An Important Part Of Agriculture Biology Essay

Gardening is an of import portion of agribusiness. The first definition of gardening included those harvests usually cultivated in gardens such as flowers, veggies, fruits and ornamentals. These harvests became known as “ gardening harvests ” and were separated from field harvests such s maize, wheat and cotton. The word gardening comes from Latin intending “ the cultivation of gardens. ” The “ hanging gardens ” of Babylon ( one of the seven admirations of the ancient universe ) is a good illustration of the influence of gardening.

Today, gardening is the production of fruits, veggies, flowers, and ornamentals on a big scale footing and includes many services which promote the direction, production and selling of horticultural harvests.

There are three major Fieldss in gardening. Pomology is the production, processing and distribution of fruit harvests. Olericulture is the production of vegetable harvests. Flower gardening is the cultivation and direction of ornamentals and blooming workss.

Horticultural harvests are classified in to six classs viz. Fruit Crops, Vegetable Crops, Spices and Condiments, Plantation Crops, Flower Crops and Medicinal and Aromatic Plants.

Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruit harvests like Banana, Mango, Citrus, Grapes, Guava, Sapota, Papaya, Ber, Pomegranate, Fig, Custard apple, Pineapple, Mangosteen, Amla, Phalsa, Avocado, etc.

Fruit Crops which come up good under cool temperature and high heights are known as temperature fruits.

Vegetable Crops

The major vegetable harvests are Tapiaco, Onion, Tomato, Brinjal, Potato, Lablab, Drumstick, and etcetera.

Spices & A ; Condiments

Spices & A ; Condiments form a really of import group of gardening harvests from the point of position of high income coevals and foreign exchange net incomes through exports. The of import spices harvests are Chillies, Pepper, Turmeric, Tamarind, Cardamom, Cloves, etc. ,

Plantation Crops

Plantation Crops are location specific. They can non be raised at every topographic point. They by and large come up good at higher lift where in there is an ample rainfall and high humidness. Plantation Crops are ideally taken up on hill swills or in vales. The of import Plantation Crops grown are Tea, Coffee, Rubber, Cashew, etc.

Flowers

The major country under domestic flower is with traditional flowers like Jasmine, Crossandra, Tuberose, Chrysanthemum, etc. Changing climatic conditions in the hill ranges and fields offer good range for the production of different assortments of flower harvests.

Medicinal & A ; Aromatic Plants

There is huge range for increasing the country in the coming old ages due to possible export value of Medicinal & A ; Aromatic Plants. The of import Medicinal & A ; Aromatic Plants are grown are lemon grass, senna, etc

Improved Production Practices

The of import things that we need to cognize about gardening harvests are as follows:

A· Land/site choice: To take into history harvest version to dirty, clime and market considerations.

A· Seed/cultivar pick: Beginnings of seed, features of good seed, advantages of utilizing high quality seed, adaptability, market suitableness, seasonal version, opposition to diseases, disadvantages of utilizing recycled seeds.

A· Nursery Management: Nursery as an intensive attention unit, baby’s room demands – site choice, rotary motion, good sanitation, irrigation, fertiliser demands, plague and disease direction.

A· Land readying for veggies: Importance of good joust, different cultivated land systems raised beds, farrows, level beds, rudimentss. Suitability of cultivated land systems harmonizing to season, dirt types, irrigation methods severally.

A· Fertilizers: Beginnings of foods – organic ( compost, green and cattle manures ) and inorganic fertilisers. Alimentary demands of veggies determine outputs and quality. The importance of utilizing fertilizers in relation to amount, timing and arrangement should be understood. Options for bettering dirt birthrate utilizing green manure harvests, com station and farm animal manure. Handling manure and application of manure. The construct of Integrated Plant Nutrition Systems is necessary. The construct aims at keeping or seting of dirt birthrate and works alimentary supply to prolong a coveted degree of harvest production. This is to be achieved through the followers:

a. Balanced usage of mineral fertilizers combined with organic and biological beginnings of works foods.

B. Improving and keeping the stock of works foods in the dirts.

c. Improving efficiency usage of works foods by avoiding losingss to the environment.

A· Spacing: The importance of utilizing optimal spacing for high outputs is necessary.

A· Crop rotary motion: The deductions of good harvest rotary motions to understate plagues and disease construct up and to heighten dirt birthrate.

A· Irrigation:

The maps of H2O in horticultural harvests.

Moisture demands for different harvests and critical growing phases to avoid wet emphasis.

Soil wet direction in the baby’s room and direct seeded harvests such as okra, beans and peas.

Use of mulch to conserve dirt wet.

A· Staking: The importance if venturing tomatoes to avoid diseases.

A· Pruning: Essential to heighten fruit quality in indeterminate tomato cultivars.

A· Pest and disease direction: This is the biggest job in vegetable production. Proper plague and disease designation is necessary. The construct of incorporate pest direction should be applied. Integrated attack to pest/disease direction affecting cultural, biological, cultivar opposition and usage of pesticides. Effectss of cultural techniques on plagues and diseases should be understood. Chemical control of vegetable plagues and diseases should be understood. Judicious usage of pesticide, effects of pesticides on environment and worlds.

A· Weeding: The importance of weeding should be emphasised to avoid competition for infinite, foods, H2O. Certain weeds like Nicandra are alternate hosts for ruddy spidermites.

