Analysis of Climate Change Threats Facing Bangladesh Essay

Chapter- 02

Literature Review

Bangladesh is among the states that are expected to be worst affected by clime alteration. It is one of the most climate vulnerable states in the universe and will go even more so as consequence of clime alteration. Floods, tropical cyclones, storm rushs and drouths are likely to go more frequent and terrible in the coming old ages. Many would state that the mark of the future alterations already begun to go evident.

Climate alteration is no longer something to go on in the hereafter, it is here now. The planetary heating due to the addition in nursery gas concentrations in the earth’s atmosphere and the attendant sea degree rise are traveling to add fuel to the fire. Almost every sector of socio-economic life in Bangladesh is likely to be affected by clime alteration.

G. Tyler Miller, JR reference that within next the following 40-50 old ages, the earth’s clime may go warm plenty to interrupt agricultural productiveness, alter H2O distribution, thrust countless species to extinction, causes economic pandemonium because of the release of the heat-trapping gasses into the lower ambiance from firing fossil fuels ( oil, coal and natural gas ) besides pollute the air and H2O and interrupt the land. [ 1 ] Other chemical we add to the air impetus into the upper ambiance and consume a gas ( ozone ) that filters out much of the sun’s harmful UV radiation. Toxic wastes from mills and mines poison the air, H2O, and dirt. Agricultural pesticides contaminate some of our imbibing H2O and nutrient.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ( IPCC ) in 2007 concluded that “the balance of grounds suggests a discernable human influence on planetary climate” . Rising planetary temperatures due to climate alteration will convey alterations in conditions forms, lifting sea degrees and increased frequence and strength of utmost conditions events. Climate alteration poses important hazards for Bangladesh. The IPCC predicts that planetary temperatures will lift between 1.80C and 4.00degree Celsiuss by the last decennary of the 21stcentury and planetary heating will ensue in sea degree rises of between o.18 and o.79 metres, which could increase coastal implosion therapy and saline invasion into aquifers and rivers across a broad belt of the South of the state. [ 2 ] Rain autumn is predicted to go both higher and more fickle, and the frequence and strength of drouths are likely to increase particularly in the desiccant northern and western parts of the state.

A figure of surveies on the impact of clime alteration in Bangladesh exist. Noteworthy among them are those of Mahtab ( 1989 ) , Pramanik & A ; Ali, BCAS ( 1994 ) , and Bangladesh climate alteration state survey plan ( 1997 ) . [ 3 ]

Pramanik & A ; Ali discuss the possible impact of clime alteration in Bangladesh through tropical cyclones, storm rushs, coastal eroding and back H2O consequence. Possible loss of land through beach eroding due to sea degree rise on the Eastern seashore of Bangladesh is examined. Some treatments are besides made on the impacts of back H2O consequence due to sea degree rise on inundation state of affairss in the state. The Bangladesh instance survey in Bangladesh clime alteration state survey plan ( 1997 ) highlights the importance of the Trans boundary dimension in turn toing clime alteration version.

K. Tahmida ( 2008 ) is an Economist at the Centre policy Dialogue ( CPD ) conducted a survey on clime alteration. She found a relation between clime and economic system and stated that clime alteration is non merely the dismaying job of Bangladesh and but besides the whole would.

Climate alteration hazards are besides framed turn toing other critical menaces, including runt agriculture, illegal felling of trees, poaching of wild life, and good pollution from flatboat traffic, that might already critically endanger the delicate ecosystems such as the Sundaarbans even earlier important clime alteration impacts manifest themselves. There are many identified effects due to climate alteration, these are following: –

Rising temperature:

The IPCC Working Group II study ( 2007 ) noted that Bangladesh has been sing lifting temperatures as a consequence of clime alteration. The United Nations Development Programme ( UNDP ) Human Development Report for 2007/8 stated that during 2005, Bangladesh faced temperatures that were 5–6°C above the regional norm.

