Reappraisal On Biological Activities OfAzadirachta indica
Neem has become valuable works in the universe which shows the solutions for 100s to 1000s jobs.Azadirachta indica( Neem ) is a quickly turning evergreen good known tree found by and large in assorted parts of universe like America, Africa and India.This reappraisal article provides information chiefly on assorted biological activities like Antiallergic, Antidermatic, Antibacterial, Antifungal, Anti-inflammatory, Insecticidal, larvicidal, Antimalarial, Antiulcer and other biological activities of nim tree works and medicative utilizations. Neem tree produces some active compounds which contains biological activities, parts of Neem tree such as Root, bark, foliage, flower, seed and fruit togetherposseses biological activities Various compounds have been obtained from assorted parts of nim tree. Some of them have been studied for biological activity.
Neem, Medicinal Uses, Biological Activity,Azadirachta indica, Antimicrobial Activity
Azadirachta indicais quickly turning evergreen works found normally in India, Africa and America [ 1 ] . It is used in Ayurvedic medical specialty from more than 400 old ages due to its medicative features. Neem is besides called as ‘Arista’ in Sanskrit, a word that means Imperishable, Perfect & A ; Complete [ 2 ] . Arista is the Sanskritname of neem tree intending ‘reliver of stickness’ & A ; hence is known as ‘sarbarogaribarini’ . In India it is known as ‘Village dispensary ’ . The importance of theAzadirachta indica( nim tree ) tree has been admitby the US National Academy of scientific disciplines which publish a study in 1992 entiteled ‘Neem-a tree for work outing planetary jobs [ 3 ] .
It gives maximal utile non-wood merchandises [ foliages, bark, , gum, oil, neem cake flowers, fruits, seed ] than any other tree species known to hold Antiallergic, Antifungal, Antibiotic, Antidermatic, Antibacterial, Anti-inflammatory, Insecticidal, Larvicidal, Antimalarial, Antiulcer & A ; other biological activities. Because of there activities neem has found several applications doing it a green hoarded wealth [ 3 ] .
The phytochemical showing has been under taken by assorted research workers in different states of the universe. The photoconstituents i.e. alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids and saponins are antibiotic rules of neem workss. These antibiotic rules are really the protective mechanism of the workss against different pathogens ( Hafiza, 2000 ) . [ 4 ] .
Neem tree used to give intervention of a assortment of physical oilments such as bosom disease, diabetes, blood upsets, digestive and nervous upsets, parasites and perchance malignant neoplastic disease. Furthermore, Neem may besides be used every bit spermicidal every bit good as gargle.
Taxonomic place of neem-
- Order: – Rutales
- Suborder: – Rutinal
- Family: – Maliaceae
- Subfamily: – Melioideae
- Tribe: – Melieae
- Genus: – Azadirachta
- Speciess: – Indica
Biological Activities of Neem Plant-
- Antibacterial Activity: –
Methanolic infusion ofA.Indica( nim tree ) leaves was tested for its antibacterial, antisecretory and antihemarrhagic activity against vibrio cholera [ 5 ] . The hexane trichloromethane and methanol infusions ofAzadirachta indicawere screened for antibacterial activity againstEscherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis Enterococcus faecalisandStreptococcus faecalis. It was reported that methyl alcohol infusion was the most effectual, chloroform reasonably effectual and hexane infusion showed low antibacterial activity [ 6 ] .
Oil extracted from foliages, seeds and bark gives a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity action against gm positive and gram negative micro-organisms includingM. TBand streptomycin immune strains ( Chopraet Al1956 ) . The photoconstituents like alkaloids, spooning, steroids, tennis, petroleum glycosides and flavonoids of neem workss was tested for antibacterial activity against infective strains ofE.coli, Corynebacterium bovisandStaphylococcus aureus. [ 4 ] . The results were besides supported by Hymeteet. Al( 2005 ) they reported that flavonoids compounds have antimicrobic activity. Hafizaet Al( 2002 ) reported that petroleum saponins besides prevent the growing of the bugs.
Metabolic infusion and one tonic infusions of foliages ofAzadirachtaindicawere screened for antibacterial activity against two different bacterial strains i.e. E. coli and B. subtilus and it was reported that methanolic works extracts showed maximal antibacterial activity as compared to acetonic works infusions. [ 7 ] . El-Mahmood et Al ( 2010 ) observed the antibacterial effects of rough infusions of neem seed against infective involved in the infection of eyes and ear. The pure, Ethanol, propanone and methanol infusions of nim trees were screened against bacterial strains i.e.Ecolab,B. captions,Salmonella typhus,Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus auric, andKlebsiellapneumoniaeandStaphylococcus epidermitisfor assorted antibacterial activity.