A· Post crop handling: Proper reaping methods, clip of crop, attention in handling of green goods, usage of field storage sheds, proper packaging stuffs, intervention of green goods and scaling of green goods.

A· Marketing of horticultural harvests: Selling determinations should be made before seting the harvest. Some selling schemes include ; cognizing the market demands, when to sale, timing, off-season production, formation of association for better bargaining, formation of selling yearss to make consciousness, market research and harvest variegation.

Plantation Crops

Tea

( Camellia sinensis L. O. Kuntze. ; Camelliaceae )

Assortments

Pandian, Sundaram, Golconda, Jayaram, Evergreen, Athrey, Brookeland, BSS 1, BSS 2, BSS 3, BSS 4, BSS 5, Biclonal seed stocks and Grafts.

Dirt and clime

Tea requires good drained dirt with high sum of organic affair and pH 4.5 to 5.5. The public presentation of tea is first-class at lifts runing from 1000 – 2500 m.

Nursery

The nursery dirt should be good drained and deep loam in nature with pH of 4.5 to 4.8. The dirt and sand, which are to be used in the readying of rooting medium, should be tested for pH and nematode infestation.

Pre-treatment of rooting medium

Treating with Aluminium sulfate can cut down dirt pH. For this intent the baby’s room dirt is formed into beds of one meter breadth and about 8 centimeters height and of a convenient length. Then the beds are drenched with 2 % solution of Aluminium sulfate applied at 10 liters per 2.5 sq.m of country. Over this another bed of dirt of 8 centimeter tallness is dispersed and once more drenched with equal measure of H2O twice. Then the dirt is allowed to dry and the pH is checked before usage in the baby’s room.

Preparation of arms

Polythene arms of 150 or 200 gage and 10 centimeter breadth and 30 – 45 cm length may be used. Drainage holes may be provided. The lower 3/4 of the arms should be filled with 1:3 sand and dirt mixture and the top 1/4 with 1:1 sand and dirt mixture and staked in rows. Overhead shadiness is provided.

Choice of female parent shrub and its intervention

Healthy and smartly turning high giving up shrubs should be selected. Use to each selected shrub, 40 g of immature tea mixture 60:90 NK mixture upto 5 old ages. In add-on, apply 3 hebdomads earlier 0.5 % Al SO4+ 1 % Mg SO4 ; 2 hebdomads earlier 2 % Zn SO4 ; 1 hebdomad earlier 1 % Urea.

Preparation of film editings

Film editings are taken on April – May and August – September. Semi hard-wood film editings are prepared with one full foliage and an internode with a slanting cut at the underside.

Planting of film editings

The arms are watered exhaustively and holes are made in the dirt. The film editings are inserted in the hole and the dirt around is pressed steadfastly to avoid air space followed by irrigating. Small polythene collapsible shelters may be provided which maintain high humidness and modulate the temperature indoors. Film editings may take 10 – 12 hebdomads for rooting. After 90 yearss i.e. when all the film editings have rooted, the polythene collapsible shelter may be removed bit by bit over a period of 10 – 15 yearss.

Manuring of baby’s room

After the collapsible shelter is removed the film editings are sorted and staked. 30 g of Nursery soluble mixture of the undermentioned composing dissolved in 10 liters of H2O may be applied over an country of 4 sq.m. This should be done biweekly.

Composition of the fertiliser

Ammonium phosphate ( 20:20 )

35 parts by Wt

Potassium sulfate

15 parts by Wt

( or ) Swab

12 parts by Wt

Magnesium sulfate

15 parts by Wt

Zinc sulfate

3 parts by Wt

Entire

80 parts by Wt

Hardening of the film editings

Hardening of 4 – 6 months old immature film editings should be done by taking shade bit by bit in phases over a period of 4 – 6 hebdomads get downing from a few hours exposure to sun every twenty-four hours ab initio and widening the clip of exposure bit by bit.

Methods of seting

Single Hedge System

In this method the spacing is 1.20 ten 0.75 m suiting 10,800 plants/ha.

Double Hedge System

In this method, the spacing is 1.35 ten 0.75 ten 0.75 m suiting 13,200 plants/ha.

Season and seting

May-June or September-October. Sleeves should be opened lengthways without wounding the roots and planted in the cavity and the dirt is gently pressed.

Irrigation

Subsoil irrigation may be given for immature teas during summer months.

Manuring

Manuring should be done 2 months after seting. Phosphorous should be applied at 80 – 100 kg/ha as Rock phosphate one time in a twelvemonth by arrangement at 15 – 25 centimeter deepness upto the first pruning and thenceforth one time in two old ages. Nitrogen: K ratio 2: 3 should be adapted for the first 3 old ages and a ratio 1: 1 thereafter.

Application of fertilisers should be done before the oncoming of monsoon. Fertilizers should be broadcast around the trickle circle avoiding contact with the neckband.

Aftercultivation

Control perennial grasses ( Forbicot weeds ) by spraying Glyphosate 1.75 lit + Kaoline 2 lit + 2 kilogram of wetting agent in 450 liters of H2O followed by Gramoxone 500 milliliter in 200 lit of H2O to command dicot weeds.

Training immature tea

Focus oning

To bring on more laterals focus oning should be done 3 – 5 months after seting. The chief leader root should be cut, go forthing 8 – 10 full-blown foliages.

Tiping

Tiping at a tallness of 35 centimeter from the 2nd tipping at 60 centimeter from land degree.

