APUSH Fall Exam Guide Essay

First John Marshall – Supreme Court chief appointed by John Adams; set many precedents for the way the US Constitution is currently interpreted. Henry Clay – a lawyer, politician, and skilled orator who represented Kentucky in both the Senate and in the House of Representatives. He opposed the idea of Manifest Destiny because he believed it would cause controversy over slavery and threaten stability of Union. (He was right). Two Party System – A major change in politics after the Era of Good Feelings, it consisted of the Democrats and the Whigs.

Jacksonian Democrats glorified the liberty of the individual (states’ rights, federal restraint in social & economic affairs) while the Whigs supported the natural harmony of Society and Community (national bank, protective tariffs, internal improvements, public schools, & moral reforms [prohibition]). Transportation Revolution – stimulated by the desire of the east to move west. The steamboat, railroad, highways, canals, turnpike, and other transportation mobiles were improved during this revolution.

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Sectionalism (Political and Economic) – loyalty to a particular region. Jacksonian Democracy – the political movement toward greater democracy for the common man typified by American politician Andrew Jackson and his supporters. Also refers to the era of the Second Party System (1830’s-1854) when the democratic attitude was the spirit. It promoted the strength of the presidency and executive branch at the expense of Congress while also seeking to broaden the public’s participation in government.

King Cotton – Expression used by southern authors and orators before the civil war to indicate the economic dominance of the southern cotton industry, and that the north needed the South’s cotton. Manifest Destiny – Increased patriotism, weakened federalism, and made an official boundary between the US and Canada. It was the belief widely held by Americans in the 19th century that the US was destined to expand across the continent. “Expansion, prearranged by Heaven”. The Second Great Awakening – A protestant revival movement during the early 19th century in the U. S.

It has been described as a reaction against skepticism, deism, and rational Christianity. It was one of the most significant occurances in the history of American religion. Countless people were converted and many churches were changed and revived. The movement influenced many other aspects such as prison reform, women’s rights movement, abolishment of slavery, advancements in literature, and reform in education. Women’s roles in the church were greatly affected and the deeply encourages the religious revival, setting up many organizations and charities. Abolitonism – a movement to end slavery.