They reported that the neem infusions of propanone showed the maximal antibacterial activity as compared to other siolvent infusions [ 8 ] . Neemseed oil gives disinfectant activity against 14 infective bacterial strains [ 9 ] . Crude aqueous and solvent infusions of nim trees were tried against 20 infective bacterial strains, wherein petroleum infusions shows better results [ 10 ] . Ethanolic infusions of neem foliages and stick of neem works were screened for antibacterial activity onstreptococci mutansand it was reported that neem stick infusions had higher antibacterial belongingss than the foliages infusions. [ 11 ] .
- Fungicidal Activity: –
The aqueous and ethanolic infusions ofAzadirachta indicafoliages have been shown to hold antidermatophytic activity when tested in vitro against 88 clinical isolates of dermatophytes utilizing the agar dilution technique. The activity was more conspicuous in ethanolic infusion as compared to that in aqueous infusion [ 12 ] . Antifungal features was tested utilizing methanolic and acetone infusions ofAzadirachta indicaagainst two different fungous strains i.e.Aspergillus NigerandAspergillusfumigatusand it was reported that methanolic works extract gives maximal fungicidal activity as compared to acetonic infusions [ 7 ] . The seed and leaf infusions ofAzadirachta indica( Neem ) were tested for fungicidal activity against dermatophytes and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration ( MIC ) of neem seed infusions was found to be lower than that of neem foliage when tested against different species ofTrichophytonandEpidermatophyton floccosum[ 13 ] .
Antifungal activity of aqueous ethanolic and ethyl propanone infusions of neem foliages on growing of some human pathogens.Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicansAspergillus terreus, Aspergillus fumigates, Aspergillus Niger,andMicrosporum, gypseumin vitro utilizing different concentration and it was reported that these infusions prevented the growing of the trial pathogens and the consequence bit by bit increased with addition in concentration [ 14 ] . Gedunin isolated from neem seed oil has been reported to hold fungicidal activity [ 15 ] .Sulphur incorporating compounds such as cyclic trisulphide and tetrasulphide isolated from the root distillation of fresh, matured neem foliages shows fungicidal activity againstTrichophyton mentagrophytes[ 16 ] .
- Antimalarial Activity: –
Ball shaped wood scrapings which is soaked in 5 % neem oil (Azadirachta indica) diluted in propanone and placed in H2O storage overheadtanks controlled the genteelness of Anopheless stephensi and Aedess aegypti in 45 yearss [ 17 ] . Nimbolide isolated from neem infusions shows the antimalarial activity by forestalling the growing of plasmodium falciparum [ 18 ] . Gedunin isolated from neem seed oil has been reported to demo antimalarial activities [ 19 ] . Both aqueous and alcohol infusions of bark and foliages of nim trees are effectual antimalarial agents, peculiarly on chloroquine immune strains ( badamet Al1987 ) [ 20 ] .
- Antitumor and Antiviral Activity: –
Scientist in India, Europe and Japan have now found that limonoids and polyoses found in neem seed oil, bark and leaves reduced tumours and malignant neoplastic diseases and revealed effectivity against lymphocytic leukaemia. Mitotic suppression activity by the foliage infusion was abserved. Several decisions have besides highlighted the marked antiviral consequence of aqueous infusion of neem foliages against Small Pox, Fowl Pox, Polio and HSVas assessed by virus bar check ( 98-100 ) . Aqueous infusions of neem foliage and a fraction from neem oil ( Nim-76 ) have besides been reported to stamp down HIV and Polio Viruses [ 21 ] .
- Anti-inflammatory, Antipyretic and Analgesic Activities: –
The trichloromethane infusion of root bark shows effectivity against carrageenan – induced pawaedema in rat and mouse ear Inflammation. Inflammatory stomatitis in kids is treated by the bark infusion. Antipyretic activity has been reported in neem oil. A methanol infusion of the foliages exerts antipyretic consequence in male coneies. The works besides shows analgetic activity mediated through opioid receptors in research lab animate beings. Antipyretic and Anti-inflammatory activities in assorted infusions have been reviewed [ 3 ] .