Sniping

To keep convenient tallness and vegetive growing and to take dead and morbid subdivisions:

Area to be pruned every twelvemonth = Total extent of the garden/Pruning rhythm

Sniping interval = ( Elevation in pess / 1000 ) + 1

Sniping should be done in April – May or August – September.

Types of pruning

Rejuvenation sniping

The whole shrub should be cut near the land degree less than 30 centimeter with a position to rejuvenate the shrubs.

Hard pruning

Formation pruning of immature tea at 30 to 45 centimeter ( 12 ” to 18 ” ) for proper spread of shrubs.

Medium pruning

To look into the shrub turning to an inconvenient tallness this type of pruning is done in order to excite new wood and to keep the leaf at lower degrees less than 60 centimeter.

Light sniping

Sniping depends on the old history of the shrub raising the tallness of medium pruning by an inch or less to manageable highs for tweaking ( less than 65 centimeter ) .

Skiffing

This is the lightest of all sniping methods. A remotion of merely the top 5 – 8 cm new growing is done so as to obtain a unvarying degree of sniping surface ( more than 65 centimeter )

Shade ordinance

Polling of shadiness trees should be done prior to heavy rains at a tallness of 8 – 10 m from the land degree.

Annual lopping

Cuting the vertical type subdivisions on the laterals in shadiness trees.

Plant protection

Scales

Spray carbaryl 50 WP @ 2 g/lit. or endosulfan 35 EC 2 ml/lit or quinalphos 25 EC 2 ml/ lit or chlorpyriphos 20 EC 2 ml/lit.

Sahydrassis/Phassus bore bit

Locate the atom mat covering at the base tea shrub and take. Insert a thick wire in the dullard hole to kill the larvae. Pour quinalphos 25 EC by an ink filler inside the borehole and shut it with damp clay.

Thripss and Aphids

Spray phosalone 35 EC or endosulfan 35 EC 2 ml/lit.

Touchs

Spray dicofol 18.5 EC 2 ml/lit or sulfur 40 WP 2 g/l or sulfur 80 WP 1 g/l.

Diseases

Blister blight

Hexagonazole 200 milliliter + Copper oxychloride 210 g 5 yearss interval/ha. Spray 210 g Copper

oxychloride and Nickel chloride per hour angle at 5 yearss interval from June – September ; 11 yearss intervals in October and November or Copper oxychloride 210 g + 200 milliliter Propiconazole/ha 10 yearss interval.

Crop continuance and crop

Plucking commences when the tea shrub is 3 old ages old. The plucking of utmost tip of the turning subdivision consists of an unopened bud together with two foliages is popularly known as “ Two foliages and a bud ” while all right plucking is anything less than this. Plucking continues throughout the twelvemonth in South at hebdomadal intervals during March – May and at intervals of 10 -14 yearss during the other months. 2 – 3 foliages with a bud – 7 to 10 yearss interval – haste period.10 – 15 yearss interval – thin period.

Output

The output of green foliages is 10 t/ha.

Coffee

( Coffea canephora Pierre ex Frechna. Coffea arabica L. ; Rubiaceae )

Assortments

Arabica assortments

Sln 795, Sln 7, Sln 9, Sln 10, Cauvery and its choices and HRC. ( Hawaian Red Cuturra )

Robusta assortments

Sln 274.

Dirt and clime

Dirt should be deep, crumbly, unfastened textured rich in works foods with plentifulness of humus and of impersonal reaction. It grows up good from 500 m to 1650 m MSL with a good distributed rainfall of 150 to 200 centimeters yearly. Definite moisture and dry season are indispensable to hold a well pronounced rhythm of blooming. A blossom shower during March – April and a back up shower during May – June is indispensable for successful harvest.

Seeds and seeding

Coffee is propagated by seeds.

Season

June – December.

Preparation of seeds

Healthy and good developed to the full mature berries are harvested from specially identified workss for usage as seed carriers. After flinging the floats, the sound fruits are depulped, sieved and assorted with sieved wood ash and dried in shadiness. The seed is so graded to take all cut, triangular and elephant beans. Prior to planting, the seeds are treated with Agrosan or any Organomercurial compound to forestall fungous infection.

Nursery patterns

Select light loamy dirt of good drainage and high organic affair content with H2O and shadiness installations. Form raised beds of 15 centimeter tallness, 1m breadth and at convenient length. Incorporate 30 – 40 kilogram of good icky compost, 2 kilogram of finely sieved agricultural calcium hydroxide and 400 g of stone phosphate to a bed of 1 ten 6 thousand size. In heavy dirts, it is necessary to add harsh sand for drainage and aeration.

Sowing

Pre-sowing seed intervention with Azospirillum and Phosphobacterium can be done. Seeds are sown in December – January in the bed 1.5 – 2.5 centimeters apart with the level side down wards in regular rows. Then they are covered with a thin bed of all right dirt and a bed of paddy straw. Water the beds day-to-day and protect from direct sunshine by an over caput pandal. Seeds germinate in approximately 45 yearss after which they are transplanted to a secondary baby’s room beds for raising ball or Bag baby’s room.

Bag baby’s room

Polythene bags with equal figure of holes in the bottom half are taken and are filled with a prepared mixture incorporating jungle dirt, FYM and in the proportion of 6:2:1. An country of 12 ten 8 m can suit 5000 seedlings. Seedlings are planted in polyethylene bags. Seeds can be treated with Phosphobacterium.