Rising sea degrees:

The IPCC Working Group II study ( 2007 ) identifies Bangladesh as one of the states most affected by climate change-induced low-lying rise. The sea degree around Bangladesh has risen well by about 12cm since 2000. The lifting sea degrees in the Bay of Bengal are infringing on huge countries of level agricultural land in the southern territories of Khulna, Satkhira, Bagerhat, Jessore and Magura and increasing degrees of dirt salt and other environmental jeopardies. This has had a damaging impact on the agricultural production and livelihood sustainability of those populating in the country. A low-lying rise of 0.5 meters over the last 100 old ages has already eroded 65 percent land mass of 250 square kilometers of Kutubdia, 227 square kilometers of Bhola and 180 square kilometers of Sandwip islands.

River and coastal implosion therapy and eroding:

The IPCC Working Group II study ( 2007 ) noted that Bangladesh experienced a rise in the earnestness and frequence of inundations during 2002, 2003 and 2004 as a consequence of clime alteration. The Government of Bangladesh has estimated that about 10,000 hectares of land are lost yearly to riverbank eroding. Harmonizing to a survey by C R Abrar and S N Azad which interviewed over 200 families affected by riverbank eroding, “about one million people are straight affected by riverbank eroding each twelvemonth and landlessness in these countries could be every bit high as 70 percent” . [ 4 ]

More frequent, more intense terrible conditions events:

Climate alteration is besides projected to increase monsoon rainfall degrees and sea surface temperatures in Bangladesh, cut downing the predictability and worsening the frequence and strength of cyclones, and besides of drouths. Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan, 2008 notes that “a terrible tropical cyclone hits Bangladesh, on norm, every three years” . The most annihilating were the tropical cyclones in 1970 and 1991, which are estimated to hold killed 500,000 and 140,000 people severally ; Cyclone Sidr in 2007 led to about 3,500 human deaths. [ 5 ]

Loss of belongings and material goods:

A immense figure of people are enduring harm or loss to their belongings. Their houses have been swept off or destroyed by inundations or eroding. Villagers have lost their cowss in river implosion therapy. Seeds have been swept off by inundations. Deluging and lifting sea degrees have besides damaged roads and other indispensable substructure, farther restricting economic chances.

Loss and debasement of agricultural land:

The land is being lost due to lifting sea degrees and eroding. Climate alteration predict that in the following decennaries immense sums of farther land could be lost in this manner. Other land is going unproductive due to temperature rises and increased salt. This is doing agricultural end product to fall, as a consequence of which nutrient insecurity is turning.

Increased unemployment:

The loss and debasement of land is go forthing many people without agencies of back uping themselves economically. Due to unemployment is lifting. Unemployment is besides fuelled by the growing of runt agriculture, because runt farms employ many fewer people.

Decrease in the handiness of H2O and prevalence of diseases:

Due to climate alteration, some H2O beginnings have been contaminated due to increased salinization. The demand to happen H2O topographic points a peculiar strain on adult females, since they are normally responsible for supplying the household with H2O and nutrient..The diminution in the handiness of fresh H2O is taking to increased disease as people drink contaminated H2O. Flood H2O is besides pulling mosquitoes that carry malaria and dandy fever febrility

Tension over land, belongings and H2O resources:

There is increased competition for entree to, and control of, land to utilize for farming. In peculiar, incidences were reported of clangs between agricultural husbandmans and shrimp farm workers fuelled by bitterness over the impact that runt agriculture had on agricultural supports. Where H2O in one country has been contaminated, dwellers are forced to trust on other H2O beginnings, which can take to tenseness and even force as different groups compete for entree to H2O.

Disputes over land:

Competition over land induces by high degrees of physical insecurity and struggles were reported in finish countries. There is peculiarly ferocious competition for government-owned khas land, which has led to force in some instances. In one country, local packs were curtailing entree to land and demanding money for rent. There have besides been clangs in response to efforts by vested involvements and landholders to catch land and/or forcibly evict migrators.

Competition for entree to H2O:

There is increasing competition for H2O. This leads to clangs between groups and forces many people to go long distances to happen H2O. Most migrators end up in urban slums, peculiarly in Dhaka, and there is some grounds that this changeless inflow of people is lending to lifting offense and insecurity in these countries.

Figure: Climate Change and its impacts on population.

It is loosely recognized that Bangladesh is really vulnerable to these alterations.Indeed, it has internationally been argued that Bangladesh as a state may endure the most terrible impacts from clime alteration. It experiences frequent natural catastrophes, which cause loss of life, harm to substructure and economic assets, and adversely impacts on lives and supports particularly hapless people.