citizens were victims of this offense in 2005 and these figures have soared by 22 per centum by 2007 ( Smith, 2009 ) . Besides the fact that this is a serious offense, Identity larceny do hold a great emotional impact on its victims. It ‘s unfortunate that the victims in most instances are incognizant of how their records were obtained which finally make some of them feels vulnerable, angry, down and stressed depending on the extent of the economic harm cause to them. In states like Britain, this besides have negative impact on the victims ‘ recognition study and mark. Although the jurisprudence protects victims from being financially accountable for the fraud committed in their names, the recognition evaluation could hold been affected even before recognizing what has happened.

In theory, victims are protected by jurisprudence and most of the comfortss extended to them in the yesteryear will no longer be available when the recognition coverage bureaus have been contacted to describe the offenses who thereby affect a larceny flag on the victim ‘s recognition file. Future loaners would be doubting in exposing themselves to such clients and as such would be demanding for extra information and paperss to verify the genuineness of the individual bespeaking for recognition installations. It has been estimated in the United State by the Federal Trade Commission that concerns have spent over $ 1.5billion in resources to battle, avoid and decide loses that have resulted from this act while over $ 50billion have been lost to this offense ( Smith, 2009 ) .

There are assorted grounds why people do perpetrate an offense most of which are non based on their demands but as a consequence of their low degree of instruction. An employee who takes place some of the office letter papers and equipments on the land that they are non being used or merely for him to utilize might non hold thought that it is equivalent to theft until he is adequately informed. Perversely, employees commit larceny to counterbalance themselves for the fact that they have non got occupation satisfaction or they believe that the company is paying them less than what they deserve. And as an avenue to rectify the sensed unfairness with their employers ( Greenberg, 1997 ) . More besides, some employees atimes perceive this as an avenue of acquiring back at the employer who has failed to supply them with occupation satisfaction as they are being ripped off ( Altheide et al. , 1978 ) .

However, there are different types of clients who visit the administrations on day-to-day footing. Some visit with the purpose to shoplift, window store, to see presentation of new merchandises and to buy merchandises. It is certain that these groups of clients, with different motivations behave otherwise when they are in the store and their attacks to staff differ. This is where the degree of instruction on delinquent and staff consciousness about clients ‘ behaviors have to be improved upon. Security and safety at work topographic point is every employees ‘ duty and they are non to increase chances for larceny to happen which constantly has a negative impact on the full public at big.

Larceny as a workplace offense, impacts negatively on every person that have activities with the administration. The concern operational costs are increased as a consequence of losingss due to theft and these costs are passed on to their clients and employees. In most instances, it consequences to increasing costs of security care, insurance premium and other elements of operational costs which will impact employees ‘ benefits depending on the magnitude of losingss suffered by the administration. The economic consequence of employees ‘ larceny being the major subscriber to stock list shrinking in US has been estimated at $ 400 per twelvemonth to every household ( Hollinger and Clark, 1983 ) . This has an inflationary consequence of 10 to 15 % on the monetary value of consumer goods ( Consumer studies, 2002 ) .

It is evident that the costs of offense at workplace are unmeasurable as some of them can non be quantified. This include concern breaks, affects employee morale, loss of imposts, direction clip being wasted on incident coverage and certification, increased insurance premium and increased hazard factors of the concern ( British Chambers of Commerce, 2002 ) . High degree workplace larceny may besides take to company insolvency. Based on this, it is really of import to understand the workplace and the nature of offense confronting the concern before seting in topographic point any offense anticipatory steps or supplanting steps. Rational pick emphasised the fact that chance is core in the determination devising by the wrongdoers when it comes to delinquencies.

It is obvious from all indicants that one time the chance is displaced or made unnoticed to be of any value, a motivated wrongdoer would non pay attending to the mark. As a consequence of this, chance has to be identified, modified and could be at a cost which will be economical instead than leting the offense to be perpetrated before seting in topographic point a control. By virtuousness of the fact that chance is needed to offense happening, it is agreeable that rational pick theory interrelates with the everyday activity theory which believes that offense can merely go on when there is interception of certain elements. Cohen and Felson ‘s ( 1979 ) modus operandi activity theory explained the fact that happening of offense is as a consequence of the chance of the undermentioned factors coming in contact: Motivated wrongdoer, suited mark and deficiency of capable care in a topographic point.

Working in an environment where there is an chance of holding entree to money and belongings does non interpret to perpetrating offense. This shows a subjective facet of chance. It is hence of import to understand that certain factors like societal desirableness for the merchandise or belongings, concealability of mark and propinquity do hold supportive function to play in concurrence with chance for larceny to happen ( Hollinger and Clarke, 1983 ) .

It is hence necessary that a Security Manager, who has understood the environment where he works, should place the hazard elements, chances, and motivational factors for a possible wrongdoers, use the combine cognition of these theories to plan an attack to prevent all avenues for offense to happen. Security Manager should guarantee that the cognition get from these theories are put into action by guaranting that chances are identified and modified to accommodate his organizational end as it relates to offense decrease. This could be achieved by ; cut downing the alibis for larceny and frauds by guaranting that employees plight are listened to, cut down any awaited wages from the act by seting in topographic point a penalty that is commensurate to the offense, guarantee that the sensed hazards of being caught and punished is in topographic point, and the attempts should be made higher than the benefits.

The combine cognition of rational pick and everyday activities theories can non be undermined which give an penetration into what to look out for and how to set in topographic point the preventative steps to command offense. Larceny as a workplace offense can be managed by understanding what points the wrongdoers looking out for, chances environing such points, features of the marks and elaborate apprehension of the environment where the marks are situated. It is hence apparent that the cognition of criminological theories has an huge function to play in helping the security Manager to pull off offense in workplace.