Preparation of field

Selective felling may be done while retaining a figure of desirable shadiness trees. Terracing should be done in deep slopy countries. After the summer showers, cavities of 45 centimeters x 45 centimeters x 45 centimeters are dug at 1.25 – 2.5 thousand apart. The cavities are left unfastened for enduring and so filled and heaped for seting. At the clip of filling, use 500 g of stone phosphate per cavity along with top dirt. Planting is done along the contour in slopy countries.

Planting shadiness trees

Dadap is normally used as a lower canopy shadiness. Two meter long bets are planted for every two workss of java. Silver Oak and Dadaps are planted during June when rains of South-West monsoon commences. During summer the root of immature Dadaps are painted with diluted calcium hydroxide or wrapped in agave foliages or polythene sheets in order to forestall them from Sun singe. Regulate shadiness by cutting criss-cross subdivisions during monsoon season. Silver oak trees are planted for lasting shadiness.

Spacing

Arabica Coffee: 1.5 to 2.0 m either manner.

Dwarf assortments: Sanraman: 1 x 1 m.

Robusta java: 2.5 m either manner.

Irrigation

It is by and large grown as a rainfed harvest. But irrigation with sprinkler during March -April increases flowering and consequences in higher outputs.

Aftercultivation

Weeding and mulching should be done as and when necessary. Excavation is done to a deepness of 30 centimeter towards the terminal of monsoon ( October – November ) . The weeds and vegetive dust are wholly turned under and buried in the dirt while the stumps are removed. This is known as the screen excavation. In slopy countries dig trenches on the contour 45 centimeter broad and 30 cm deep of any convenient length. Prune H2O shoots and disease affected shoots.

Plant protection – Plagues

White root bore bit

Attacks arabica java grown under unequal shadiness. Swab with 2 kilograms lindane 20 EC in 180 lit of H2O. Embroidering with monocrotophos 36 WSC 5 milliliter by doing a window in the root at 5 centimeter x 5 centimeter and make fulling it with absorbant cotton dipped in insecticide solution and shut it.

Berry bore bit

Carry out seasonably and thorough crop.

Avoid gleanings every bit far as possible.

Pick up and destruct the gleanings.

Meticulously take the remnant berries.

Remove offseason berries to salvage chief harvest.

Avoid inordinate shadiness.

Prune workss decently to ease better airing and light.

Spray endosulfan 35 EC @ 340 ml/200 lit or lamda cyhalothrin 5 EC 120 – 160 milliliter / 200 lit.

Note: The approximative clip is 120 – 150 yearss after blooming. However determination on pesticide application to be done by closely watching the pest incidence. Set up traps with ethyl: methyl intoxicant ( 1: 1 ) to pull grownups. While treating at the estate degree dry java berries to the prescribed wet degree: Arabica / robusta parchment 10 % , Arabica cherry 10.5 % and robusta cherry 11.0 % .

Shot hole bore bit beetle

It attacks subdivisions and chumps of robusta java. This pest thrives under heavy shadiness and can be controlled by sniping the subdivisions and spraying with endosulfan 35 EC 2 ml/lit.

Cockchafer beetles/White chow

Systemic insect powder like phorate 10 G can be applied.

Green graduated tables and mealy bugs

Spray quinalphos 25 EC 2 ml/lit or fenthion 100 EC 1 ml/lit or fenitrothion 50 EC1 ml/lit. Release coccinellid marauder Cryptolaemus montrouzieri @ 300 beetles/ acre. Spray Verticillium lecanii @ 6 x 106 spores/ml.

Diseases

Rust

Spray 0.5 % Bordeaux mixture in February – March ( Pre-bloom ) followed by 0.03 % Oxycarboxin in May – June ( Pre-monsoon ) . Repeat in July – August ( mid-monsoon ) September – October ( Post-monsoon ) with any one of the above antifungals or Spray 0.5 % Bordeaux mixture during the month of June followed by 0.02 % Triadionefon during September and 0.5 % Bordeaux mixture during the month of December.

Black putrefaction or Koleroga

Focus oning and handling of the shrubs should be done prior to the oncoming of South-West monsoon. Remove affected branchlets. Spray 1 % of Bordeaux mixture during interruption in monsoon.

Collar putrefaction

Treat seeds with Carbendazim 1 g/kg or Carboxin 0.7 g/kg. Maintain filtered shadiness in baby’s room. Drench nursery beds with Mancozeb or Captan 0.5 g/lit before sowing.

Brown oculus topographic point

Spray Captan or Mancozeb or Ferbam 2 g/lit or Carbendazim 0.5 g/lit in September.

Black root putrefaction

Dig out and fire septic shrubs. Dig a trench 30 centimeter deep around affected topographic point along with a ring of healthy shrubs. Snip the healthy shrubs within and outside the trench to let sunshine. Keep the trench free from fallen foliages. Do non replant for 18 months.

Harvest

Harvest starts during November and reaping extends upto February. Coffee fruits should be harvested as and when they become mature. Coffee is merely mature when on gently squashing the fruits the beans inside come out easy. Green fruits should be conscientiously sorted out before utilizing the fruits for pulping. They may be dried individually as cherry.

Output

Dry parchment 750 – 1000 kg/ha.