- Male Antifertility Activity: –
The neem seed oil ( NSO ) and leaf infusions used as powerful spermatocide and significantly prevented spermatogenesis, reduced sperm mobility, count and surcease of birthrate. These conditions were reversed by the backdown of neem merchandises 4-6 hebdomads subsequently. No Indicative or of import consequence on loss of libidoor authority. Furthermore, NSO possess aborticide and anti-implantation belongingss. Sinha et Al ( 1984 ) found sperm cell of human and Macaca mulatta monkey were nonmotile and decease within 30 proceedingss of contact with NSO in an intravaginal dosage of 1 milliliter. Vaginal biopsy showed no side consequence, while radio-isotope surveies indicate non-absorption in the vagina and non-antiovulatory ( sinhaet Al1984 ) . These findings enabled neem oil preparation “sensal” which is used as a powerful preventive in India [ 20 ] .
- Antiulcer Activity: –
A important antiulcer consequence was observed with nimbidin in preventingacetylsalicyclic acid, Indocin, streets or serotonin-induced stomachic lesions every bit good as histamine or cysteamine induced duodenal ulcers [ 22 ] , [ 23 ] . Garget Al, have besides reported an antiulcer consequence of neem leaf infusion and the suppression of mucous secretion depletion and most cell defragmentation as possible mechanism. A phenolic glycoside has been obtained by Bandyopadhyayet Al, as an active component, whose word picture and mechanism are under probe. Therefore,Azadirachta indicaoffersanother option for a safer and an effectual antiulcer drug [ 24 ] .
- Biological activities of some neem compounds: –
Assorted compounds have been isolated from assorted parts of nim tree. Some of them have been studied for biological activity given in Table 1. [ 44 ] , [ 45 ]
|Sr. No.||Compound Name||Beginning||Biological activity||Mentions|
|8.||Gallic acid ( – ) epicatechin and catechin||Bark||Anti-inflammatory||36|
|9.||Margolone, mergolonone and isomargolonone||Bark||Antibacterial||37,43|
|10.||Cyclic trisulphide and cyclic tetrasulphide||Leaf||Antifungal||16|
|12.||Polysaccharides G1A, G1B||Bark||Antitumor||39|
|13.||Polysaccharides G2A, G3A||Bark||Anti-inflammatory||40|
Fig. Table 1 [ 44 ] , [ 45 ]
- Medicative Uses Of Neem: –
Neem works shows the big figure of medicative utilizations. The non-wood merchandises of nim trees like flowers, foliages, bark, fruits, seeds ( oil, bar ) , and gum besides find assorted utilizations. The Neem works shows assorted biological activities like antibacterial, fungicidal, insecticidal and other activities. Some of the medicative utilizations of assorted parts of nim tree as mentioned in Ayurveda given in Table 2. [ 45 ]
|Leaf||Leprosy, oculus job, nosebleed, enteric worms, anorexia, biliousness, tegument ulcers|
|Bark||Analgesic, alternate and healing of febrility|
|Flower||Bile suppression riddance of enteric worms and emotionlessness|
|Fruit||Reliefs hemorrhoids, enteric worms, urinary upsets, epitaxis, emotionlessness, oculus job, diabetes, lesions and Hansen’s disease|
|Branchlet||Reliefs cough, asthma, hemorrhoids, phantom tumour, enteric worms, spermatorrhea, obstinate urinary upsets, diabetes|
|Chewing gum||Effective against skin diseases like pealing worms, scrabies, lesions and ulcers|
|Seed mush||Leprosy and enteric worms|
|Oil||Leprosy and enteric worms|
|Root, bark, foliage, flower and fruit together||Blood morbidity, ulcers, combustion, bilious afflictions, Hansen’s disease, skin esthesis and itchiness|
Fig. Table 2. [ 45 ]
- Decision: –
Azadirachta indica( Neem ) works acts as a medicative works have been found effectual in the intervention of bacterial, fungous, viral and other diseases and revealed the antibacterial, fungicidal, antiviral, antimalarial, antiulcer and other biological activities. Due to increasing antibiotic opposition in micro-organisms and side effects of man-made antibiotics neem works are now turning popularity in the intervention of many infections. Neem works is considered as clinically effectual and safer options to the man-made antibiotics.
Extensive research in the country of isolation and word picture of the active rules of nim tree works is indispensable so that better, safer and cost effectual drugs for bring arounding assorted diseases and infections can be developed.