Rubber

( Hevea brasiliensis Muell-Arg. ; Euphorbiaceae )

Assortments

Tjir 1, PB 86, BD 5, BD 10, PR 17, GT 1, RRII 105, RRIM 600, PB 28/59, PB 217, PB 235, RRIM 703, RRII 5, PCK-1, 2 and PB 260.

Dirt and clime

It requires deep and fertile dirt with pH of 4.5 to 6.0.

Season

June – July.

Method of extension

Propagated by green budding, brown budding and crown budding.

Planting

In the cleared forest country, cavities at 1 m x 1 m x 1 m are dug and filled up with dirt and compost. The spacing of 3 ten 2 m or 5 ten 5 m are adapted.

Seed at interest planting

Germinated seeds are sown in situ in the cavities. Healthy 1s are retained and the others removed.

Manuring

For immature gum elastic trees at pre-tapping phase

Apply 12 kilograms of compost or FYM and 120 g of stone phosphate in each cavity before planting.

Apply 10:10:4:1.5 NPK and Mg as per agenda given below:

Apply 400 kilograms of mixture per hour angle in 2 doses, one time in April/May and another in September/October from the 5th twelvemonth till the tree is ready for tapping.

Matured gum elastic trees under tapping

Apply NPK 12:6:6 mixture at the rate of 400 kg/ha every twelvemonth in two split doses.

Add 10 kg commercial Magnesium sulfate for every 100 kilogram of the above mixture if there is magnesium lack.

Aftercultivation

Turning of screen harvests, incorporation of screen harvests and weeding are of import operations. Pueraria phaseoloides, Calopagonium muconoides, Centrosema pubescens and Desmodium evalifolium are common screen harvests.

Taping

Trees attain tappable phase in about 7 old ages. First tapping in seedling trees will get down when the bole attains a girth of 55 centimeter at 50 centimeters height from the land. In budded trees the girth should be 50 centimeter at 125 centimeters height from the bud brotherhood.

Ethrel intervention

Ethrel is recommended to increase latex output of trees tapped on panel D. It is applied at 5 % a.i. concentration with a coppice below the tapping cut to a breadth of 5 centimeter after light scraping of the outer bark. The first application may be done after a drought period sooner after a few pre-monsoon showers and subsequent applications may be done in September and November. However, uninterrupted application of Ethrel is non recommended for periods of more than 3 old ages at a stretch.

Plant protection – Plagues

Scale insect

When terrible infestation is noticed, spray organophosphorus insect powders like Malathion 50 EC 2 ml/lit.

Mealy bug

Spray fish oil resin – soap 25 g/lit. Release Australian lady bird beetle, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri @ 10/tree.

Termite ( White emmet )

Swamp the dirt at the base of affected workss with chlorpyriphos 20 EC 2 ml/litre.

Cockchafer chow

Drench dirt at the base of workss in the affected country with the solution of chlorpyriphos 20 EC 2 ml/litre.

Touchs

Spray sulphur 50 WP at 2 g/lit or spray dicofol 18.5 EC 2.5 ml/lit.

Diseases

Abnormal foliage autumn

Contraceptive crop-dusting of the leaf prior to the oncoming of South-West monsoon with, Bordeaux mixture 1 % at 4000 – 5000 lit/ha utilizing high volume sprayers. Oil based Copper oxychloride dispersed in dilutant spray oil using either low volume air blast sprayers ( Micron 420 or Minimicron 77 or Shaw Duster Sprayer ) from the land or through aerial application. For micrometer crop-dusting on the tree spread, leaf strength, seting stuff used and age of workss, two unit of ammunitions of spray utilizing approximately 17 to 22 lit of fungicide oil mixture per hour angle per unit of ammunition ( 1:6 proportion ) with spread of 10 to 15 yearss or a individual unit of ammunition of spray with about 30 – 37 lit of fungicide oil mixture per hour angle ( 1:5 proportion ) may be necessary.

Secondary foliage autumn

The control measures suggested for unnatural foliage autumn will look into this disease besides.

Powdery mold

Dusting during the defoliation period get downing from the bud interruption in approximately 10 % of the trees, giving 3 to 5 unit of ammunitions at hebdomadal to biweekly intervals before 10.00 a.m. utilizing 11 to 14 kilograms 325 mesh all right Sulphur dust per unit of ammunition per hour angle. Sulphur dust can be assorted with talc in the proportion of 7:3. Wettable sulfur ( 1 kilogram in 4000 lit of H2O ) is besides effectual in baby’s rooms and for immature workss as a spray.

Bird ‘s oculus topographic point

Repeated crop-dustings with Bordeaux mixture 1 % or Mancozeb or Copper oxychloride 0.2 % . Provide shade in baby’s room. Give balanced manuring to increase tree energies.

Leaf topographic point

Spray 1 % Bordeaux mixture or 0.2 % Mancozeb, or 0.1 % Carbendazim at biweekly intervals.

Pink disease

Carry out frequent tree to corner review during July – September period for observing the septic trees and application of Bordeaux paste in the early phases upto 30 centimeters above and below the affected part. In advanced instances apply Bordeaux paste and when it dries up scraping off the superficial mycelium and damaged bark and use Bordeaux paste one time once more. Prune off and fire the dried up subdivisions after disinfecting by Bordeaux crop-dusting.

Patch canker or Bark cankers

The affected part may be scraped to take all the rooting bark and the curdled gum elastic and the lesion washed good with solution. When the antifungal dries up apply wound dressing compound. Dry Rot, Stump Rot, Collar Rot or Charcoal Rot

Clean up affected countries, by rinsing with Carbendazim ( 0.1 % ) solution. Scrape out the fructifications. Affected bark and wood show black lines. Wash the lesion once more with fungicide solution. When it dries up use a lesion dressing compound. Avoid accretion of gum elastic at the base of the trees. For root infection see the intervention for brown root disease.

Brown root disease

Open up the root system. Wholly killed and dried roots may be traced and pruned. Partially affected and healthy roots washed with Carbendazim ( 0.1 % ) solution. When the antifungal dries up, a thin coating with a lesion dressing compound may be given. Replenish the dirt and swamp the base with fungicide solution.

Output

Rubber yield steeply additions twelvemonth by twelvemonth, making a extremum after 14 old ages of planting.

In South India, the one-year output of gum elastic is 375 kg/ha from seedlings trees, whereas budded workss yield 800 – 1000 kg/ha.

Cashewnut

( Anacardium occidentale L. ; Anacardiaceae )

Assortments: VRI 1, VRI 2, VRI 3 and VRI 4.

Dirt and clime: It grows up good in all dirts. Red flaxen loam is best suited. Plains every bit good as hill slopes upto 600 – 700 pess lift are suited.

Season: June – December.

Propagation: Soft wood grafting, air bed and epicotyl grafting.

Requirement of workss: 200 plants/ha.

Preparation of field: Pits of 45 centimeters x 45 centimeters x 45 cm size are dug and filled up with a mixture of dirt + 10 kilogram FYM + one kilogram neem bar and 100 g Lindane 1.3 % .

Spacing: 7 m either manner.

Manuring ( per tree )

Fertilizer application may be done during November – December in the East Coast countries. Wherever possible the fertiliser can be applied in 2 equal split doses during June-July and October-November periods.

Intercropping

Plough the interspaces after the reception of rain and raise either Indian potato or pulsations or minor millets till the trees reach bearing age.

Training and pruning

Develop the bole to a tallness of 1 m by taking low lying subdivisions.

The dried branchlets and subdivisions should be removed every twelvemonth.

Plant protection – Plagues

Stem borer – Collection and devastation of affected shoots

Swabing the bark of open roots and shoots with carbaryl 50 WP 2 g/lit. Twice a twelvemonth before the oncoming of South West Monsoon ( March – April ) and after surcease of monsoon ( November ) picture of coal pitch + kerosine mixture ( 1:2 ) or swobing with a suspension of carbaryl 50 WP ( 4 g/lit ) upto one meter length in the open bole part after shaving the bark. Root feeding with monocrotophos 36 WSC 10 milliliter + 10 milliliter of H2O kept in a polyethylene bag on one side of the tree and maintain the same sum on the other side of the tree ( Entire 20 ml/tree ) divided into two equal halves will give protection when there is moderate incidence. Swab the bole with lindane 20 EC 1 ml/lit or carbaryl 50 WP 500 g in 20 lit of H2O.

Tea mosquito bug

Spray endosulfan 35 EC 2 ml/lit thrice ; foremost at the clip of outgrowth of new flowers, the 2nd at flowered formation and the 3rd at fruit-set.

Shoot caterpillars

Spray endosulfan 35 EC 2 ml/lit.

Root bore bit

Pour monocrotophos 10 ml/tree in the dullard holes split into two halves ( insecticide 5 milliliter + 5 ml H2O ) .

Diseases

Die back or Pink disease

Prune the affected shoots merely below the affected part and use Bordeaux paste. Spray 1 % Bordeaux mixture or Cu Oxychloride 0.25 % twice i.e. in May – June and once more in October as a contraceptive step.

Harvest

The peak picking months are March and May. Good nuts are gray green, smooth and good filled. After picking, the nuts are separated from the apple and dried in the Sun for two to three yearss to convey down the wet content to 10 to 12 % . Properly dried nuts are packed in alkathene bags. This will maintain for 6 months.

Output

3 – 4 kg/tree/year.

Arecanut

( Areca catechu L. ; Palmae )

Assortments

Mangala, Sumangala, Subamangala, Mohitnagar, Srimangala and Samruthi ( Andaman )

Dirt and clime

Arecanut is capable of turning in a assortment of dirts. It thrives best in good drained dirts. Adequate protection from exposure to South-Western Sun is indispensable to avoid sun-scorch. Quick turning shadiness trees have to be planted on the southern and western sides good in progress of seting seedlings. It is sensitive to moisture shortage and should be grown where equal H2O installations are available.

Season

June – December.

Seeds and seeding

For raising seedlings seed nuts from pre-marked and pre-potent female parent thenars of outstanding public presentation are selected and sown at a spacing of 5 – 6 cm apart in sand beds under partial shadiness with their stalk terminal pointing upwards. After the sprouts have produced two to three foliages, they are transplanted to a polyethylene bag 30 ten 10 centimeter filled with forest dirt and are allowed to turn for 12 to 18 months under partial shadiness. The seedlings can besides be transplanted in secondary baby’s room beds with a spacing of 30 centimeter on either side. Periodic lacrimation should be given.

Planting

Dwarf and compact seedlings with more figure of foliages should be selected. Seedlings of 1 – 2 old ages age are planted in cavities of about 90 centimeters x 90 centimeters x 90 centimeter at a spacing of 2.75 m either manner and covered with dirt to the collar degree and pressed about. Provide shade during summer months. Turning Banana or other harvests in progress may besides supply shadiness.

Irrigation

Irrigation should be given as and when necessary.

Manuring

Use to each bearing thenar ( 5 old ages and supra ) 10 – 15 kilogram of FYM or green foliage. 100 g N, 40 g P and 150 g K. To handle less than five old ages old, half of the above dosage is recommended. Manures are applied during January – February after the North – East monsoon in a basin of 0.75-1.00 m radius around the tree to a deepness of 20 – 30 centimeter.

Aftercultivation

Weeding is done twice or thrice a twelvemonth by giving mammutti delving. Wherever the land is slopy terrassing has to be done to forestall dirt eroding.

Plant protection – Plagues

Touchs

Dicofol 18.5 EC at 2.5 ml/lit.

Spindle bug

The bugs of the spindles may be given a soaking spray with lindane 1.3 D @ 2.5 g/lit of H2O.

Blossoming caterpillars

Spray with lindane 20 EC 2 ml/lit or WP @ 2.5 g in one liter of H2O.

Diseases

Bud putrefaction or Mahali disease

Infected tissues of the bud should be scooped away and treated with 10 % Bordeaux paste. Destruction and remotion of seed thenars and besides Bunches affected by Mahali and swamping Crowns of environing healthy thenars with 1 % Bordeaux mixture would assist in understating the incidence of the disease.

Foot putrefaction or anabe

Affected thenars have to be isolated by delving trenches all about. The badly affected thenars should be cut and destroyed. The stumps should be pulled out by delving and the drainage improved. Root feeding with 125 milliliters of 1.5 % ( 15 ml/litre of H2O ) Tridemorph at 3 months interval

Root interrupting

Wraping up of the green part of the root which are exposed to the South- West Sun to protect against sun-scorch.

Harvest

The bearing starts after 5 old ages of planting. Nuts are harvested when they are three quarters ripe. The figure of crops will change from three to five in one twelvemonth depending upon the season and topographic point of cultivation.

Output 1250 kg/ha.

Cocoa

( Theobroma cacao L. ; Sterculiaceae )

Assortments: Criollo, Forestero and Trinitario.

Dirt and clime: Potash rich alluvial dirts crumbly in nature with high humus and wet keeping with a pH of 6.6 – 7.0 are suited. Cocoa is usually cultivated at heights upto 1200 m with an one-year rainfall of 150 centimeter and a comparative humidness of 80 % and one-year average temperature of 240 C to 250 C. Cocoa can be grown as intercrop in coconut and arecanut gardens.

Season: June – July and September – October.

Seeds and sowing: Cocoa is usually propagated by seed. Before seeding the seeds the mush adhering to the seeds has to be removed. Cocoa seeds are separately sown in polybags shortly after extraction. The bags are filled with surface dirt and sub-soil assorted with compost, foliage mold and fertilisers. Nursery workss are ready for transfering at 6 months of age when they attain a tallness of 60 centimeter.

Planting: Seedlings are transplanted with a ball of Earth in 45 centimeter x 45 centimeters x 45 centimeter cavities at a spacing of 3 x3 m either manner. Periodic mulching with foliages and lacrimation should be done. Temporary shadiness has to be provided.

Irrigation: Irrigation should be given as and when necessary. During summer months irrigation should be given one time in three yearss.

Manuring: Trees of 3 old ages of age and above are manured with 100 g N, 40 g P and 140 g K per tree in two split doses during April – May and August – September. Trees younger than three old ages may be applied with half of this dosage.

Aftercultivation: Weeding is done as and when necessary. The unproductive shoots, dead, morbid branchlets should be removed sporadically. Banana is better as a primary shadiness works in the early old ages of plantation. For lasting sunglassess Jack, Silver Oak, etc. are planted.

Plant protection – Plagues

Mealy Bug: Spray phosphamidon 40 SL 2 ml/lit or dimethoate 2 ml/lit at biweekly intervals.

Release coccinellid marauder Cryptolaemus montrouzieri @ 10 tree.

Aphids: Spray dimethoate 35 EC 1 ml/lit at monthly intervals.

Grey Weevil: Spray phosphamidon 40 SL 2 ml/lit.

Hairy caterpillar: Dust lindane 1.3 D or spray lindane 20 EC 2ml/lit.

Semilooper: Dust lindane 1.3 D.

Diseases

Black cod disease: Spray 1 % Bordeaux mixture or 0.2 % Mancozeb or Copper oxychloride at 20 yearss interval.

Dieback disease: The disease can be controlled by spraying 1 % Bordeaux mixture.

Charcoal disease: Spray with 1 % Bordeaux mixture.

Pink disease: Prune the affected subdivisions and swob the cut ends on a regular basis with 1 % Bordeaux mixture.

Crop: Bearing starts from 4th twelvemonth but economic output starts from 6th twelvemonth onwards. The season of crop is November – December and May – June.

Output: The output ranges from 500 – 1000 kilogram of dry beans/ha.

Betelvine

( Piper betel ; Piperaceae )

Assortments: Karpurakodi, Kallarkodi, Revesi, Karpuri and SGM 1.

Dirt and clime: Well drained fertile clay loams are suited. It does non digest saline and alkalic conditions. Betelvines require a cool shadiness, considerable humidness and regular supply of wet in the dirt.

Seeds and sowing: The vines are propagated by terminal root cutting or setts about 30 – 45 centimeter long. Setts obtained from the top parts of the vines are easy to root and therefore best for seting. Number of setts 1,00,000/ha. Cobble with vigorous apical buds and nodal adventitious roots are selected and planted at the base of the unrecorded supports, which are to be planted 4 to 5 months before.

Season: November – December and January – February.

Preparation of field: The field is prepared to a all right tilth and beds of 2 m broad are formed to a convenient length. Provide drainage trenches of 0.5 m width by 0.5 m deepness in between two bordering beds. Plant the seeds of the unrecorded supports i.e. Agathi ( Sesbania grandiflora ) in long rows. About 750 banana chumps are planted at the borders of the beds, which are used, for binding the vines on the unrecorded support and for packing the betel foliage. When the Agathi supports grow to a tallness about 4 m they are topped. The harvest is planted in two rows in beds of 180 centimeters width on Agathi workss with a spacing of 45 centimeters between workss in the row.

Irrigation: Water the field instantly after seting and afterwards one time in a hebdomad.

Aftercultivation

Training of the unrecorded Standards: Before the constitution of vines the side subdivisions of Agathi trees upto a tallness of 2 m are removed for early crawl of the vines.

Training of the vines: Training is done by repairing the vine at intervals of 15 to 20 centimeters along the criterions slackly with the aid of banana fiber. Training is done every 15 – 20 yearss depending upon the growing of vines.

Lowering of vines: Under normal cultivation conditions the vines grow upto a tallness of 3 m in one twelvemonth. When they reach this height their energy to bring forth normal size foliage are reduced and they need greening by take downing during March – April. After the vine is lowered a figure of tillers jumping up from the nodes at the decompression sicknesss of the coiled vines at the land degree and bring forth many primary vines. After each take downing irrigation should be given.

Manuring: Use 150 kilogram N/ha/year through Neem bar ( 75 kilograms N ) and Urea ( 75 kilograms N ) and 100 kilogram P2O5 through Super phosphate and 30 kilogram Muriate of potassium hydroxide in three split doses foremost at 15 yearss after raising the vines and 2nd and 3rd dosage at 40 – 45 yearss intervals. Use on beds shade dried neem foliage or Calotrophis leaves at 2 t/ha and cover it with clay ( 2 T in 2 split doses ) .

Plant protection – Plagues

Scale insects: Choice scale-free seed vines. Spray chlorpyriphos 20 EC 2 ml/lit when one or two graduated tables are noticed on the radical part of the stem/leaves. Direct the spray solution to the radical part of the vines. Spray NSKE 5 % or Malathion 50 EC 1 ml/lit.

Touchs ( Sevvattai ) : Spray wettable sulfur 50 WP @ 1 g/lit or dicofol 18.5 EC 0.5 ml/lit.

Sooty mould ( Aphids ) : To command aphids spray chlorpyriphos at 2 ml/lit on Agathi foliages. Clip off extra Agathi leaves.

Mealy bugs: Spray chlorpyriphos 20 EC at 2 ml/lit or dimethoate 30 EC 2ml/lit. Concentrate the spray towards the collar part.

Nematode: Application of Neem cake at 1 t/ha or chopped and shade dried Calotrophis leaves at 2.5 t/ha to dirt, after take downing the vines.

Diseases

Phytophthora Wilt:

Integrated method for the direction of Phytophthora wilt.

Select good matured ( more than 1 twelvemonth old ) seed vines free from plague and diseases.

Soak the seed vines for about 30 proceedingss in Streptocyline 500 ppm or Bordeaux mixture 0.5 % . Use 150 kilogram N/ha/year through Neem bar ( 75 kilograms N ) and Urea ( 75 kilograms N ) and 100 kilogram P2O5 through Super phosphate and 30 kilogram Muriate of potassium hydroxide in 3 split doses foremost at 15 yearss after raising the vines and 2nd and 3rd dosage at 40 – 45 yearss intervals. Use on beds, shade dried neem foliage or Calotrophis leaves at 2 t/ha and cover it with clay ( 2 T in 2 split doses ) . Drench Bordeaux mixture 0.25 % in basins formed around the vine at monthly intervals get downing from October – January, three times soil drench and six times spray from June – July.

During winter season avoid frequent irrigation.

Remove the affected vines off from the garden and fire them.

Application of Alliette 3 g/lit 4 times at monthly intervals.

Application of Trichoderma viride @ 5 g/vine.

Bacterial foliage topographic point, blight and bacterial root putrefaction: Spray Streptocycline 400 ppm + Bordeaux mixture 0.25 % when the first disease symptoms appear. Continue spraying at 20 yearss intervals. Always spray the chemical after tweaking the foliages.

Anthracnose ( Theechal ) : Spray 0.2 % Ziram or 0.5 % Bordeaux mixture after tweaking the foliages after the first visual aspect of the symptom. The assortment Karpoori is susceptible to the disease.

Powdery mold: Spray 0.2 % Wettable sulfur after tweaking the foliages.

Crop: It depends upon the growing of the vines and market status. Once reaping starts it continues about every twenty-four hours.

Output: 75 to 100 hundred thousand leaves/ha/year.

Mentions Cited:

Introduction to Horticulture, Department of Agricultural Education, University of Georgia, Athens

The Biology of Horticulture: An Introductory Textbook, 2nd Edition, John E. Preece, Paul E. Read

Horticultural Crops, Directorate of Horticulture and Plantation Crops, TNAU.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horticulture